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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897268/germline-polymorphisms-as-biomarkers-of-tumor-response-in-colorectal-cancer-patients-treated-with-anti-egfr-monoclonal-antibodies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
E K Morgen, H-J Lenz, D J Jonker, D Tu, G Milano, F Graziano, J Zalcberg, C S Karapetis, A Dobrovic, C J O'Callaghan, G Liu
Studies of germline polymorphisms as predictors of tumor response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody agents in metastatic colorectal cancer have reported inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review of studies from 1990 to September 2015, followed by random-effects meta-analyses for polymorphisms examined in at least three studies. Of 87 studies, 40 passed the criteria for systematic review and 23 for meta-analysis. The polymorphisms suitable for meta-analysis were CCND1 (rs17852153), COX2 (rs20417), EGF (rs4444903), EGFR (rs712829, rs11543848, 3'UTR CA repeat), FCGR2A (rs1801274), FCGR3A (rs396991), IL8 (rs4073), KRAS (rs61764370) and VEGFA (rs3025039)...
November 29, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881428/genome-transcriptome-and-proteome-the-rise-of-omics-data-and-their-integration-in-biomedical-sciences
#2
Claudia Manzoni, Demis A Kia, Jana Vandrovcova, John Hardy, Nicholas W Wood, Patrick A Lewis, Raffaele Ferrari
Advances in the technologies and informatics used to generate and process large biological data sets (omics data) are promoting a critical shift in the study of biomedical sciences. While genomics, transcriptomics and proteinomics, coupled with bioinformatics and biostatistics, are gaining momentum, they are still, for the most part, assessed individually with distinct approaches generating monothematic rather than integrated knowledge. As other areas of biomedical sciences, including metabolomics, epigenomics and pharmacogenomics, are moving towards the omics scale, we are witnessing the rise of inter-disciplinary data integration strategies to support a better understanding of biological systems and eventually the development of successful precision medicine...
November 22, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864206/educational-strategies-to-enable-expansion-of-pharmacogenomics-based-care
#3
Kristin Wiisanen Weitzel, Christina L Aquilante, Samuel Johnson, David F Kisor, Philip E Empey
PURPOSE: The current state of pharmacogenomics education for pharmacy students and practitioners is discussed, and resources and strategies to address persistent challenges in this area are reviewed. SUMMARY: Consensus-based pharmacist competencies and guidelines have been published to guide pharmacogenomics knowledge attainment and application in clinical practice. Pharmacogenomics education is integrated into various pharmacy school courses and, increasingly, into Pharm...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864205/evidence-and-resources-to-implement-pharmacogenetic-knowledge-for-precision-medicine
#4
Kelly E Caudle, Roseann S Gammal, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, James M Hoffman, Mary V Relling, Teri E Klein
PURPOSE: The current state of pharmacogenetic data curation and dissemination is described, and evidence-based resources for applying pharmacogenetic data in clinical practice are reviewed. SUMMARY: Implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice has been relatively slow despite substantial scientific progress in understanding linkages between genetic variation and variability of drug response and effect. One factor that has inhibited the adoption of genetic data to guide medication use is a lack of knowledge of how to translate genetic test results into clinical action based on currently available evidence...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861439/trends-in-tramadol-pharmacology-metabolism-and-misuse
#5
Karen Miotto, Arthur K Cho, Mohamed A Khalil, Kirsten Blanco, Jun D Sasaki, Richard Rawson
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic potency of a given dose of tramadol is influenced by an individual's CYP genetics, with poor metabolizers experiencing little conversion to the active M1 opioid metabolite and individuals with a high metabolic profile, or ultra-metabolizers, experiencing the greatest opioid analgesic effects...
