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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425954/inherited-variation-in-vitamin-d-genes-and-type-1-diabetes-predisposition
#1
REVIEW
Marissa Penna-Martinez, Klaus Badenhoop
The etiology and pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes remain largely elusive with no established concepts for a causal therapy. Efforts to clarify genetic susceptibility and screening for environmental factors have identified the vitamin D system as a contributory pathway that is potentially correctable. This review aims at compiling all genetic studies addressing the vitamin D system in type 1 diabetes. Herein, association studies with case control cohorts are presented as well as family investigations with transmission tests, meta-analyses and intervention trials...
April 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418012/cyp3a4-is-a-crosslink-between-vitamin-d-and-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-implications-for-bone-health
#2
REVIEW
A Prytuła, K Cransberg, A Raes
The use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of post-transplant bone disease. CNIs and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)2D3) are substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. This review summarizes the indications for the use of activated vitamin D analogs in post-transplant care and the current knowledge on the impact of CNIs on bone. We searched for clinical evidence of the interaction between CNIs and 1,25(OH)2D3. We also provide an overview of the literature on the interplay between vitamin D metabolism and CYP3A4 in experimental and clinical settings and discuss its possible implications for solid organ transplant recipients...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418011/more-than-25-years-of-genetic-studies-of-clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis
#3
REVIEW
S A J de With, S L Pulit, W G Staal, R S Kahn, R A Ophoff
Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotic drugs prescribed to patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Approximately 1% of patients experience potential life-threatening adverse effects in the form of agranulocytosis, greatly hindering its applicability in clinical practice. The etiology of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA) remains unclear, but is thought to be a heritable trait. We reviewed the genetic studies of CIA published thus far. One recurrent finding from early candidate gene study to more recent genome-wide analysis is that of the involvement of human leukocyte antigen locus...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413963/overview-of-cantharidin-and-its-analogues
#4
Guofang Wang, Jian Dong, Liping Deng
Canthiridin has significant anti-cancer effects and only limited use due to its toxicity. In spite of some side effects such as hematochezia and tenesmus, cantharidin can efficiently inhibit various tumor cell lines, therefore, its importance can never be overemphasized. Several of its analogues show functions similar to cantharidin without high toxicity. In order to utilize cantharidin to treat cancer, some viable methods are found to reduce its side effects. Since cantharidin can inhibit the activity of protein phosphatases, new researches for the inhibition of protein phosphatases have been implemented...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405170/hepatitis-c-virus-pharmacogenomics-in-latin-american-populations-implications-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#5
REVIEW
Julieta Trinks, Mariela Caputo, María L Hulaniuk, Daniel Corach, Diego Flichman
In recent years, great progress has been made in the field of new therapeutic options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent a great hope for millions of chronically infected individuals because their use may lead to excellent cure rates with fewer side effects. In Latin America, the high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 infection and the significant association of Native American ancestry with risk predictive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFNL4 and ITPA genes highlight the need to implement new treatment regimens in these populations...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396093/what-s-new-about-oral-treatments-in-multiple-sclerosis-immunogenetics-still-under-question
#6
REVIEW
Cristiana Pistono, Cecilia Osera, Chiara Boiocchi, Giulia Mallucci, Mariaclara Cuccia, Roberto Bergamaschi, Alessia Pascale
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic pathology affecting the Central Nervous System characterized by inflammatory processes that lead to demyelination and neurodegeneration. In MS treatment, disease modifying therapies (DMTs) are essential to reduce disease progression by suppressing the inflammatory response responsible for promoting lesion formation. Recently, in addition to the classical injectable DMTs like Interferons and Glatiramer acetate, new orally administered drugs have been approved for MS therapy: dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod...
April 8, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385536/mining-the-topography-and-dynamics-of-the-4d-nucleome-to-identify-novel-cns-drug-pathways
#7
Gerald A Higgins, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Hasan Alam, Brian D Athey
The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications...
April 3, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385198/precision-cardiovascular-medicine-state-of-genetic-testing
#8
REVIEW
John R Giudicessi, Iftikhar J Kullo, Michael J Ackerman
In the 15 years following the release of the first complete human genome sequences, our understanding of rare and common genetic variation as determinants of cardiovascular disease susceptibility, prognosis, and therapeutic response has grown exponentially. As such, the use of genomics to enhance the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases has garnered increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies eager to realize the promise of precision genomic medicine. However, owing to a large burden of "complex" common diseases, emphasis on evidence-based practice, and a degree of unfamiliarity/discomfort with the language of genomic medicine, the development and implementation of genomics-guided approaches designed to further individualize the clinical management of a variety of cardiovascular disorders remains a challenge...
April 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377107/vitamin-pharmacogenomics-new-insight-into-individual-differences-in-diseases-and-drug-responses
#9
REVIEW
Hai-Yan He, Mou-Ze Liu, Yue-Li Zhang, Wei Zhang
Vitamins are vital to sustain normal physiological function, metabolism, and growth for all living organisms. Being an integral component of coenzyme, vitamins can affect the catalytic activities of many enzymes and the expression of drug transporters. Genetic variations in metabolism and/or transporter genes of drugs can influence the exposure of the human body to drugs and/or their active metabolites, thus contributing to the variations in drug responses and toxicities. Nonetheless, pharmacogenomics studies on nutrients have been rarely summarized...
