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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905895/mortality-along-the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-rwanda-a-model-based-analysis
#1
Eran Bendavid, David Stauffer, Eric Remera, Sabin Nsanzimana, Steve Kanters, Edward J Mills
BACKGROUND: HIV is the leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa. However, mortality along the HIV care continuum is poorly described. We combine demographic, epidemiologic, and health services data to estimate where are people with HIV dying along Rwanda's care continuum. METHODS: We calibrated an age-structured HIV disease and transmission stochastic simulation model to the epidemic in Rwanda. We estimate mortality among HIV-infected individuals in the following states: untested, tested without establishing care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program (unlinked), in care before initiating ART (pre-ART), lost to follow-up (LTFU) following ART initiation, and retained in active ART care...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893279/american-alcohol-photo-stimuli-aaps-a-standardized-set-of-alcohol-and-matched-non-alcohol-images
#2
Christopher S Stauffer, Lily Dobberteen, Joshua D Woolley
BACKGROUND: Photographic stimuli are commonly used to assess cue reactivity in the research and treatment of alcohol use disorder. The stimuli used are often non-standardized, not properly validated, and poorly controlled. There are no previously published, validated, American-relevant sets of alcohol images created in a standardized fashion. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: 1) make available a standardized, matched set of photographic alcohol and non-alcohol beverage stimuli, 2) establish face validity, the extent to which the stimuli are subjectively viewed as what they are purported to be, and 3) establish construct validity, the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890770/fibrosis-and-fibrotic-gene-expression-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients-with-idiopathic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#3
Kathleen C Woulfe, Austine K Siomos, Hieu Nguyen, Megan SooHoo, Csaba Galambo, Brian L Stauffer, Carmen Sucharov, Shelley Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: While fibrosis seems to be prognostic for adverse outcomes in adults with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), little is known about the prevalence and development of fibrosis in pediatric IDC hearts. We hypothesize there is less activation of fibrosis at a molecular level in pediatric IDC hearts than in the failing adult heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pediatric hearts were analyzed histologically to determine the prevalence of fibrosis. Left ventricular tissue from adult and pediatric IDC hearts and adult and pediatric non-failing (NF) hearts were subjected to qRT-PCR to study the expression of important mRNAs that affect fibrosis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872973/persistent-mercury-contamination-in-shooting-range-soils-the-legacy-from-former-primers
#4
M Stauffer, A Pignolet, J A Corcho Alvarado
Mercury (Hg) compounds were used in the past in primers for rifle and handgun ammunition. Despite its toxicity, little is known about the contamination of shooting-range soils with this metal. We present new data about the Hg contamination of surface soils from numerous shooting ranges of Switzerland. Our study demonstrates that Hg is measurable at high levels in surface soils from the shooting ranges. In three of the investigated ranges, concentrations above the maximum Swiss guidance value of Hg in soil of 500 µg kg(-1) were measured...
November 21, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834218/model-driven-experimental-approach-reveals-the-complex-regulatory-distribution-of-p53-by-the-circadian-factor-period-2
#5
Tetsuya Gotoh, Jae Kyoung Kim, Jingjing Liu, Marian Vila-Caballer, Philip E Stauffer, John J Tyson, Carla V Finkielstein
The circadian clock and cell cycle networks are interlocked on the molecular level, with the core clock loop exerting a multilevel regulatory role over cell cycle components. This is particularly relevant to the circadian factor Period 2 (Per2), which modulates the stability of the tumor suppressor p53 in unstressed cells and transcriptional activity in response to genotoxic stress. Per2 binding prevents Mdm2-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and, therefore, its degradation, and oscillations in the peaks of Per2 and p53 were expected to correspond...
November 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822101/the-danish-national-chronic-myeloid-neoplasia-registry
#6
REVIEW
Marie Bak, Else Helene Ibfelt, Thomas Stauffer Larsen, Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen, Niels Pallisgaard, Ann Madelung, Lene Udby, Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Ole Weis Bjerrum, Christen Lykkegaard Andersen
AIM: The Danish National Chronic Myeloid Neoplasia Registry (DCMR) is a population-based clinical quality database, introduced to evaluate diagnosis and treatment of patients with chronic myeloid malignancies. The aim is to monitor the clinical quality at the national, regional, and hospital departmental levels and serve as a platform for research. STUDY POPULATION: The DCMR has nationwide coverage and contains information on patients diagnosed at hematology departments from January 2010 onward, including patients with essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera, myelofibrosis, unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasms, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815783/laparoscopic-pancreatoduodenectomy-current-status-and-future-directions
#7
REVIEW
Alessandro Coppola, John A Stauffer, Horacio J Asbun
In recent years, laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD) has been gaining a favorable position in the field of pancreatic surgery. However, its role still remains unclear. This review investigates the current status of LPD in high-volume centers. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, and only papers written in English containing more than 30 cases of LPD were selected. Papers with "hybrid" or robotic technique were not included in the analysis. Out of a total of 728 LPD publications, 7 publications matched the review criteria...
