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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899716/behavioral-and-emotional-problems-in-high-functioning-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-parents-reports-and-adolescents-self-reports
#1
Ewa Pisula, Monika Pudło, Monika Słowińska, Rafał Kawa, Magdalena Strząska, Anna Banasiak, Tomasz Wolańczyk
The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents' and adolescents' ratings were also analyzed. Participants were 35 girls and 35 boys with autism spectrum disorder, aged 11-18 years, matched for chronological age and full-scale IQ. The control group consisted of 24 typically developing girls and 24 boys of the same age and IQ...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899707/the-influence-of-presentation-modality-on-the-social-comprehension-of-naturalistic-scenes-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#2
Haley M Gedek, Peter C Pantelis, Daniel P Kennedy
The comprehension of dynamically unfolding social situations is made possible by the seamless integration of multimodal information merged with rich intuitions about the thoughts and behaviors of others. We examined how high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical controls made a complex social judgment (i.e. rating the social awkwardness of scenes from a television sitcom) across three conditions that manipulated presentation modality-visual alone, transcribed text alone, or visual and auditory together...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896942/mid-childhood-outcomes-of-infant-siblings-at-familial-high-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Elizabeth Shephard, Bosiljka Milosavljevic, Greg Pasco, Emily J H Jones, Teodora Gliga, Francesca Happé, Mark H Johnson, Tony Charman
Almost one-in-five infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), due to having an older sibling with an ASD diagnosis, develop ASD themselves by age 3 years. Less is known about the longer-term outcomes of high-risk infants. To address this issue, we examined symptoms of ASD and associated developmental conditions (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); anxiety), language, IQ, and adaptive behaviour at age 7 years in high- and low-risk children studied from infancy. We compared outcomes between high-risk children who met criteria for ASD at age 7, high-risk children without ASD, and low-risk control children...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#4
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874266/meta-analysis-of-neuropsychological-measures-of-executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Chun Lun Eric Lai, Zoe Lau, Simon S Y Lui, Eugenia Lok, Venus Tam, Quinney Chan, Koi Man Cheng, Siu Man Lam, Eric F C Cheung
Existing literature on the profile of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder showed inconsistent results. Age, comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive abilities appeared to play a role in confounding the picture. Previous meta-analyses have focused on a few components of executive functions. This meta-analysis attempted to delineate the profile of deficit in several components of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD)...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872602/perceptual-averaging-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Jennifer E Corbett, Paola Venuti, David Melcher
There is mounting evidence that observers rely on statistical summaries of visual information to maintain stable and coherent perception. Sensitivity to the mean (or other prototypical value) of a visual feature (e.g., mean size) appears to be a pervasive process in human visual perception. Previous studies in individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have uncovered characteristic patterns of visual processing that suggest they may rely more on enhanced local representations of individual objects instead of computing such perceptual averages...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871641/longitudinal-course-of-bipolar-disorder-in-youth-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Xenia Borue, Carla Mazefsky, Brian T Rooks, Michael Strober, Martin B Keller, Heather Hower, Shirley Yen, Mary Kay Gill, Rasim S Diler, David A Axelson, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Neal Ryan, Fangzi Liao, Jeffrey I Hunt, Daniel P Dickstein, Boris Birmaher
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first longitudinal characterization of mood and psychosocial functioning in youth with comorbid bipolar (BD) and autism spectrum (ASD) disorders. METHOD: The Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth study followed 368 youth (aged 7-17 years) with DSM-IV bipolar I (BP-I), BP-II, or Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) for, on average, 9 years using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation. This subgroup analysis compared youth with and without ASD on clinical presentation, percentage of time with mood symptomatology, and psychosocial functioning...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868365/the-salience-of-the-self-self-referential-processing-and-internalizing-problems-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Catherine A Burrows, Lauren V Usher, Peter C Mundy, Heather A Henderson
Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate atypical processing of, and memory for, self-referenced information, which may contribute to the heightened rates of co-occurring internalizing problems. We assessed affective and cognitive aspects of self-referential processing in verbally-fluent children with ASD (N = 79), and an age-matched comparison sample (COM, N = 73) of children without an autism diagnosis. We examined group differences in these two aspects of the self-system, and their joint contributions to individual differnces in internalizing problems...
November 20, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867699/characterization-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-spontaneous-hemodynamic-activity
#9
Jun Li, Lina Qiu, Lingyu Xu, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Ulas Sunar
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate spontaneous hemodynamic activity in the temporal cortex for typically developing (TD) children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-seven children participated in the experiments including twenty-five with ASD. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed weaker bilateral resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC), but much stronger fluctuation magnitude in terms of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-hemoglobin (Hb)...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864377/mitochondrial-and-redox-abnormalities-in-autism-lymphoblastoid-cells-a-sibling-control-study
#10
Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, Rebecca Wynne, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with physiological abnormalities including abnormal redox and mitochondrial metabolism. Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from some children with ASD exhibit increased oxidative stress, decreased glutathione redox capacity, and highly active mitochondria with increased vulnerability to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because unaffected siblings (Sibs) of individuals with ASD share some redox abnormalities, we sought to determine whether LCLs from Sibs share ASD-associated mitochondrial abnormalities...
