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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339912/pharmacogenomics-and-patient-treatment-parameters-to-opioid-treatment-in-chronic-pain-a-focus-on-morphine-oxycodone-tramadol-and-fentanyl
#1
Renae A Lloyd, Elizabeth Hotham, Catherine Hall, Marie Williams, Vijayaprakash Suppiah
Objective. : Opioids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines for chronic pain. However, their use for chronic pain has been controversial. The objective of this literature review was to identify the role of genetic polymorphisms on patient treatment parameters (opioid dose requirements, response, and adverse effects) for opioids used in malignant and nonmalignant chronic pain. The opioids that this review focuses on are codeine, morphine, oxycodone, tramadol, and fentanyl...
February 24, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334173/a-review-of-connectivity-map-and-computational-approaches-in-pharmacogenomics
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327186/clinical-behavioural-and-pharmacogenomic-factors-influencing-the-response-to-levothyroxine-therapy-in-patients-with-primary-hypothyroidism-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#3
Rosie Dew, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Colin Dayan, Vinay Eligar, Ishrat Khan, Salman Razvi, Simon Pearce, Scott Wilkes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal thyroid hormone therapy including under-replacement and over-replacement is common amongst patients with hypothyroidism. This is a significant health concern as affected patients are at risk of adverse cardiovascular or metabolic consequences. Despite a growing body of evidence on the effects of various factors on thyroid hormone replacement, a systematic appraisal of the evidence is lacking. This review aims to appraise and quantify the extent to which clinical, behavioural and pharmacogenomic factors affect levothyroxine therapy in patients with primary hypothyroidism...
March 21, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#4
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296761/polymorphisms-and-pharmacogenomics-for-the-toxicity-of-methotrexate-monotherapy-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Qi Qiu, Jing Huang, Yang Lin, Xiaoming Shu, Huizheng Fan, Zhihua Tu, Youwen Zhou, Cheng Xiao
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used and considered a first-line disease modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, 10% to 30% of patients discontinue therapy within a year of starting the treatment, usually because of undesirable side effects. Many of the relevant genes have been investigated to estimate the association between gene polymorphisms and MTX toxicity in RA patients, although inconsistent results have been reported...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282076/-concepts-applied-to-psychiatry-pharmacogenomics
#6
María A Zorrilla Zubilete
Pharmacogenetics studies the action of a drug in order to predict the response based on the genetic makeup of an individual. The objective of pharmacogenetic studies is to minimize the adverse effects and to ensure therapeutic benefit. Since psychotropic drugs have a high rate of variability in patient response, the aim of this paper is to update the pharmacogenetic concepts in psychopharmacology in a review that provides tools for rigorous analysis when prescribing a psychotropic drug. The purpose of clinical pharmacogenetic testing is to be able to distinguish between patients who are more or less responders to certain drugs, or on contrary, who are at increased risk for adverse events...
September 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271979/toward-a-taxonomy-for-multi-omics-science-terminology-development-for-whole-genome-study-approaches-by-omics-technology-and-hierarchy
#7
Nina Pirih, Tanja Kunej
Omics is a form of high-throughput systems science. However, taxonomies for omics studies are limited, inviting us to rethink new ways in which we classify, prioritize, and rank various omics systems science studies. In this overarching context, the genome-wide study approaches have proliferated in number and popularity over the past decade. However, their hierarchy is not well organized and the development of attendant terminology is not controlled. In the present study, we searched the literature in PubMed and the Web of Science databases published from March 1999 to September 2016 using the keywords, including genome-wide, association, whole genome, transcriptome-wide, metabolome, epigenome, and phenome...