November 17, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854302/severe-cutaneous-adverse-reactions-the-pharmacogenomics-from-research-to-clinical-implementation
#6
REVIEW
Shih-Chi Su, Shuen-Iu Hung, Wen-Lang Fan, Ro-Lan Dao, Wen-Hung Chung
Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), previously thought to be idiosyncratic or unpredictable, are a deadly form of adverse drug reactions with skin manifestations. Current pharmacogenomic studies of SCARs have made important strides, as the prevention of SCARs, to some extent, appears attainable with the identification of genetic variants for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Despite the improvement of incidence, a treatment guideline for this devastating condition is still unavailable, highlighting the inadequacy of contemporary accepted therapeutic interventions...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847479/understanding-molecular-landscape-of-endometrial-cancer-through-next-generation-sequencing-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#7
Siti-Syazani Suhaimi, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
Endometrial cancer (EC) is among the most common gynecological cancers affecting women worldwide. Despite the early detection and rather high overall survival rate, around 20% of the cases recur with poor prognosis. The Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, also known as massively parallel sequencing, symbolizes a high-throughput, fast, sensitive and accurate way to study the molecular landscape of a cancer and this has indeed revolutionized endometrial cancer research. Understanding the potential, advantages, and limitations of NGS will be crucial for the healthcare providers and scientists in providing the genome-driven care in this era of precision medicine and pharmacogenomics...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845879/quality-control-materials-for-pharmacogenomic-testing-in-the-clinic
#8
Guigao Lin, Kuo Zhang, Yanxi Han, Jinming Li
Pharmacogenomics has significantly added to our understanding of drug responses in clinical pharmacology, changing the paradigm of treatment decisions. Interrogations of both inherited and somatic variations for therapeutic purposes are increasingly being adopted in clinics, where quality control (QC) materials are required. However, for many pharmacogenomic tests, the acquisition of well-characterized QC materials is often difficult or impossible. In this review, several sources of appropriate QC materials for therapy-associated genetic testing are discussed...
November 15, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824309/-personalized-medicine-in-psychiatry-nightmare-of-the-industry
#9
Judit Lazary, Monika Elemery, Iren Csala, Gabor Faludi
Personalized medicine is a hot topic in the literature of the psychiatric field but it seems that regular clinical application of valid tests are awaited. Urgent requirement of objective tools for screening high-risk patients is postulated by prominent authors because long-term set up time, serious side effects or ineffectiveness of psychiatric agents mean a great challenge for clinicians to find optimal therapy on time. Unwanted suffering from inaccurate medicine, progression of the disorder and mistrust or in adherence of the patients are dramatic consequences of the delay of adequate therapy which is linked with irreversible health and mental damages and financial loss...
September 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813451/pharmacogenomics-of-heart-failure-a-systematic-review
#10
Fannie Mottet, Orly Vardeny, Simon de Denus
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and multiple HF-related phenotypes are heritable. Genes implicated in the HF pathophysiology would be expected to influence the response to treatment. METHODS: We conducted a series of systematic literature searches on the pharmacogenetics of HF therapy to assess the current knowledge on this field. RESULTS: Existing data related to HF pharmacogenomics are still limited. The ADRB1 gene is a likely candidate to predict response to β-blockers...
November 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807747/text-mining-for-precision-medicine-bringing-structure-to-ehrs-and-biomedical-literature-to-understand-genes-and-health
#11
Michael Simmons, Ayush Singhal, Zhiyong Lu
The key question of precision medicine is whether it is possible to find clinically actionable granularity in diagnosing disease and classifying patient risk. The advent of next-generation sequencing and the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have provided clinicians and researchers a wealth of data and made possible the precise characterization of individual patient genotypes and phenotypes. Unstructured text-found in biomedical publications and clinical notes-is an important component of genotype and phenotype knowledge...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790783/pharmacogenomics-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-and-leukotriene-modifiers-a-systematic-review
#12
N Farzan, S J H Vijverberg, H G Arets, J A M Raaijmakers, A H Maitland-van der Zee
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetics studies of anti-inflammatory medication of asthma have expanded rapidly in recent decades, but the clinical value of their findings remain limited. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and leukotriene modifiers (LTMs) in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Articles published between 1999 and June 2015 were searched using PubMed and Embase. Pharmacogenomics/genetics studies of asthmatic patients using ICS or LTMs were included if ≥1 of the following outcomes were studied: lung function, exacerbation rates or asthma symptoms...
