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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525818/hypertension-update-jnc8-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Tara Shrout, David W Rudy, Michael T Piascik
Hypertension is the most preventable major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The etiology of elevated blood pressure is a complex process involving the interaction of genetics, demographics, comorbid disorders, and environmental influences. Effective hypertensive therapy has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. JNC reports have served as a valuable source of guidelines, and JNC 8 is the most recently updated guideline for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hypertension...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515818/pharmacogenomic-testing-for-psychotropic-medication-selection-a-systematic-review-of-the-assurex-genesight-psychotropic-test
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: A large proportion of the Ontario population lives with a diagnosed mental illness. Nearly 5% of Ontarians have major depressive disorder, and another 5% have another type of depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, or some other disorder not otherwise specified. Medications are commonly used to treat mental illness, but choosing the right medication for each patient is challenging, and more than 40% of patients discontinue their medication within 90 days because of adverse effects or lack of response...
2017: Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514737/integration-of-phytochemicals-and-phytotherapy-into-cancer-precision-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Mohamed E M Saeed, Elhaj Mirghani, Awadh Alim, Zahir Yassin, Elfatih Saeed, Hassan E Khalid, Salah Daak
Concepts of individualized therapy in the 1970s and 1980s attempted to develop predictive in vitro tests for individual drug responsiveness without reaching clinical routine. Precision medicine attempts to device novel individual cancer therapy strategies. Using bioinformatics, relevant knowledge is extracted from huge data amounts. However, tumor heterogeneity challenges chemotherapy due to genetically and phenotypically different cell subpopulations, which may lead to refractory tumors. Natural products always served as vital resources for cancer therapy (e...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498553/fundamentals-of-clinical-pharmacology-with-application-for-pregnant-women
#4
REVIEW
Avinash S Patil, Jessica Sheng, Sarah K Dotters-Katz, Maria S Schmoll, Mitchell Onslow, Rebecca C Pierson
Medication use is common in pregnancy, yet for most medications the optimal formulation and dosage have not been described specifically for pregnant women. Often, adverse effects are only discovered anecdotally or after extensive off-label use occurs. Since pharmacologic research that includes pregnant women is sparse and animal studies are often not applicable to the human fetus, providers must use knowledge of drug behavior and normal physiologic changes of pregnancy to personalize treatment for pregnant women...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491115/therapeutic-risk-and-benefits-of-concomitantly-using-herbal-medicines-and-conventional-medicines-from-the-perspectives-of-evidence-based-on-randomized-controlled-trials-and-clinical-risk-management
#5
REVIEW
Xiu-Lai Zhang, Meng Chen, Ling-Ling Zhu, Quan Zhou
Despite increased awareness of the potential of herb-drug interactions (HDIs), the lack of rigorous clinical evidence regarding the significance provides a challenge for clinicians and consumers to make rational decisions about the safe combination of herbal and conventional medicines. This review addressed HDIs based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by performing a PubMed search till January 2017. Risk description and clinical risk management were described. Among 74 finally included RCTs, 17 RCTs (22...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490206/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-pharmacogenetics-associated-with-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-opioids-in-pediatric-cancer-patients
#6
Jonathan Constance, Sarah Campbell, Amit A Somani, Venkata Yellepeddi, Katie Owens, Catherine Sherwin
Advancing appropriate and adequate analgesic pharmacotherapy in pediatric patients with cancer is an area of clinical need. Few studies have been performed to evaluate the selection of an analgesic and appropriate dosing corresponding to analgesic effect among pediatric cancer patients. This review describes information related to pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenomic (when applicable) considerations for analgesics that are commonly used to manage pain experienced by pediatric patients with cancer...
May 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485121/prophylaxis-of-migraine-headaches-with-riboflavin-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
D F Thompson, H S Saluja
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Migraine headache is a relatively common, debilitating condition that costs our healthcare system over 78 billion dollars per year. Riboflavin has been advocated as a safe, effective prophylactic therapy for the prevention of migraines. The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic review of the current role of riboflavin in the prophylaxis of migraine headache. METHODS: A MEDLINE literature search inclusive of the dates 1966-2016 was performed using the search terms: riboflavin and migraine disorders...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468529/pharmacogenomics-in-pediatric-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-promises-and-limitations
#8
Zeina N Al-Mahayri, George P Patrinos, Bassam R Ali
Despite the significant advances achieved in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) treatment, adverse side effects of drugs remain a challenging issue. Numerous ALL pharmacogenomic studies have been conducted to elucidate the predisposing genetic factors for their development. Plausible pharmacogenomic data are available for the osteonecrosis associated with glucocorticoids, the neurotoxicity associated with vincristine and the cardiotoxicity related to anthracyclines. However, these data have not been fully translated into the clinic due to several limitations, most importantly the lack of reliable evidence...
