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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636828/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-extended-release-lorcaserin-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#1
Kathryn Hurren, Marissa W Dunham
Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist that was FDA approved in 2012. Lorcaserin is recently available as an extended-release (ER) formulation for the treatment of obesity as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of lorcaserin ER will be reviewed. Expert opinion: Lorcaserin ER 20mg daily provides drug exposure bioequivalent to lorcaserin immediate release (IR) 10mg twice daily. Lorcaserin IR is associated with 3.3% and 3.0% placebo-subtracted weight loss in patients without and with diabetes, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631723/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-of-response-in-crohn-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
T M Linares-Pineda, M Cañadas-Garre, A Sánchez-Pozo, M Á Calleja-Hernández
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic condition, which affects the immune system. It can also affect any part of the digestive tract and be associated with external manifestations. The causes of the disease remain unknown, although it seems to be the result of a combination of factors, such as genetic predisposition, environment, lifestyle and the composition of the microbiota, among others. The treatment protocol begins with a change in eating and smoking habits, and is continued with different lines of treatment, including corticosteroids, immunomodulators and biologic therapy (infliximab and adalimumab), which have shown differences in response among patients, especially with biologic treatment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623161/the-genetics-of-ischemic-heart-disease-from-current-knowledge-to-clinical-implications
#3
Roberto Elosua, Sergi Sayols-Baixeras
Ischemic heart disease continues to cause high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is expected to increase due to population aging, and its prevention is a major goal of health policies. The risk of developing ischemic heart disease is related to a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in knowledge of the genetic architecture of this disease. This narrative review provides an overview of current knowledge of the genetics of ischemic heart disease and of its translation to clinical practice: identification of new therapeutic targets, assessment of the causal relationship between biomarkers and disease, improved risk prediction, and identification of responders and nonresponders to specific drugs (pharmacogenomics)...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619604/clinical-implementation-of-pharmacogenomics-for-personalized-precision-medicine-barriers-and-solutions
#4
REVIEW
Michelle Elizabeth Klein, Md Masud Parvez, Jae-Gook Shin
Clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) leads to personalized medicine, which improves the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of treatments. Although PGx-based research has been conducted for more than a decade, several barriers have slowed down its widespread implementation in clinical practice. Globally, there is an imbalance in programs and solutions required to empower the clinical implementation of PGx between countries. Therefore, we aimed to review these issues comprehensively, determine the major barriers, and find the best solutions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616427/specific-genes-associated-with-adverse-events-of-methylphenidate-use-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Beinta Joensen, Morten Meyer, Lise Aagaard
The aim of this study was to review empirical studies examining associations between candidate genes and adverse events (AEs) from methylphenidate (MPH) use in children and adolescents. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until March 2017. We included empirically based articles on pharmacogenetic studies in 0-17-year-old patients that investigated associations between specific candidate genes, their polymorphisms, and reported AEs. We extracted information about study design, setting, type of AE reporter, studied genes and their polymorphisms, age and gender, administered doses, method of genotyping, outcome measures, and main findings...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612644/methods-to-analyze-big-data-in-pharmacogenomics-research
#6
Ruowang Li, Dokyoon Kim, Marylyn D Ritchie
The scale and scope of pharmacogenomics research continues to expand as the cost and efficiency of molecular data generation techniques advance. These new technologies give rise to enormous opportunity for the identification of important genetic and genomic factors important for drug treatment response. With this opportunity come significant challenges. Most of these can be categorized as 'big data' issues, facing not only pharmacogenomics, but other fields in the life sciences as well. In this review, we describe some of the analysis techniques and tools being implemented for genetic/genomic discovery in pharmacogenomics...