October 27, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779789/role-of-cytochrome-p450-2b6-pharmacogenomics-in-determining-efavirenz-mediated-central-nervous-system-toxicity-treatment-outcomes-and-dosage-adjustments-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#13
Teresa T Vo, Sheeba Varghese Gupta
For treatment-naïve patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, efavirenz (EFV) together with tenofovir and emtricitabine were once widely prescribed given its efficacy and ease of administration in a combination pill. However, the high rate of central nervous system toxicities from EFV prompted the United States Department of Health and Human Services to move the EFV-based regimen from the recommended to the alternative category. For patients who do meet the criteria for newer recommended antiretroviral treatments, EFV is a viable option and is often the mainstay of treatment outside the United States, as newer antiretroviral treatments are more expensive...
October 25, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771974/new-treatment-strategies-for-hiv-positive-cancer-patients-undergoing-antiblastic-chemotherapy
#14
Massimiliano Berretta, Raffaele Di Francia, Brigida Stanzione, Gaetano Facchini, Arben LLeshi, Paolo De Paoli, Michele Spina, Umberto Tirelli
The introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) into clinical practice has dramatically changed the outcome of HIV-infected patients by prolonging their survival. The increase in life expectancy has led to an increased risk of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, including cardiovascular diseases, neurocognitive diseases, neuroendocrine dysfunctions and cancer. Areas covered: The GICAT (Italian Cooperation Group on AIDS and Tumors) has demonstrated that patients who receive a multidisciplinary approach with the combination of anticancer agents (AC) and HAART can achieve better responses and survival rates than patients who receive AC alone...
November 16, 2016: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767376/pharmacogenomics-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors
#15
Andrew Kl Goey, Tristan M Sissung, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) has been used for many decades in neurology and psychiatry. The more recent introduction of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat for treatment of hematological malignancies indicates the increasing popularity of these agents. Belinostat, romidepsin and vorinostat are metabolized or transported by polymorphic enzymes or drug transporters. Thus, genotype-directed dosing could improve pharmacotherapy by reducing the risk of toxicities or preventing suboptimal treatment...
October 21, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757045/pharmacogenomics-of-statins-understanding-susceptibility-to-adverse-effects
#16
Joseph P Kitzmiller, Eduard B Mikulik, Anees M Dauki, Chandrama Murkherjee, Jasmine A Luzum
Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy...
2016: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752976/pharmacogenomics-and-pharmacogenetics-for-the-intensive-care-unit-a-narrative-review
#17
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729266/pharmacogenomics-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-and-transporters-relevance-to-precision-medicine
#18
Shabbir Ahmed, Zhan Zhou, Jie Zhou, Shu-Qing Chen
The interindividual genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters influence the efficacy and toxicity of numerous drugs. As a fundamental element in precision medicine, pharmacogenomics, the study of responses of individuals to medication based on their genomic information, enables the evaluation of some specific genetic variants responsible for an individual's particular drug response. In this article, we review the contributions of genetic polymorphisms to major individual variations in drug pharmacotherapy, focusing specifically on the pharmacogenomics of phase-I drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters...
October 8, 2016: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720019/pharmacogenomics-and-adverse-drug-reactions-primetime-and-not-ready-for-primetime-tests
#19
David A Khan
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a relatively common cause of morbidity and mortality. Many factors can contribute to ADRs, including genetics. The degree to which genetics contributes to ADRs is not entirely clear and varies by drug, as well as the type of ADR. Pharmacogenetics and, more recently, pharmacogenomics have been applied to the field of ADRs for both predictable ADRs and hypersensitivity drug reactions. Evaluations for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and thiopurine S-methyltransferase are commonplace clinical tests to reduce hematologic problems associated with drugs, such as dapsone and azathioprine, respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708579/pharmacogenomics-of-prostaglandin-and-leukotriene-receptors
#20
José A Cornejo-García, James R Perkins, Raquel Jurado-Escobar, Elena García-Martín, José A Agúndez, Enrique Viguera, Natalia Pérez-Sánchez, Natalia Blanca-López
Individual genetic background together with environmental effects are thought to be behind many human complex diseases. A number of genetic variants, mainly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), have been shown to be associated with various pathological and inflammatory conditions, representing potential therapeutic targets. Prostaglandins (PTGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) are eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid and related polyunsaturated fatty acids that participate in both normal homeostasis and inflammatory conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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