April 1, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374122/the-role-of-pharmacogenetics-in-chronic-plaque-psoriasis-update-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Marina Talamonti, Simone D'Adamio, Luca Bianchi, Marco Galluzzo
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. Systemic and biologic therapies used to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis show significant variability in efficacy, are associated with various degrees of toxicity, and, for biologic therapies, are expensive. There is a great need for non-invasive biomarkers to predict treatment outcomes of these therapies and to individualize care for patients with psoriasis. This article reviews currently recognized pharmacogenetic targets related to the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis, in particular to biologic therapies...
April 3, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368577/classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-aripiprazole
#11
Austen B Casey, Clinton E Canal
Aripiprazole was the first antipsychotic developed to possess agonist properties at dopamine D2 autoreceptors, a groundbreaking strategy that presented a new vista for schizophrenia drug discovery. The dopamine D2 receptor is the crucial target of all extant antipsychotics, and all developed prior to aripiprazole were D2 receptor antagonists. Extensive blockade of these receptors, however, typically produces extrapyramidal (movement) side effects, which plagued first-generation antipsychotics, such as haloperidol...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358601/pharmacogenetics-in-the-treatment-of-pre-eclampsia-current-findings-challenges-and-perspectives
#12
Marcelo R Luizon, Ana Ct Palei, Ricardo C Cavalli, Valeria C Sandrim
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is defined as pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria, and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A large subgroup of pregnant women with PE is nonresponsive to antihypertensive drugs, including methyldopa, nifedipine and hydralazine. Pharmacogenomics may help to guide the individualized therapy for this nonresponsive subgroup. However, just a few pharmacogenetic studies examined the effects of genetic polymorphisms on response to antihypertensive drugs in PE, and the criteria of responsiveness used to define responsive or nonresponsive subgroups to antihypertensive therapy should be replicated by others...
March 30, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349930/pharmacogenetics-of-posttransplant-diabetes-mellitus
#13
REVIEW
P Lancia, T Adam de Beaumais, E Jacqz-Aigrain
Many factors (physiological, pathological, environmental or genetic) are associated with variability in drug effect. Most patients respond to a standard treatment but the drug may be ineffective or toxic. In this review, we focused on genetic markers of posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) after renal transplantation, a frequent complication of immunosuppressive therapy and important risk factor of graft loss and mortality. An initial literature search identified 100 publications and among them 32 association studies were retrieved under 'Pharmacogenetics and PTDM'...
March 28, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345177/pharmacogenomics-of-off-target-adrs
#14
REVIEW
Sarah L Garon, Rebecca K Pavlos, Katie D White, Nancy J Brown, Cosby A Stone, Elizabeth J Phillips
Off-target adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are associated with significant morbidity and costs to the healthcare system and their occurrence is not predictable based on the known pharmacological action of the drug's therapeutic effect. Off-target ADRs may or may not be associated with immunological memory although they can manifest with a variety of shared clinical features including maculopapular exanthema, severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), angioedema, pruritus, and bronchospasm. Discovery of specific genes associated with a particular ADR phenotype is a foundational component of clinical translation into screening programs for their prevention...
March 26, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342679/pharmacogenomic-aspects-of-bipolar-disorder-an-update
#15
M Budde, D Degner, J Brockmöller, T G Schulze
The hopes for readily implementable precision medicine are high. For many complex disorders, such as bipolar disorder, these hopes critically hinge on tangible successes in pharmacogenetics of treatment response or susceptibility to adverse events. In this article, we review the current state of pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder including latest results from candidate genes and genome-wide association studies. The majority of studies focus on response to lithium treatment. Although a host of genes has been studied, hardly any replicated findings have emerged so far...
March 22, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339912/pharmacogenomics-and-patient-treatment-parameters-to-opioid-treatment-in-chronic-pain-a-focus-on-morphine-oxycodone-tramadol-and-fentanyl
#16
Renae A Lloyd, Elizabeth Hotham, Catherine Hall, Marie Williams, Vijayaprakash Suppiah
Objective. : Opioids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines for chronic pain. However, their use for chronic pain has been controversial. The objective of this literature review was to identify the role of genetic polymorphisms on patient treatment parameters (opioid dose requirements, response, and adverse effects) for opioids used in malignant and nonmalignant chronic pain. The opioids that this review focuses on are codeine, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol, and fentanyl...
February 24, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334173/a-review-of-connectivity-map-and-computational-approaches-in-pharmacogenomics
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327186/clinical-behavioural-and-pharmacogenomic-factors-influencing-the-response-to-levothyroxine-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-hypothyroidism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#18
Rosie Dew, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Colin Dayan, Vinay Eligar, Ishrat Khan, Salman Razvi, Simon Pearce, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adverse cardiovascular or metabolic consequences. Despite a growing body of evidence on the effects of various factors on thyroid hormone replacement, a systematic appraisal of the evidence is lacking. This review aims to appraise and quantify the extent to which clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors affect levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#19
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296761/polymorphisms-and-pharmacogenomics-for-the-toxicity-of-methotrexate-monotherapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Qi Qiu, Jing Huang, Yang Lin, Xiaoming Shu, Huizheng Fan, Zhihua Tu, Youwen Zhou, Cheng Xiao
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used and considered a first-line disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, 10% to 30% of patients discontinue therapy within a year of starting the treatment, usually because of undesirable side effects. Many of the relevant genes have been investigated to estimate the association between gene polymorphisms and MTX toxicity in RA patients, although inconsistent results have been reported...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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