June 14, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607508/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-pharmacogenetics-of-anti-tnf-treatment-response-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
REVIEW
S Bek, A B Bojesen, J V Nielsen, J Sode, S Bank, U Vogel, V Andersen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects ~1% of the Caucasian population. Over the last decades, the availability of biological drugs targeting the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α, anti-TNF drugs, has improved the treatment of patients with RA. However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. We wanted to evaluate the status of pharmacogenomics of anti-TNF treatment. We performed a PubMed literature search and all studies reporting original data on associations between genetic variants and anti-TNF treatment response in RA patients were included and results evaluated by meta-analysis...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607506/cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacogenetic-guided-treatment-are-we-there-yet
#8
REVIEW
M Verbelen, M E Weale, C M Lewis
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) has the potential to personalize pharmaceutical treatments. Many relevant gene-drug associations have been discovered, but PGx-guided treatment needs to be cost-effective as well as clinically beneficial to be incorporated into standard health-care. We reviewed economic evaluations for PGx associations listed in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling. We determined the proportion of evaluations that found PGx-guided treatment to be cost-effective or dominant over the alternative strategies, and estimated the impact on this proportion of removing the cost of genetic testing...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607505/predictive-genetic-markers-in-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-esophageal-cancer-a-long-way-to-go-review-of-the-literature
#9
REVIEW
M Gusella, E Pezzolo, Y Modena, C Barile, D Menon, G Crepaldi, F La Russa, A P Fraccon, F Pasini
The role of genetic molecular markers in neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer has been reviewed, focusing strictly on concurrent chemoradiation protocols followed by surgery. Eleven studies evaluated the role of mRNA expression profile; the end point was overall survival (OS) in two studies and different definitions of histological response in nine. Genes reported as significant were involved in cell cycle control (30), apoptosis (7), structural molecules (9), cell metabolism (6) and DNA repair (1)...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604601/personalized-medicine-new-perspectives-for-the-diagnosis-and-the-treatment-of-renal-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Jacek Rysz
The prevalence of renal diseases is rising and reaching 5-15% of the adult population. Renal damage is associated with disturbances of body homeostasis and the loss of equilibrium between exogenous and endogenous elements including drugs and metabolites. Studies indicate that renal diseases are influenced not only by environmental but also by genetic factors. In some cases the disease is caused by mutation in a single gene and at that time severity depends on the presence of one or two mutated alleles. In other cases, renal disease is associated with the presence of alteration within a gene or genes, but environmental factors are also necessary for the development of disease...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594321/pharmacogenomics-in-asia-a-systematic-review-on-current-trends-and-novel-discoveries
#11
Hazel Xiaohui Ang, Sze Ling Chan, Levana L Sani, Clarissa Bernice Quah, Liam R Brunham, Boon Ooi Patrick Tan, Michael D Winther
While early pharmacogenomic studies have primarily been carried out in Western populations, there has been a notable increase in the number of Asian studies over the past decade. We systematically reviewed all pharmacogenomic studies conducted in Asia published before 2016 to highlight trends and identify research gaps in Asia. We observed that pharmacogenomic research in Asia was dominated by larger developed countries, notably Japan and Korea, and mainly driven by local researchers. Studies were focused on drugs acting on the CNS, chemotherapeutics and anticoagulants...
June 8, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594278/clinical-and-educational-impact-of-pharmacogenomics-testing-a-case-series-from-the-ingenious-trial
#12
Rebecca C Pierson, Brandon T Gufford, Zeruesenay Desta, Michael T Eadon
Pharmacogenomic testing has become increasingly widespread. However, there remains a need to bridge the gap between test results and providers lacking the expertise required to interpret these results. The Indiana Genomics Implementation trial is underway at our institution to examine total healthcare cost and patient outcomes after genotyping in a safety-net healthcare system. As part of the study, trial investigators and clinical pharmacology fellows interpret genotype results, review patient histories and medication lists and evaluate potential drug-drug interactions...
June 8, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587608/integrating-clinical-decision-support-systems-for-pharmacogenomic-testing-into-clinical-routine-a-scoping-review-of-designs-of-user-system-interactions-in-recent-system-development
#13
Marc Hinderer, Martin Boeker, Sebastian A Wagner, Martin Lablans, Stephanie Newe, Jan L Hülsemann, Michael Neumaier, Harald Binder, Harald Renz, Till Acker, Hans-Ulrich Prokosch, Martin Sedlmayr
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenomic clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have the potential to help overcome some of the barriers for translating pharmacogenomic knowledge into clinical routine. Before developing a prototype it is crucial for developers to know which pharmacogenomic CDSS features and user-system interactions have yet been developed, implemented and tested in previous pharmacogenomic CDSS efforts and if they have been successfully applied. We address this issue by providing an overview of the designs of user-system interactions of recently developed pharmacogenomic CDSS...
