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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688548/the-genetics-of-treatment-resistant-depression-a-critical-review-and-future-perspectives
#1
Chiara Fabbri, Filippo Corponi, Daniel Souery, Siegfried Kasper, Stuart Montgomery, Joseph Zohar, Dan Rujescu, Julien Mendlewicz, Alessandro Serretti
Background: One-third of depressed patients develop treatment-resistant depression with the related sequelae in terms of poor functionality and worse prognosis. Solid evidence suggests that genetic variants are potentially valid predictors of antidepressant efficacy and could be used to provide personalized treatments. Methods: The present review summarizes genetic findings of treatment-resistant depression including results from candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677173/what-does-this-mutation-mean-the-tools-and-pitfalls-of-variant-interpretation-in-lymphoid-malignancies
#2
REVIEW
Guillermin Yann, Lopez Jonathan, Chabane Kaddour, Hayette Sandrine, Bardel Claire, Salles Gilles, Sujobert Pierre, Huet Sarah
High throughput sequencing (HTS) is increasingly important in determining cancer diagnoses, with subsequent prognostic and therapeutic implications. The biology of cancer is becoming increasingly deciphered and it is clear that therapy needs to be individually tailored. Whilst translational research plays an important role in lymphoid malignancies, few guidelines exist to guide biologists and routine laboratories through this constantly evolving field. In this article, we review the challenges of interpreting HTS in lymphoid malignancies and provide a toolkit to interpret single nucleotide variants obtained from HTS...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663413/predicting-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-in-the-individual-patient-separating-reality-from-hype
#3
REVIEW
Leslie Z Benet
Individualization of patient drug dosing to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity is the goal of clinical pharmacology. Here we review the history of drug dosing individualization from early predictions for renally eliminated drugs based on kidney function through the introduction of clearance concepts for metabolic processes, the differentiation of volume of distribution between pharmacokinetics and chemistry, the role of transporters, the unique pharmacokinetic aspects of oral dosing, and the relevance of protein binding to the emergence of pharmacogenomics...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655499/genetic-testing-in-clinical-settings
#4
Nora Franceschini, Amber Frick, Jeffrey B Kopp
Genetic testing is used for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis of diseases consistent with a genetic cause and to guide drug therapy to improve drug efficacy and avoid adverse effects (pharmacogenomics). This In Practice review aims to inform about DNA-related genetic test availability, interpretation, and recommended clinical actions based on results using evidence from clinical guidelines, when available. We discuss challenges that limit the widespread use of genetic information in the clinical care setting, including a small number of actionable genetic variants with strong evidence of clinical validity and utility, and the need for improving the health literacy of health care providers and the public, including for direct-to-consumer tests...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652519/drug-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-call-for-optimum-patient-stratification-and-theranostics-via-pharmacogenomics
#5
Chonlaphat Sukasem, Theodora Katsila, Therdpong Tempark, George P Patrinos, Wasun Chantratita
The Global Genomic Medicine Collaborative, a multinational coalition of genomic and policy experts working to implement genomics in clinical care, considers pharmacogenomics to be among the first areas in genomic medicine that can provide guidance in routine clinical practice, by linking genetic variation and drug response. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe life-threatening reactions to medications with a high incidence worldwide. Genomic screening prior to drug administration is a key opportunity and potential paradigm for using genomic medicine to reduce morbidity and mortality and ultimately eliminate one of the most devastating adverse drug reactions...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651444/an-updated-review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-drug-hypersensitivity
#6
REVIEW
Chun-Bing Chen, Riichiro Abe, Ren-You Pan, Chuang-Wei Wang, Shuen-Iu Hung, Yi-Giien Tsai, Wen-Hung Chung
Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs)...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622698/value-of-supportive-care-pharmacogenomics-in-oncology-practice
#7
REVIEW
Jai N Patel, Lauren A Wiebe, Henry M Dunnenberger, Howard L McLeod
Genomic medicine provides opportunities to personalize cancer therapy for an individual patient. Although novel targeted therapies prolong survival, most patients with cancer continue to suffer from burdensome symptoms including pain, depression, neuropathy, nausea and vomiting, and infections, which significantly impair quality of life. Suboptimal management of these symptoms can negatively affect response to cancer treatment and overall prognosis. The effect of genetic variation on drug response-otherwise known as pharmacogenomics-is well documented and directly influences an individual patient's response to antiemetics, opioids, neuromodulators, antidepressants, antifungals, and more...
