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Brain matter herniation

Mario Ricciardi
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in small animal practice is largely based on classic two-dimensional spin-echo, inversion recovery and gradient-echo sequences which are largely limited by low spatial resolution, especially in low-field (LF)-MRI scanners. Nowadays, however, the availability of volumetric sequences can open new perspectives and enhance the diagnostic potential of this imaging modality. Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) is a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence in which image contrast is given by the ratio of T2 and T1, resulting in low soft-tissue signal, poor cerebral grey/white matter distinction and a bright signal from free fluid and fat...
March 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Stella Blasel, Sarah Alex, Hanns Ackermann, Julia Tichy, Joachim Berkefeld, Marlies Wagner
BACKGROUND: Low-dose cranial computed tomography (LD-CCT) based on iterative reconstruction has been shown to have sufficient image quality to assess cerebrospinal fluid spaces (CSF) and midline structures but not to exclude subtle parenchymal pathologies. Patients without focal neurological deficits often undergo CCT before lumbar puncture (LP) to exclude contraindications to LP including brain herniation or increased CSF pressure. We performed LD-CCT to assess if image quality is appropriate for this indication...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
Siddharth Vankipuram, Chittij Srivastava, B K Ojha, Sushant Sahoo
INTRODUCTION: Development of a posttraumatic herniation of brain parenchyma through the orbit is a rare complication of orbital roof fracture. Mostly, the injury is due to a direct impact to the frontal region resulting in orbital roof fracture with dural defect and herniation of cerebrospinal fluid or brain parenchyma. These patients present with acute or gradually progressive proptosis with impending risk of loss of vision and mandate surgical decompression of optic nerve with watertight closure of the dural defect...
September 16, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Yuichi Hayashi, Akio Kimura, Hiroshi Nakamura, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Akira Hara, Mari Yoshida, Takashi Inuzuka
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is diagnosed based on neuroradiological findings. Typically, PRES is reversible and presents with a good outcome; however, fatal outcomes have been reported. We report an autopsied case showing PRES-like neuroradiological findings associated with premedication including tacrolimus for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in a 28-year-old woman with a 2-year history of acute myeloid sarcoma/acute myeloid leukemia. Neurological examination revealed disturbed consciousness, muscle weakness in all extremities, and bilaterally diminished tendon reflexes...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Chen Shi, Bruno Flores, Stephen Fisher, Samuel L Barnett
Encephalocele is a rare condition that consists of herniation of cerebral matter through openings of dura and skull. A majority of encephaloceles are congenital and manifest in childhood. We present a case of a 45-year-old man presenting with contralateral hemiparesis and found to have an extremely rare phenomenon of a symptomatic posttraumatic parietal intradiploic encephalocele (IE) manifesting 36 years following pediatric traumatic head injury. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed herniation of brain tissue into the intradiploic space...
January 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Patricia Soares de Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Deborah Levine, Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Melania Maria Ramos Amorim, Alba Gean M Batista, Leila Chimelli, Amilcar Tanuri, Renato Santana Aguiar, Gustavo Malinger, Renato Ximenes, Richard Robertson, Jacob Szejnfeld, Fernanda Tovar-Moll
Purpose To document the imaging findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection as found in the Instituto de Pesquisa in Campina Grande State Paraiba (IPESQ) in northeastern Brazil, where the congenital infection has been particularly severe. Materials and Methods From June 2015 to May 2016, 438 patients were referred to the IPESQ for rash occurring during pregnancy or for suspected fetal central nervous system abnormality. Patients who underwent imaging at IPESQ were included, as well as those with documented Zika virus infection in fluid or tissue (n = 17, confirmed infection cohort) or those with brain findings suspicious for Zika virus infection, with intracranial calcifications (n = 28, presumed infection cohort)...