November 18, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859903/corticostriatal-connectivity-fingerprints-probability-maps-based-on-resting-state-functional-connectivity
#11
Ellen Jaspers, Joshua H Balsters, Pegah Kassraian Fard, Dante Mantini, Nicole Wenderoth
Over the last decade, structure-function relationships have begun to encompass networks of brain areas rather than individual structures. For example, corticostriatal circuits have been associated with sensorimotor, limbic, and cognitive information processing, and damage to these circuits has been shown to produce unique behavioral outcomes in Autism, Parkinson's Disease, Schizophrenia and healthy ageing. However, it remains an open question how abnormal or absent connectivity can be detected at the individual level...
November 12, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848052/the-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-atypical-sensory-functioning-in-neurotypical-and-asd-adults-a-spectrum-approach
#12
Jennifer L Mayer
Sensory processing atypicalities are a common feature in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and have previously been linked to a range of behaviours in individuals with ASD and atypical neurological development. More recently research has demonstrated a relationship between autistic traits in the neurotypical (NT) population and increased levels of atypical sensory behaviours. The aim of the present study is to extend previous research by examining specific patterns across aspects of autistic traits and sensory behaviours within both ASD and NT populations...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846841/integrative-transcriptome-network-analysis-of-ipsc-derived-neurons-from-schizophrenia-and-schizoaffective-disorder-patients-with-22q11-2-deletion
#13
Mingyan Lin, Erika Pedrosa, Anastasia Hrabovsky, Jian Chen, Benjamin R Puliafito, Stephanie R Gilbert, Deyou Zheng, Herbert M Lachman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2 DS) are a specific high-risk group for developing schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several genes in the deleted region have been implicated in the development of SZ, e.g., PRODH and DGCR8. However, the mechanistic connection between these genes and the neuropsychiatric phenotype remains unclear. To elucidate the molecular consequences of 22q11.2 deletion in early neural development, we carried out RNA-seq analysis to investigate gene expression in early differentiating human neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of 22q11...
November 15, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845486/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-intact-executive-functioning
#14
R Ferrara, F Ansermet, F Massoni, L Petrone, E Onofri, P Ricci, T Archer, S Ricci
: Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844246/syntax-and-morphology-in-danish-speaking-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Cecilia Brynskov, Inge-Marie Eigsti, Meta Jørgensen, Sanne Lemcke, Ocke-Schwen Bohn, Peter Krøjgaard
The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with significant within-group heterogeneity; furthermore, syntactic and morphological measures were impaired even for subgroups matched on vocabulary. Children in the ASD group without early language delay showed syntactic and morphological impairment, with intact performance on vocabulary and sentence repetition...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843514/attentional-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-an-fmri-investigation
#16
Elizabeth C Hames, Ravi Rajmohan, Dan Fang, Ronald Anderson, Mary Baker, David M Richman, Michael O'Boyle
BACKGROUND: Attentional deficits in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often noted, but their specific nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study used the child Attentional Network Task (Child ANT) in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if the consistently cited deficits of orienting attention are truly due to dysfunctions of orienting-based networks. We hypothesized that these observations are, in fact, a reflection of executive dysfunctions...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833600/mucosal-prevalence-and-interactions-with-the-epithelium-indicate-commensalism-of-sutterella-spp
#17
Kaisa Hiippala, Veera Kainulainen, Marko Kalliomäki, Perttu Arkkila, Reetta Satokari
Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830426/the-use-of-linguistic-cues-in-sentence-comprehension-by-mandarin-speaking-children-with-high-functioning-autism
#18
Peng Zhou, Stephen Crain, Liqun Gao, Meixiang Jia
Two studies were conducted to investigate how high-functioning children with autism use different linguistic cues in sentence comprehension. Two types of linguistic cues were investigated: word order and morphosyntactic cues. The results show that children with autism can use both types of cues in sentence comprehension. However, compared to age-matched typically developing peers, children with autism relied significantly more on word order cues and exhibited significantly more difficulties in interpreting sentences in which there was a conflict between the morphosyntactic cue and the word order cue...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827406/heterogeneity-of-executive-functions-among-comorbid-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#19
Dina R Dajani, Maria M Llabre, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, Lucina Q Uddin
Executive functions (EFs) are used to set goals, plan for the future, inhibit maladaptive responses, and change behavior flexibly. Although some studies point to specific EF profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - prevalent and often highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders - others have not differentiated them. The objective of the current study was to identify distinct profiles of EF across typically developing (TD) children and children with ASD and ADHD...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825394/shared-atypical-brain-anatomy-and-intrinsic-functional-architecture-in-male-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-their-unaffected-brothers
#20
H-Y Lin, W-Y I Tseng, M-C Lai, Y-T Chang, S S-F Gau
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the search for definite genetic etiologies remains elusive. Delineating ASD endophenotypes can boost the statistical power to identify the genetic etiologies and pathophysiology of ASD. We aimed to test for endophenotypes of neuroanatomy and associated intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) via contrasting male youth with ASD, their unaffected brothers and typically developing (TD) males...
November 9, 2016: Psychological Medicine
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