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Petros Levounis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Seema Desai, Erin Zerbo, Petros Levounis, Alan Schlechter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Dinesh Bhugra, Kristen Eckstrand, Petros Levounis, Anindya Kar, Kenneth R Javate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Petros Levounis
The current understanding of addiction is based on a biopsychosocial model of illness. From a neurobiological perspective, addiction can be seen as the hijacking of the pleasure-reward pathways of the brain with a concomitant weakening of its executive function. The fundamental model has been expanded to include newer concepts such as multiple levels of severity of illness, motivational circuitry, and anti-reward pathways. These neurobiological concepts can explain some of the successes and failures of addiction treatment in the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century...
March 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Petros Levounis, Erin Zerbo, Rashi Aggarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Academic Psychiatry
Louis E Baxter, Anthony Campbell, Michael Deshields, Petros Levounis, Judith A Martin, Laura McNicholas, J Thomas Payte, Edwin A Salsitz, Trusandra Taylor, Bonnie B Wilford
OBJECTIVES: Methadone is a well-studied, safe, and effective medication when dispensed and consumed properly. However, a number of studies have identified elevated rates of overdose and death in patients being treated with methadone for either addiction or chronic pain. Among patients being treated with methadone in federally certified opioid treatment programs, deaths most often occur during the induction and stabilization phases of treatment. To address this issue, the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration invited the American Society of Addiction Medicine to convene an expert panel to develop a consensus statement on methadone induction and stabilization, with recommendations to reduce the risk of patient overdose or death related to methadone maintenance treatment of addiction...
November 2013: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Mark L Kraus, Daniel P Alford, Margaret M Kotz, Petros Levounis, Todd W Mandell, Marjorie Meyer, Edwin A Salsitz, Norman Wetterau, Stephen A Wyatt
OBJECTIVES: Opioid addiction affects over 2 million patients in the United States. The advent of buprenorphine and the passage of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act in 2000 have revolutionized the opioid treatment delivery system by granting physicians the ability to administer office-based opioid treatment (OBOT), thereby giving patients greater access to treatment. The purpose of this consensus panel was to synthesize the most current evidence on the use of buprenorphine in the office-based setting and to make recommendations that will enable and allow additional physicians to begin to treat opioid-addicted individuals...
December 2011: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Steven J Lee, Petros Levounis
Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a psychoactive substance with complex neurophysiological activity and significant potential for abuse, addiction, and dangerous toxicity. In this study, a semistructured interview was administered to 17 subjects to investigate GHB use, including: manner of use; setting; positive and negative consequences; other drug history; and sexual practices. Respondents were overwhelmingly male, but otherwise had a broad demographic background. Settings varied from nightclubs to private use at home...
September 2008: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Lydia Fazzio, Marc Galanter, Helen Dermatis, Petros Levounis
This is a two-phase study on attitudes of medical students toward Alcoholics Anonymous. The first phase compares views of addiction faculty to third-year medical students on the importance of spirituality in addiction treatment. We administered a questionnaire to assess attitudes toward spiritual, biological, and psychosocial approaches to addiction treatment. The faculty viewed spirituality as relatively more important in addiction treatment than did the students. The second phase was designed to assess whether medical student attitudes toward spiritually based treatments changed over the course of a psychiatry clerkship...
September 2003: Substance Abuse
Stephen Ross, Helen Dermatis, Petros Levounis, Marc Galanter
UNLABELLED: The presence of a personality disorder (PD) has been associated with certain types of poor treatment outcomes in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of comorbid PDs in psychiatrically hospitalized adults with both non-SUD Axis I disorders and SUDs, and to assess the relationship between Axis II psychopathology and degree of pretreatment addiction severity and treatment outcome. METHOD: One hundred consecutive inpatients admitted to a mixed dual diagnosis inpatient unit were assessed using semistructured interviews for SUDs, non-SUD Axis I disorders, and PDs...
May 2003: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Gail W Stuart, Joyce Burland, Vijay Ganju, Petros Levounis, Stephen Kiosk
There are few reports from the behavioral health field that focus on educational best practices. This article summarizes a panel presentation from the Annapolis Conference in which four different programs were described: (1) a provider educational initiative, (2) a tool-kit project related to evidence-based services, (3) a multidisciplinary faculty training program in addictions, and (4) an AIDS education project. While such innovative educational practices appear to be the exception rather than the norm, they do offer ideas and strategies for challenging and energizing current educational practices in behavioral health...
May 2002: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
Petros Levounis, Marc Galanter, Helen Dermatis, Alexander Hamowy, George De Leon
A study was conducted to ascertain correlates of HIV high risk behaviors and attitudes toward HIV. A questionnaire was administered to 103 men living in a modified therapeutic community (TC) for homeless, chemically addicted and mentally ill men. The psychiatric diagnoses of the sample population included psychotic disorders (48%), depressive disorders (36%), and bipolar disorders (16%). Forty-two percent reported that their primary substance of abuse was cocaine and another 40% named alcohol as the substance to which they were most addicted...
2002: Journal of Addictive Diseases
P Levounis, C E Constantinou
A new computerized methodology was used to acquire and analyze the relative pharmacologic sensitivity of the renal pelvis and urinary bladder of the rabbit to pharmacologic stimulation. Comparison was made of the effects of thiphenamil, verapamil and oxybutynin on the spontaneous contractions of isolated detrusor and renal pelvis. Data collected by computer were evaluated in terms of amplitude, frequency, and tension change to varying concentration of pharmacologic stimulation. Data were analyzed using a frequency/time domain algorithm developed specifically to evaluate the contribution of the oscillatory components of tension associated with smooth muscle tissues...
1988: Urologia Internationalis
T Harada, P Levounis, C E Constantinou
We report here the results of a simplified screening method to rapidly compare the pharmacologic action of drugs relevant to the urinary tract. This method avoids the use of anesthesia and of external infusion into the bladder relying on the physiological stimulation of the volume-evoked micturition reflex (VEMR) by diuresis. Mature female rats weighing 240-310 g were placed in restrainer cages that afforded access to food and water but limited movement. Under the rear of the rat, a collecting funnel and weight measuring device was secured...
April 1992: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
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