January 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270929/changing-paradigms-in-the-management-of-rejection-in-kidney-transplantation-evolving-from-protocol-based-care-to-the-era-of-p4-medicine
#8
Mirela Maier, Tomoko Takano, Ruth Sapir-Pichhadze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: P4 medicine denotes an evolving field of medicine encompassing predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine. Using the example of kidney allograft rejection because of donor-recipient incompatibility in human leukocyte antigens, this review outlines P4 medicine's relevance to the various stages of the kidney transplant cycle. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A search for English articles was conducted in Medline via OvidSP (up to August 18, 2016) using a combination of subject headings (MeSH) and free text in titles, abstracts, and author keywords for the concepts kidney transplantation and P4 medicine...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266606/polymorphisms-and-pharmacogenomics-for-the-clinical-efficacy-of-methotrexate-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Qi Qiu, Jing Huang, Xiaoming Shu, Huizheng Fan, Youwen Zhou, Cheng Xiao
Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used and considered a first-line disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Many of the relevant genes have been investigated to estimate the association between gene polymorphisms and MTX effectiveness in RA patients, although inconsistent results have been reported. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to identify genetic variants associated with MTX efficacy. A total of 30 publications that included 34 genes and 125 SNPs associated with the transporters, enzymes, and metabolites of MTX or the progression of RA were included in the systematic review (SR), and 21 studies were included in 9 meta-analyses...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262268/how-gene-polymorphisms-can-influence-clinical-response-and-toxicity-following-r-chop-therapy-in-patients-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Angela Falduto, Francesco Cimino, Antonio Speciale, Caterina Musolino, Sebastiano Gangemi, Antonella Saija, Alessandro Allegra
The treatment of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is generally based on multidrug chemotherapy, for instance the therapy with rituximab together with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone (R-CHOP). A significant proportion of DLBCL patients benefit from rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy. However, among patients with DLBCL toxic effects due to therapy treatment are still very frequent, as well as inter-individual differences in the outcomes of patients even having similar stage, histological grade and histopathological type of the tumor...
February 27, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262173/cellular-models-to-study-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Manasa Seshadri, Debanjan Banerjee, Biju Viswanath, K Ramakrishnan, Meera Purushottam, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Sanjeev Jain
BACKGROUND: Advancements in cellular reprogramming techniques have made it possible to directly study brain cells from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. We have systematically reviewed the applications of induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) and their neural derivatives in understanding the biological basis of schizophrenia. METHOD: We searched the scientific literature published in MEDLINE with the following search strategy: (Pluripotent) AND (Schizophrenia OR Antipsychotic OR Psychosis)...
February 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260367/-the-pharmacogenomics-of-cfh-y402h-and-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#12
L L Chen, Y Y Chen
Age-related macular degeneration(AMD) is one of the main leading causes of irreversible vision damage in patients over 50 years old. Genetic factors play an important role in the occurrence and development of AMD. Since the significant correlation between complement factor H (CFH) gene and AMD was found, the pharmacogenomics of CFH polymorphism was paid close attention by academic circles. Among which, studies concerning CFH Y402H were more deeply. Studies have found CFH Y402H genotypes might lead to differences toward the outcome of PDT and anti-VEGF treatment...
February 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256714/recent-advances-in-the-understanding-of-severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions
#13
REVIEW
N R Adler, A K Aung, E N Ergen, J Trubiano, M S Y Goh, E J Phillips
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) encompass a heterogeneous group of delayed hypersensitivity reactions, which are most frequently caused by drugs. Our understanding of several aspects of SCAR syndromes has evolved considerably over the previous decade. This review explores evolving knowledge on the immunopathogenic mechanisms, pharmacogenomic associations, in-vivo and ex-vivo diagnostics for causality assessment and medication cross-reactivity data related to SCAR syndromes. Given the rarity and severity of these diseases, multidisciplinary collaboration through large international, national and/or multicentre networks to collect prospective data on patients with SCAR syndromes should be prioritized...
March 3, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244813/pharmacogenomics-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Jacob T Brown, Seenae Eum, Edwin H Cook, Jeffrey R Bishop
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interactions as well as restricted, repetitive behaviors and interests. Pharmacologic interventions are often needed to manage irritability, aggressive behaviors and hyperactivity. Pharmacogenomic studies have investigated genetic associations with treatment response and side effects in an attempt to better understand drug mechanisms in hopes of optimizing the balance of symptom improvement versus side effects...