June 6, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576902/application-of-pharmacogenomics-to-investigate-adverse-drug-reactions-to-the-disease-modifying-treatments-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study-protocol-for-dimethyl-fumarate-induced-lymphopenia
#14
Kaarina Kowalec, Elaine Kingwell, Robert Carruthers, Ruth Ann Marrie, Sasha Bernatsky, Anthony Traboulsee, Colin J D Ross, Bruce Carleton, Helen Tremlett
INTRODUCTION: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global public health issue. The potential for pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been demonstrated in several therapeutical areas, including HIV infection and oncology. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a licensed disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of DMF in MS has been associated with a severe reduction in lymphocyte counts and reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here, we outline the protocol for a case-control study designed to discover genomic variants associated with DMF-induced lymphopenia...
June 2, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571507/the-genetic-basis-of-antiplatelet-and-anticoagulant-therapy-a-pharmacogenetic-review-of-newer-antiplatelets-clopidogrel-prasugrel-and-ticagrelor-and-anticoagulants-dabigatran-rivaroxaban-apixaban-and-edoxaban
#15
Cormac T O'connor, Thomas J Kiernan, Bryan P Yan
The study of pharmacogenomics presents the possibility of individualised optimisation of drug therapy tailored to each patients' unique physiological traits. Both antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs play a key role in the management of cardiovascular disease. Despite their importance, there is a substantial volume of literature to suggest marked person-to-person variability in their effect. Areas covered: This article reviews the data available for the genetic cause for this inter-patient variability of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs...
June 13, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569661/incorporation-of-herbal-supplements-into-a-pharmacogenomic-medication-therapy-management-practice
#16
Patrick M Wieruszewski, Michael J Schuh
Personalized medicine, including direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing, is becoming a more common patient-centered approach to pharmacotherapy. However, DTC testing companies may not provide adequate information and follow-up to patients after genetic testing is done. This article is the first report describing a medication therapy management pharmacotherapy service that specializes in pharmacogenomic counseling, specifically geared toward identifying implications of dietary and herbal supplements. A pharmacist provides a comprehensive review of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences of a patient's herbal substances, and counseling is provided on subsequent drug therapy effects...
February 1, 2017: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557243/the-use-of-electronic-health-records-for-psychiatric-phenotyping-and-genomics
#17
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller
The widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHRs) in healthcare systems has created a vast and continuously growing resource of clinical data and provides new opportunities for population-based research. In particular, the linking of EHRs to biospecimens and genomic data in biobanks may help address what has become a rate-limiting study for genetic research: the need for large sample sizes. The principal roadblock to capitalizing on these resources is the need to establish the validity of phenotypes extracted from the EHR...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545225/state-of-art-of-cancer-pharmacogenomics-in-latin-american-populations
#18
REVIEW
Andrés López-Cortés, Santiago Guerrero, María Ana Redal, Angel Tito Alvarado, Luis Abel Quiñones
Over the past decades, several studies have shown that tumor-related somatic and germline alterations predicts tumor prognosis, drug response and toxicity. Latin American populations present a vast geno-phenotypic diversity due to the great interethnic and interracial mixing. This genetic flow leads to the appearance of complex characteristics that allow individuals to adapt to endemic environments, such as high altitude or extreme tropical weather. These genetic changes, most of them subtle and unexplored, could establish a mutational profile to develop new pharmacogenomic therapies specific for Latin American populations...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525818/hypertension-update-jnc8-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Tara Shrout, David W Rudy, Michael T Piascik
Hypertension is the most preventable major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The etiology of elevated blood pressure is a complex process involving the interaction of genetics, demographics, comorbid disorders, and environmental influences. Effective hypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JNC reports have served as a valuable source of guidelines, and JNC 8 is the most recently updated guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515818/pharmacogenomic-testing-for-psychotropic-medication-selection-a-systematic-review-of-the-assurex-genesight-psychotropic-test
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
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