September 2016: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812201/telipogon-peruvianus-orchidaceae-flowers-elicit-pre-mating-behaviour-in-eudejeania-tachinidae-males-for-pollination
#8
Carlos Martel, Lianka Cairampoma, Fred W Stauffer, Manfred Ayasse
Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807295/partnerships-that-facilitate-a-refugee-s-journey-to-wellbeing
#9
Nina Marano, Abbey E Wojno, William M Stauffer, Michelle Weinberg, Alexander Klosovsky, J Daniel Ballew, Sharmila Shetty, Susan Cookson, Patricia Walker, Martin S Cetron
The current global refugee crisis involves 65.3 million persons who have been displaced from their homes or countries of origin. While escaping immediate harm may be their first priority, displaced people go on to face numerous health risks, including trauma and injuries, malnutrition, infectious diseases, exacerbation of existing chronic diseases, and mental health conditions. This crisis highlights the importance of building capacity among health-care providers, scientists, and laboratorians to understand and respond to the health needs of refugees...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787268/anatomy-of-the-cervicomental-region-insights-from-an-anatomy-laboratory-and-roundtable-discussion
#10
Jeffrey M Kenkel, Derek H Jones, Steven Fagien, Dee Anna Glaser, Gary D Monheit, Karen Stauffer, Jonathan M Sykes
In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for reduction of submental fat. Use of a pharmacologic/injectable therapy within the submental region requires a thorough understanding of cervicomental anatomy to ensure proper injection technique and safe administration. To this end, an anatomy laboratory was conducted to review key external landmarks and important internal anatomic structures that characterize the lower face and anterior neck...
November 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787267/proper-technique-for-administration-of-atx-101-deoxycholic-acid-injection-insights-from-an-injection-practicum-and-roundtable-discussion
#11
Derek H Jones, Jeffrey M Kenkel, Steven Fagien, Dee Anna Glaser, Gary D Monheit, Karen Stauffer, Jonathan M Sykes
ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) is the first aesthetic injectable approved for reduction of submental fat. In February 2014, an injection practicum was conducted in the anatomy laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to explore the proper injection technique for ATX-101 and the importance of its appropriate, safe anatomical placement within the submental area...
November 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787266/overview-of-atx-101-deoxycholic-acid-injection-a-nonsurgical-approach-for-reduction-of-submental-fat
#12
Steven H Dayan, Shannon Humphrey, Derek H Jones, Paul F Lizzul, Todd M Gross, Karen Stauffer, Frederick C Beddingfield
In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe convexity or fullness associated with submental fat. ATX-101 has been evaluated in a clinical development program that included 18 Phase 1 to 3 studies supporting the current indication. Since 2007, the toxicity and safety profiles of ATX-101 have been characterized in numerous preclinical studies, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and optimal treatment paradigm have been defined in multiple Phase 1 and 2 studies, and its efficacy and clinical safety have been confirmed in 4 large Phase 3 trials (2 conducted in Europe and 2 in the United States and Canada [REFINE-1 and REFINE-2])...
November 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787196/dopamine-neurons-learn-relative-chosen-value-from-probabilistic-rewards
#13
Armin Lak, William R Stauffer, Wolfram Schultz
Economic theories posit reward probability as one of the factors defining reward value. Individuals learn the value of cues that predict probabilistic rewards from experienced reward frequencies. Building on the notion that responses of dopamine neurons increase with reward probability and expected value, we asked how dopamine neurons in monkeys acquire this value signal that may represent an economic decision variable. We found in a Pavlovian learning task that reward probability-dependent value signals arose from experienced reward frequencies...
October 27, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784794/contributions-of-par1-and-par4-to-thrombin-induced-gpiibiiia-activation-in-human-platelets
#14
Matthew T Duvernay, Kayla J Temple, Jae G Maeng, Anna L Blobaum, Shaun R Stauffer, Craig W Lindsley, Heidi E Hamm
Human platelets display a unique dual receptor system for responding to its primary endogenous activator, α-thrombin. Due to the lack of efficacious antagonists, the field has relied on synthetic peptides and pepducins to describe protease activated receptor (PAR)1 and PAR4 signaling. The precise contributions of each receptor have not been established in the context of thrombin. We took advantage of newly discovered PAR antagonists to contrast the contribution of PAR1 and PAR4 to thrombin mediated activation of the platelet fibrin receptor (GPIIbIIIa)...