October 2016: Radiology
Greta B Liebo, John Jack I Lane, Jamie J Van Gompel, Laurence J Eckel, Kara M Schwartz, Vance T Lehman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Brain herniation into presumed arachnoid granulations (BHAG) is an increasingly recognized entity. Though it has previously been described as isointense to brain matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we have encountered 21 cases in our clinical practice, many of which have signal abnormality in the herniated or adjacent parenchyma. We performed a systematic analysis on these cases to further understand the clinical significance. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of cases collected from our clinical MRI practice...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Ishwar Singh, Seema Rohilla, Saquib Azad Siddiqui, Prashant Kumar
BACKGROUND: Growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare complication of pediatric head trauma and causes delayed onset neurological deficits and cranial defect. GSF usually develops following linear fracture with underlying dural tear resulting in herniation of the brain. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to avoid complications. However, there are no clear-cut guidelines for the early diagnosis of GSF. The present study was conducted to identify the criteria for the early diagnosis of GSF...
June 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Yoshinari Nagakane, Hidesato Takezawa, Kanade Katsura, Yasumasa Yamamoto
A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of vertigo and repeated vomiting, which suddenly occurred 25 hours before admission. Neurologic examination revealed Wallenberg syndrome on the left side, and brain MRI showed acute infarcts in the left lateral medulla as well as in the left internal carotid artery (ICA) territory. MR angiography did not depict the left vertebral artery (VA) and the left ICA. Despite antithrombotic treatment, he developed bulbar palsy, and then, brain herniation due to infarct growth in the left middle cerebral artery territory...
2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Hye-Jeong Kim, Joo-Young Na, Young-Jik Lee, Jong-Tae Park, Hyung-Seok Kim
The major component of car washer fluid is a methanol. Intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but lethal complication in methanol poisoning. We report a case of massive bilateral basal ganglia hematoma in a 32-year-old man with methanol poisoning. He drank car washer solution twice time (about 500 ml), and was admitted to a territorial hospital 10 hours post-ingestion for depressed mental status, lower blood pressure, and high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Computed tomographic (CT) scan showed lesions in both putamen and cerebral deep white matter...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology
Salman Aljarallah, Fawaz Al-Hussain
BACKGROUND: Among the rare neurological complications of substances of abuse is the selective cerebral white matter injury (leukoencephalopathy). Of which, the syndrome of delayed post hypoxic encephalopathy (DPHL) that follows an acute drug overdose, in addition to "chasing the dragon" toxicity which results from chronic heroin vapor inhalation remain the most commonly described syndromes of toxic leukoencephalopathy. These syndromes are reported in association with opioid use. There are very few cases in the literature that described leukoencephalopathy following benzodiazepines, especially with an acute and progressive course...
April 30, 2015: BMC Neurology
Michael Luchtmann, Sebastian Baecke, Yvonne Steinecke, Johannes Bernarding, Claus Tempelmann, Patrick Ragert, Raimund Firsching
People around the world suffer chronic lower back pain. Because spine imaging often does not explain the degree of perceived pain reported by patients, the role of the processing of nociceptor signals in the brain as the basis of pain perception is gaining increased attention. Modern neuroimaging techniques (including functional and morphometric methods) have produced results that suggest which brain areas may play a crucial role in the perception of acute and chronic pain. In this study, we examined 12 patients with chronic low back pain and sciatica, both resulting from lumbar disc herniation...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nicole Berger, Garyfalia Ampanozi, Wolf Schweitzer, Steffen G Ross, Dominic Gascho, Thomas D Ruder, Michael J Thali, Patricia M Flach
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare postmortem computed tomography with forensic autopsy regarding their diagnostic reliability of differentiating between pre-existing cerebral edema and physiological postmortem brain swelling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study collective included a total of 109 cases (n=109/200, 83 male, 26 female, mean age: 53.2 years) and were retrospectively evaluated for the following parameters (as related to the distinct age groups and causes of death): tonsillar herniation, the width of the outer and inner cerebrospinal fluid spaces and the radiodensity measurements (in Hounsfield Units) of the gray and white matter...
April 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Kanchan K Mukherjee, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Alok C Sarda, Manjul Tripathi, Pravin Salunke, Anand Srinivasan, Manoj K Tewari, Suresh N Mathuriya
BACKGROUND: Compound depressed fractures have conventionally been managed surgically with elevation and debridement to avoid infection, especially when there is dural penetration, nonetheless with little evidence. This study was to prospectively compare outcomes after simple suturing and elevation debridement in patients with compound depressed fractures. METHODS: Patients of compound depressed fracture with GCS of five or more, no serious systemic injury, and no significant mass effect were prospectively studied for various factors in relation to infection, hospital stay, survival, and late post-traumatic seizures...
