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Opiod withdrawal treatments

Ismaliza Ismail, Suzaily Wahab, Hatta Sidi, Srijit Das, Loo Jiann Lin, Rosdinom Razali
Kratom (Mitragynaspeciosa), a natural existing plant found in South-East Asia, is tradi-tionally used as an herb to help to elevate a person's energy and also to treat numerous medical ailments. Other than the analgesic property, kratom has been used as an agent to overcome opioid withdrawal as it contains natural alkaloids, i.e. mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, and MGM-9, which has agonist affinity on the opioid receptors, including mu (μ) and kappa (κ). The role of neural reward pathway linked to μ-opioid receptors and both dopaminergic and GABA-ergic interneurons that express μ-opioid receptors were deliberated...
April 25, 2017: Current Drug Targets
George E Woody, Evgeny Krupitsky, Edwin Zvartau
Naltrexone is an antagonist that binds tightly to μ-opioid receptors and blocks the subjective and analgesic effects of opioids. It does not produce physiologic dependence and precipitates withdrawal if administered to an opioid dependent person, thus starting it must begin with detoxification. It was first available in the mid-1970s as a 50 mg tablet that blocked opioids for 24-36 h if taken daily, or every 2-3 days at higher doses - for example: 100 mg Monday and Wednesday, 150 mg on Friday. From a pharmacological perspective it worked very well and was hoped to be an effective treatment but results were disappointing due to low patient interest and high dropout followed by relapse...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, O P Singh, Amit Bhattacharyya, Subrata Sen, Paromita Roy, Sharmistha Debnath
UNLABELLED: Opiod dependence is one of the leading psychiatric morbidities in India. The deaddiction centres are meager in number; stigma attached to admission in deaddiction centre is high and most addicts want outpatient treatment so that they do not miss daily wages. Several recent reports stated effectiveness of tramadol in treating opioid withdrawal. This study attempts to compare effectiveness of tramadol with clonidine in opioid withdrawal. METHODOLOGY: A total of 60 patients having heroin dependence were selected and out of them 30 got clonidine treatment and the other 30 got tramadol treatment...
December 2010: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Andrea Furlan, Luis E Chaparro, Emma Irvin, Angela Mailis-Gagnon
BACKGROUND: An enriched enrollment randomized withdrawal (EERW) design excludes potential participants who are nonresponders or who cannot tolerate the experimental drug before random assignment. It is unclear whether EERW design has an influence on the efficacy and safety of opioids for chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the results from EERW and non-EERW trials of opioids for CNCP. Secondary objectives were to compare weak versus strong opioids, subgroups of patients with different types of pain, and the efficacy of opiods compared with placebo versus other drugs...
September 2011: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
S de Filippis, E Salvatori, G Coloprisco, P Martelletti
In 2001, WHO evidenced headache among the first twenty disability agents in the world. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, II version (ICHD-II) recognises 24 types of chronic headache and states primary headaches as chronic when attacks appear for more than 15 days per month, for at least three months. Migraine given by drugs overuse, defined by ICDH-II in 2004 (and revised in 2005) as MOH, represents a common and debilitating disorder, which can be defined as generation, perpetuation and persistence of intense chronic migraine caused by the frequent and excessive use of (symptomatic) drugs, giving an immediate relief...
March 2006: La Clinica Terapeutica
Erin E Fierheller, Nigel A Caulkett, Jeremy V Bailey
The objective of the study reported here was to determine the onset, duration, and degree of analgesia achieved with a combination of romifidine (50 microg/kg body weight [BW]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg BW) administered epidurally. Ten adult Holstein Friesen cows were assigned to either a treatment group receiving the romifidine and morphine combination or a control group receiving 0.9% saline in a randomized, blinded, crossover design. Cows were assessed for degree of flank analgesia and systemic sedation at various time intervals over a period of 24 hours...
November 2004: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
W Glatt
The purpose of the study was to investigate a new method for detoxifying opioid-dependent patients. Butorphanol is an opiod with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, and is marketed as a nasal spray. Undiluted, it will cause significant physical withdrawal symptoms in a population dependent on opioids. Forty patients dependent on opioids were detoxified using dilute butorphanol spray. The initial concentration was 40% and gradually reduced. This technique was highly successful in keeping this difficult group of patients engaged in the treatment process for a longer period...
October 1999: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
A A Smith
Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction...
1975: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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