October 26, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782654/two-color-vibrational-femtosecond-fully-resonant-electronically-enhanced-cars-free-cars-of-gas-phase-nitric-oxide
#15
Hans U Stauffer, Sukesh Roy, Jacob B Schmidt, Paul J Wrzesinski, James R Gord
A resonantly enhanced, two-color, femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) approach is demonstrated and used to explore the nature of the frequency- and time-dependent signals produced by gas-phase nitric oxide (NO). Through careful selection of the input pulse wavelengths, this fully resonant electronically enhanced CARS (FREE-CARS) scheme allows rovibronic-state-resolved observation of time-dependent rovibrational wavepackets propagating on the vibrationally excited ground-state potential energy surface of this diatomic species...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777004/identification-of-the-minimum-par4-inhibitor-pharmacophore-and-optimization-of-a-series-of-2-methoxy-6-arylimidazo-2-1-b-1-3-4-thiadiazoles
#16
Kayla J Temple, Matthew T Duvernay, Jae G Maeng, Anna L Blobaum, Shaun R Stauffer, Heidi E Hamm, Craig W Lindsley
This letter describes the further deconstruction of the known PAR4 inhibitor chemotypes (MWs 490-525 and with high plasma protein binding) to identify a minimum PAR4 pharmacophore devoid of metabolic liabilities and improved properties. This exercise identified a greatly simplified 2-methoxy-6-arylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole scaffold that afforded nanomolar inhibition of both activating peptide and γ-thrombin mediated PAR4 stimulation, while reducing both molecular weight and the number of hydrogen bond donors/acceptors by ∼50%...
October 11, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744314/wolbachia-in-parasitoids-attacking-native-european-and-introduced-eastern-cherry-fruit-flies-in-europe
#17
Hannes Schuler, Peter Kern, Wolfgang Arthofer, Heidrun Vogt, Maximilian Fischer, Christian Stauffer, Markus Riegler
The eastern cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest of cherries in North America. In 1983 it was first reported in Europe where it shares its ecological niche with the native European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Diptera: Tephritidae). Their coexistence in Europe led to the recent horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strain wCer1 from R. cerasi to R. cingulata Horizontal Wolbachia transmission is mediated by either sharing of ecological niches or by interacting species such as parasitoids...
October 15, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737540/site-specific-polymer-attachment-to-hr2-peptide-fusion-inhibitors-against-hiv-1-decreases-binding-association-rates-and-dissociation-rates-rather-than-binding-affinity
#18
Maarten Danial, Angela Stauffer, Frederik R Wurm, Michael J Root, Harm-Anton Klok
A popular strategy to overcome the limited plasma half-life of peptide heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 is through conjugation with biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). However, despite improved resistance to proteolysis and reduced renal elimination, covalent attachment of polymers often causes a loss in therapeutic potency. In this study, we investigated the molecular origins of the loss in potency upon conjugation of linear, mid-functional and hyperbranched PEG-like polymers to peptides that inhibit HIV-1 - host cell membrane fusion...
October 13, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721927/total-pancreatectomy-short-and-long-term-outcomes-at-a-high-volume-pancreas-center
#19
Hazem M Zakaria, John A Stauffer, Massimo Raimondo, Timothy A Woodward, Michael B Wallace, Horacio J Asbun
AIM: To identify the current indications and outcomes of total pancreatectomy at a high-volume center. METHODS: A single institutional retrospective study of patients undergoing total pancreatectomy from 1995 to 2014 was performed. RESULTS: One hundred and three patients underwent total pancreatectomy for indications including: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 42, 40.8%), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (n = 40, 38.8%), chronic pancreatitis (n = 8, 7...
September 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701342/a-revision-of-the-pseudotropheus-elongatus-species-group-teleostei-cichlidae-%C3%A2-with-description-of-a-new-genus-and-seven-new-species
#20
Shan Li, Adrianus F Konings, Jay R Jr Stauffer
Lake Malaŵi is known for its endemic haplochromine species flock, most notably the rock-dwelling cichlids known as mbuna. The group of mbuna referred to as the Pseudotropheus elongatus species group is currently comprised of Metriaclima spp., Tropheops spp., Cynotilapia spp., and Pseudotropheus spp. In this study, Chindongo, a new genus with the type species C. bellicosus, is described for additional species in this group. Chindongo is distinguished from other mbuna genera by 1) the presence of bicuspid teeth in the anterior portion of the outer row of both upper and lower jaw; 2) a moderately to steeply sloped vomer with a narrow rostral tip which makes an angle of between 53° and 68° with the parasphenoid; 3) a small mouth with the lower jaw slightly shorter than the upper; 4) a broad anterior dentigerous area on both premaxilla and dentary with three or more rows of teeth (usually 5-6 rows); 5) a flank melanin pattern consisting of vertical bars without horizontal elements at any stage of development...
September 15, 2016: Zootaxa
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