May 4, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456840/rapid-evidence-review-of-the-comparative-effectiveness-harms-and-cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacogenomics-guided-antidepressant-treatment-versus-usual-care-for-major-depressive-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Kimberly Peterson, Eric Dieperink, Johanna Anderson, Erin Boundy, Lauren Ferguson, Mark Helfand
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to conduct an evidence review of the effectiveness, harms, and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenomics-guided antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE®, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO through February 2017. We used prespecified criteria to select studies, abstract data, and rate internal validity and strength of the evidence (PROSPERO number CRD42016036358). RESULTS: We included two randomized trials (RCT), five controlled cohort studies, and six modeling studies of mostly women in their mid-40s with few comorbidities...
April 29, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451949/interaction-between-the-haptoglobin-genotype-and-vitamin-e-on-cardiovascular-disease-in-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Irit Hochberg, Elliot M Berinstein, Uzi Milman, Chen Shapira, Andrew P Levy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite compelling evidence regarding the importance of oxidant stress in the development of vascular complications and observational studies suggesting that vitamin E may be protective from these complications, multiple clinical trials have failed to show benefit from vitamin E supplementation in the prevention of vascular complications in diabetes. One possible explanation for this failure of vitamin E may have been inappropriate patient selection. This review seeks to provide the clinical evidence and mechanistic basis for why a subset of individuals defined by their haptoglobin (Hp) genotype may derive cardiovascular protection by vitamin E supplementation...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442506/genome-wide-association-studies-of-chemotherapeutic-toxicities-genomics-of-inequality
#11
Brandon Mapes, Omar El Charif, Shereen Al-Sawwaf, M Eileen Dolan
With an estimated global population of cancer survivors exceeding 32 million and growing, there is a heightened awareness of the long-term toxicities resulting from cancer treatments and their impact on quality of life. Unexplained heterogeneity in the persistence and development of toxicities, as well as an incomplete understanding of their mechanisms have generated a growing need for the identification of predictive pharmacogenomic markers. Early studies addressing this need used a candidate gene approach; however, over the last decade, unbiased and comprehensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided markers of phenotypic risk and potential targets to explore the mechanistic and regulatory pathways of biological functions associated with chemotherapeutic toxicity...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439573/systematic-review-of-cyclosporin-a-induced-%C3%A2-gingival-overgrowth-and-genetic-predisposition
#12
Georgios S Chatzopoulos, Vasiliki P Koidou, Larry F Wolff
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to investigate the influence of gene polymorphisms on the development of gingival overgrowth in renal transplant patients treated with cyclosporin A. METHOD AND MATERIALS: Electronic and hand literature searches were conducted by two independent reviewers in MEDLINE-Pubmed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS Elsevier for prospective (case-control studies, cohort studies), cross-sectional, and retrospective studies published up to June 2016 (first week) in any language...
April 24, 2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425954/inherited-variation-in-vitamin-d-genes-and-type-1-diabetes-predisposition
#13
REVIEW
Marissa Penna-Martinez, Klaus Badenhoop
The etiology and pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes remain largely elusive with no established concepts for a causal therapy. Efforts to clarify genetic susceptibility and screening for environmental factors have identified the vitamin D system as a contributory pathway that is potentially correctable. This review aims at compiling all genetic studies addressing the vitamin D system in type 1 diabetes. Herein, association studies with case control cohorts are presented as well as family investigations with transmission tests, meta-analyses and intervention trials...