April 5, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615979/landscape-of-molecular-events-in-pituitary-apoplexy
#8
REVIEW
Prakamya Gupta, Pinaki Dutta
Apoplectic pituitary adenomas cause significant morbidity and even mortality. The pituitary apoplexy denotes a pituitary adenoma presenting with hemorrhage and/or infarction, implementation in remedial effects of various of drugs in pituitary apoplexy is a promising pharmacogenomic field in the near future adenoma treatment. Indisputably, this is an important horizon for complicated pituitary adenomas. In a pituitary adenoma, the interplay between genetic, cytokine, and growth factors promotes the pathogenic transformation into an apoplectic formation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610167/-hla-a-31-01-and-oxcarbazepine-induced-dress-in-a-patient-with-seizures-and-complete-dcx-deletion
#9
Hyun Kim, Laura Chadwick, Yasir Alzaidi, Jonathan Picker, Annapurna Poduri, Shannon Manzi
Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic drug (AED) commonly used as a first-line treatment option for focal epilepsy. Several AEDs, including carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin are associated with various delayed-hypersensitivity reactions such as drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, or toxic epidermal necrolysis. The Food and Drug Administration-approved label for oxcarbazepine currently presents information regarding a pharmacogenomic association with the HLA antigen allele HLA-B*15:02 and hypersensitivity reactions in certain ancestry groups with a high incidence of this allele...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602745/implementation-of-a-pharmacist-led-pharmacogenomics-service-for-the-program-of-all-inclusive-care-for-the-elderly-pharm-genome-pace
#10
Kevin T Bain, Emily J Schwartz, Orsula V Knowlton, Calvin H Knowlton, Jacques Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of implementing a pharmacist-led pharmacogenomics (PGx) service for the Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). SETTING: A national centralized pharmacy providing PGx services to community-based PACE centers. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Individuals 55 years of age and older enrolled in PACE who underwent PGx testing as part of their medical care (n = 296). PRACTICE INNOVATION: Pharmacist-led PGx testing, interpreting, and consulting...
March 27, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589131/recent-progress-in-pharmacogenomics-of-antipsychotic-drug-response
#11
REVIEW
Jian-Ping Zhang, Anil K Malhotra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmacogenomics (PGx) of antipsychotic drug response is an active area of research in the past few years. We reviewed recent PGx studies with an emphasis of development of new methodologies and new research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional candidate gene approach continues to generate evidence to support the associations of antipsychotic response with genes coding for drug targets such as DRD2. Genome-wide association studies have found a few novel genes that may be associated with drug efficacy and adverse events...
March 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587761/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-therapeutic-applications-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro G Fois, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal lung disease of unknown origin, is characterized by chronic and progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia which progressively impairs lung function. Oxidative stress is one of the main pathogenic pathways in IPF. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the type of markers of oxidative stress identified in different biological specimens and the effects of antioxidant therapies in patients with IPF. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of publications listed in electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar) from inception to October 2017...
March 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587614/pharmacogenomics-in-ivf-a-new-era-in-the-concept-of-personalized-medicine
#13
Kallirhoe Kalinderi, Byron Asimakopoulos, Nikos Nikolettos, Vangelis G Manolopoulos
Pharmacogenomics is a promising approach in the field of individualized medicine in in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment that aims to develop optimized pharmacotherapy depending on the genetic background of each infertile woman, thus to ensure maximum effectiveness of the medication used, with minimal side effects. The unique genetic information of each infertile woman, in combination with already known, as well as new predictors of ovarian response and the progress of pharmacoepigenomics, is anticipated to greatly benefit the process of controlled ovarian stimulation...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575228/herbal-medicines-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-10-year-updated-review
#14
REVIEW
Jerome Sarris
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders...