February 2015: Acta Neurochirurgica
Chelsie M Estey, Steven J Scott, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 4-year-old 26-kg (57.2-lb) spayed female Staffordshire Bull Terrier mix was evaluated because of a 24-hour history of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Neurologic examination revealed altered mentation and multifocal intracranial signs; MRI was performed. The MRI findings included multifocal, asymmetric forebrain lesions affecting both the gray and white matter, an area suggestive of focal necrosis, and loss of corticomedullary distinction...
December 1, 2014: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Parag Suresh Mahajan, Joyal Jacob Mathew, Abhilash Pulincherry Jayaram, Vidya Chander Negi, Mohamed Milad Abu Hmaira
A 60-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness, and disorientation one day after consumption of isopropanol along with ethanol. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain performed immediately was unremarkable. The patient collapsed within the hospital 30 minutes after the CT scan was done, and remained comatose until death, showing no improvement with symptomatic treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine done 6 days after admission revealed bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities involving the cerebral and cerebellar cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, thalami, and brainstem on T2-weighted, fluid attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion weighted images; similar hyperintensities were seen involving the swollen and edematous cervical spinal cord and cerebellar tonsillar herniation compressing the proximal cervical cord...
2014: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Michael Luchtmann, Yvonne Steinecke, Sebastian Baecke, Ralf Lützkendorf, Johannes Bernarding, Jana Kohl, Boris Jöllenbeck, Claus Tempelmann, Patrick Ragert, Raimund Firsching
Chronic pain is one of the most common health complaints in industrial nations. For example, chronic low back pain (cLBP) disables millions of people across the world and generates a tremendous economic burden. While previous studies provided evidence of widespread functional as well as structural brain alterations in chronic pain, little is known about cortical changes in patients suffering from lumbar disc herniation. We investigated morphometric alterations of the gray and white matter of the brain in patients suffering from LDH...
2014: PloS One
R Balaji, B Mangaleswaran, R John
Frontonasal encephaloceles involve herniation of meninges and brain tissue through defects in the floor of the anterior cranial fossa affecting the frontal, ethmoid and nasal bones. Subependymal nodular heterotopias are malformations of cortical development resulting from abnormal neuronal migration. This report describes the coexistence and association of these two entities which is extremely rare. We describe an unusual case of a six-year-old girl with a frontonasal encephalocele in whom further imaging disclosed subependymal nodular heterotopias...
June 2010: Neuroradiology Journal
Zeng Gao, Luca Massimi, Simone Rogerio, Charles Raybaud, Concezio Di Rocco
INTRODUCTION: Vertex cephaloceles (VCs), also known as midline parietal cephaloceles, are among the most common midline scalp masses. Usually composed by a meningeal wall herniating from a vertex skull defect and covered by skin, VCs may also contain both anomalous vessels and neural elements. In spite of their harmless appearance, VCs often hide complex intracranial venous and/or brain malformations so that they represent a "tip of the iceberg". Vertical embryonic positioned straight sinus, elongation of the vein of Galen, persistence of the falcine sinus, fenestration of the superior sagittal sinus, corpus callosum agenesis, intracranial cysts, tentorial malformations, cerebellar vermis agenesis, hydrocephalus, and gray matter heterotopia are some of such associated anomalies...
January 2014: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Robert G Kellogg, Ricardo B V Fontes, Demetrius K Lopes
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a common clinical entity that can occasionally have significant neurological sequelae. The authors report a case of cerebral fat embolism and FES that required surgical management of intracranial pressure (ICP). They also discuss the literature as well as the potential need for neurosurgical management of this disease entity in select patients. A 58-year-old woman presented with a seizure episode and altered mental status after suffering a right femur fracture. Head CT studies demonstrated hypointense areas consistent with fat globules at the gray-white matter junction predominantly in the right hemisphere...
November 2013: Journal of Neurosurgery
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