April 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418012/cyp3a4-is-a-crosslink-between-vitamin-d-and-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-implications-for-bone-health
#14
REVIEW
A Prytuła, K Cransberg, A Raes
The use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of post-transplant bone disease. CNIs and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)2D3) are substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. This review summarizes the indications for the use of activated vitamin D analogs in post-transplant care and the current knowledge on the impact of CNIs on bone. We searched for clinical evidence of the interaction between CNIs and 1,25(OH)2D3. We also provide an overview of the literature on the interplay between vitamin D metabolism and CYP3A4 in experimental and clinical settings and discuss its possible implications for solid organ transplant recipients...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418011/more-than-25-years-of-genetic-studies-of-clozapine-induced-agranulocytosis
#15
REVIEW
S A J de With, S L Pulit, W G Staal, R S Kahn, R A Ophoff
Clozapine is one of the most effective atypical antipsychotic drugs prescribed to patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Approximately 1% of patients experience potential life-threatening adverse effects in the form of agranulocytosis, greatly hindering its applicability in clinical practice. The etiology of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIA) remains unclear, but is thought to be a heritable trait. We reviewed the genetic studies of CIA published thus far. One recurrent finding from early candidate gene study to more recent genome-wide analysis is that of the involvement of human leukocyte antigen locus...
April 18, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413963/overview-of-cantharidin-and-its-analogues
#16
Guofang Wang, Jian Dong, Liping Deng
Canthiridin has significant anti-cancer effects and only limited use due to its toxicity. In spite of some side effects such as hematochezia and tenesmus, cantharidin can efficiently inhibit various tumor cell lines, therefore, its importance can never be overemphasized. Several of its analogues show functions similar to cantharidin without high toxicity. In order to utilize cantharidin to treat cancer, some viable methods are found to reduce its side effects. Since cantharidin can inhibit the activity of protein phosphatases, new researches for the inhibition of protein phosphatases have been implemented...
April 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405170/hepatitis-c-virus-pharmacogenomics-in-latin-american-populations-implications-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals
#17
REVIEW
Julieta Trinks, Mariela Caputo, María L Hulaniuk, Daniel Corach, Diego Flichman
In recent years, great progress has been made in the field of new therapeutic options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The new direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) represent a great hope for millions of chronically infected individuals because their use may lead to excellent cure rates with fewer side effects. In Latin America, the high prevalence of HCV genotype 1 infection and the significant association of Native American ancestry with risk predictive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFNL4 and ITPA genes highlight the need to implement new treatment regimens in these populations...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396093/what-s-new-about-oral-treatments-in-multiple-sclerosis-immunogenetics-still-under-question
#18
REVIEW
Cristiana Pistono, Cecilia Osera, Chiara Boiocchi, Giulia Mallucci, Mariaclara Cuccia, Roberto Bergamaschi, Alessia Pascale
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic pathology affecting the Central Nervous System characterized by inflammatory processes that lead to demyelination and neurodegeneration. In MS treatment, disease modifying therapies (DMTs) are essential to reduce disease progression by suppressing the inflammatory response responsible for promoting lesion formation. Recently, in addition to the classical injectable DMTs like Interferons and Glatiramer acetate, new orally administered drugs have been approved for MS therapy: dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide and fingolimod...
June 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385536/mining-the-topography-and-dynamics-of-the-4d-nucleome-to-identify-novel-cns-drug-pathways
#19
Gerald A Higgins, Ari Allyn-Feuer, Patrick Georgoff, Vahagn Nikolian, Hasan Alam, Brian D Athey
The pharmacoepigenome can be defined as the active, noncoding province of the genome including canonical spatial and temporal regulatory mechanisms of gene regulation that respond to xenobiotic stimuli. Many psychotropic drugs that have been in clinical use for decades have ill-defined mechanisms of action that are beginning to be resolved as we understand the transcriptional hierarchy and dynamics of the nucleus. In this review, we describe spatial, temporal and biomechanical mechanisms mediated by psychotropic medications...
April 3, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385198/precision-cardiovascular-medicine-state-of-genetic-testing
#20
REVIEW
John R Giudicessi, Iftikhar J Kullo, Michael J Ackerman
In the 15 years following the release of the first complete human genome sequences, our understanding of rare and common genetic variation as determinants of cardiovascular disease susceptibility, prognosis, and therapeutic response has grown exponentially. As such, the use of genomics to enhance the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases has garnered increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies eager to realize the promise of precision genomic medicine. However, owing to a large burden of "complex" common diseases, emphasis on evidence-based practice, and a degree of unfamiliarity/discomfort with the language of genomic medicine, the development and implementation of genomics-guided approaches designed to further individualize the clinical management of a variety of cardiovascular disorders remains a challenge...
April 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
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