March 25, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564734/drug-induced-skin-adverse-reactions-the-role-of-pharmacogenomics-in-their-prevention
#15
REVIEW
Kalliopi Gerogianni, Aspasia Tsezou, Konstantinos Dimas
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) affect many patients and remain a major public health problem, as they are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. It is estimated that ADRs are responsible for about 6% of hospital admissions and about 9% of hospitalization costs. Skin is the organ that is most frequently involved in ADRs. Drug-induced skin injuries vary from mild maculopapular eruptions (MPE) to severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) that are potentially life threatening. Genetic factors have been suggested to contribute to these SCARs, and most significant genetic associations have been identified in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550633/current-progress-of-tacrolimus-dosing-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-pharmacogenetic-considerations
#16
REVIEW
Xiao Zhang, Guigao Lin, Liming Tan, Jinming Li
Tacrolimus is effective for the prevention of acute rejection, but is also highly toxic and has great intra- and inter-individual variability in transplant patients. Genetic variation and other factors influence the response of an individual to tacrolimus treatment. Therefore, even if therapeutic drug monitoring is universally applied, rejection and toxicity still occur. Although the appropriate action on pharmacogenomic variability provides a cornerstone for the precise tacrolimus prescription, at present there are many obstacles to translating it into clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497248/methadone-for-pain-management-past-present-and-future
#17
REVIEW
Srini Chary
Methadone for pain management in this article describes briefly pain, methadone as a Level 3 World Health Organization ladder opioid in the context of India and rest of the world, as well as the relationship to past, present, and future possibilities of pain management. Acute pain is proportional to the injury most of the times, and such proportionality may not exist in chronic pain. Pain management over decades has changed because of knowledge and availability of molecules and compounds to reduce chronic pain...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490019/it-is-time-to-apply-biclustering-a-comprehensive-review-of-biclustering-applications-in-biological-and-biomedical-data
#18
Juan Xie, Anjun Ma, Anne Fennell, Qin Ma, Jing Zhao
Biclustering is a powerful data mining technique that allows clustering of rows and columns, simultaneously, in a matrix-format data set. It was first applied to gene expression data in 2000, aiming to identify co-expressed genes under a subset of all the conditions/samples. During the past 17 years, tens of biclustering algorithms and tools have been developed to enhance the ability to make sense out of large data sets generated in the wake of high-throughput omics technologies. These algorithms and tools have been applied to a wide variety of data types, including but not limited to, genomes, transcriptomes, exomes, epigenomes, phenomes and pharmacogenomes...
February 27, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460415/research-directions-in-the-clinical-implementation-of-pharmacogenomics-an-overview-of-us-programs-and-projects
#19
Simona Volpi, Carol Bult, Rex L Chisholm, Patricia A Deverka, Geoffrey S Ginsburg, Howard J Jacob, Melpomeni Kasapi, Howard L McLeod, Dan M Roden, Marc S Williams, Eric D Green, Laura Lyman Rodriguez, Samuel Aronson, Larisa H Cavallari, Joshua C Denny, Lynn Dressler, Julie A Johnson, Teri E Klein, J Steven Leeder, Micheline Piquette-Miller, Minoli Perera, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Heidi L Rehm, Marylyn D Ritchie, Todd C Skaar, Nikhil Wagle, Richard Weinshilboum, Kristin W Weitzel, Robert Wildin, John Wilson, Teri A Manolio, Mary V Relling
Response to a drug often differs widely among individual patients. This variability is frequently observed not only with respect to effective responses but also with adverse drug reactions. Matching patients to the drugs that are most likely to be effective and least likely to cause harm is the goal of effective therapeutics. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) holds the promise of precision medicine through elucidating the genetic determinants responsible for pharmacological outcomes and using them to guide drug selection and dosing...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460110/operationalizing-the-reciprocal-engagement-model-of-genetic-counseling-practice-a-framework-for-the-scalable-delivery-of-genomic-counseling-and-testing
#20
Tara Schmidlen, Amy C Sturm, Shelly Hovick, Laura Scheinfeldt, J Scott Roberts, Lindsey Morr, Joseph McElroy, Amanda E Toland, Michael Christman, Julianne M O'Daniel, Erynn S Gordon, Barbara A Bernhardt, Kelly E Ormond, Kevin Sweet
With the advent of widespread genomic testing for diagnostic indications and disease risk assessment, there is increased need to optimize genetic counseling services to support the scalable delivery of precision medicine. Here, we describe how we operationalized the reciprocal engagement model of genetic counseling practice to develop a framework of counseling components and strategies for the delivery of genomic results. This framework was constructed based upon qualitative research with patients receiving genomic counseling following online receipt of potentially actionable complex disease and pharmacogenomics reports...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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