March 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240173/personalized-medicine-of-alcohol-addiction-pharmacogenomics-and-beyond
#15
Vangelis George Manolopoulos, Georgia Ragia
Alcohol addiction or alcoholism is the most severe form of problem drinking. A variety of treatment methods for alcoholism are currently available that combine medications, behavioral treatment and peer support. The drugs that are currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of alcohol dependence are disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that different factors, both psychosocial and economic, as well as genetic variation, are significant contributors to interindividual variation both of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment...
February 23, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215024/pharmacogenomics-of-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-focusing-on-dna-repair-systems
#16
REVIEW
Yi Xiong, Bi-Yun Huang, Ji-Ye Yin
Drug therapy for non-small cell lung cancer consists mainly of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. However, toxicity, drug resistance, and high risk of death have been seen in the clinic, which means there is a need for optimizing the use of medications. Platinum resistance could be mediated by a series of DNA repair pathways, and therefore, these pathways should be taken into account for optimizing drug using. The goal of pharmacogenomics is to elucidate genetic factors, such as DNA repair genes, which might underlie drug efficacy and effectiveness, and to improve therapeutic effects or guide personalized therapy as well...
April 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202365/optimising-the-use-of-medicines-to-reduce-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-and-babies
#17
REVIEW
L Oni, D B Hawcutt, M A Turner, M W Beresford, S McWilliam, C Barton, B K Park, P Murray, B Wilm, I Copple, R Floyd, M Peak, A Sharma, D J Antoine
The majority of medications in children are administered in an unlicensed or off-label manner. Paediatricians are obliged to prescribe using the limited evidence available. The 2007 EU regulation on the use of paediatric drugs means pharmaceutical companies are now obliged to (and receive incentives for) contributing to paediatric drug data and carrying out paediatric clinical trials. This is important, as the efficacy and adverse effect profiles of medicines vary across childhood. Additionally, there are significant age-related changes in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic activity of many drugs...
February 12, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183252/pharmacological-profile-and-pharmacogenomics-of-anti-cancer-drugs-used-for-targeted-therapy
#18
Raffaele Di Francia, Angela De Monaco, Mariangela Saggese, Giancarla Iaccarino, Stefania Crisci, Ferdinando Frigeri, Rosaria De Filippi, Massimiliano Berretta, Antonio Pinto
Drugs for targeted therapies are primarily Small Molecules Inhibitors (SMIs), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), interfering RNA molecules and microRNA. The use of these new agents generates a multifaceted step in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of these drugs. Individual PK variability is often large, and unpredictability observed in the response to the pharmacogenetic profile of the patient (e.g. cytochome P450 enzyme), patient characteristics such as adherence to treatment and environmental factors. Objective This review aims to overview the latest anticancer drugs eligible for targeted therapies and the most recent finding in pharmacogenomics related to toxicity/resistance because either individual gene polymorphisms or acquired mutation in a cancer cell...
February 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162244/pharmacogenetics-of-hypersensitivity-drug-reactions
#19
Simone Negrini, Laurent Becquemont
Adverse drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and represent a major burden on the healthcare system. Some of those reactions are immunologically mediated (hypersensitivity reactions) and can be clinically subdivided into two categories: immediate reactions (IgE-related) and delayed reactions (T-cell-mediated). Delayed hypersensitivity reactions include both systemic syndromes and organ-specific toxicities and can be triggered by a wide range of chemically diverse drugs. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong genetic association between human leukocyte antigen alleles and susceptibility to delayed drug hypersensitivity...
January 3, 2017: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159880/en-route-to-precision-medicine-through-the-integration-of-biological-sex-into-pharmacogenomics
#20
REVIEW
Lea Gaignebet, Georgios Kararigas
Frequently, pharmacomechanisms are not fully elucidated. Therefore, drug use is linked to an elevated interindividual diversity of effects, whether therapeutic or adverse, and the role of biological sex has as yet unrecognized and underestimated consequences. A pharmacogenomic approach could contribute towards the development of an adapted therapy for each male and female patient, considering also other fundamental features, such as age and ethnicity. This would represent a crucial step towards precision medicine and could be translated into clinical routine...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
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