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Pharmacogenomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718665/prevalence-of-low-vitamin-d-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-in-a-predominantly-hispanic-population-at-the-american-mexican-border
#1
Safa E Farrag, Alok K Dwivedi, Salman Otoukesh, Nabeel J Badri, Luis A Sanchez, Zeina A Nahleh
INTRODUCTION: Low level of vitamin D (VD) has been linked with a higher risk of cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of low VD in patients with breast cancer in a predominantly Mexican Hispanic/Latino patient population, a fast growing and relatively understudied population. MATERIALS/METHODS: We sought to evaluate the serum VD levels in breast cancer patients diagnosed at the Texas Tech University Breast Cancer Center in El Paso, TX, between May 2013 and May2014 via a retrospective chart review of the Electronic Medical Records...
July 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717926/clinical-evaluation-of-modified-release-and-immediate-release-tacrolimus-formulations
#2
Simon Tremblay, Rita R Alloway
The science of drug delivery has evolved considerably and has led to the development of multiple sustained release formulations. Each of these formulations can present particular challenges in terms of clinical evaluation and necessitate careful study to identify their optimal use in practice. Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive agent that is widely used in organ transplant recipients. However, it is poorly soluble, has an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile subject to important genetic polymorphisms and drug-drug interactions, and has a narrow therapeutic index...
July 17, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698977/pharmacogenetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-targeted-therapeutics-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#3
REVIEW
Aritro Nath, Jacqueline Wang, R Stephanie Huang
The advent of targeted therapeutics has greatly improved outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Despite increased efficacy and better clinical responses over cytotoxic chemotherapies, many patients receiving targeted drugs exhibit a poor initial response, develop drug resistance, or undergo relapse after initial success. This inter-individual variation in response has heightened the interest in studying pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) of cancer drugs. In this review, we discuss the influence of various germline and somatic factors on targeted drug response in CML...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696417/harnessing-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-protein-6-lrp6-genetic-variation-and-wnt-signaling-for-innovative-diagnostics-in-complex-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Z-M Wang, J-Q Luo, L-Y Xu, H-H Zhou, W Zhang
Wnt signaling regulates a broad variety of processes in both embryonic development and various diseases. Recent studies indicated that some genetic variants in Wnt signaling pathway may serve as predictors of diseases. Low-density lipoprotein receptor protein 6 (LRP6) is a Wnt co-receptor with essential functions in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and mutations in LRP6 gene are linked to many complex human diseases, including metabolic syndrome, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis. Therefore, we focus on the role of LRP6 genetic polymorphisms and Wnt signaling in complex diseases, and the mechanisms from mouse models and cell lines...
July 11, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695285/the-role-of-hla-genes-in-pharmacogenomics-unravelling-hla-associated-adverse-drug-reactions
#5
REVIEW
Patricia T Illing, Anthony W Purcell, James McCluskey
Genetic polymorphism in the genes encoding the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules enables presentation of a wide range peptide ligands thus maximising immune surveillance of pathogens. A consequence of the diversification of the HLA Ag-binding pocket is the enhanced opportunity for off-target binding of small drugs by HLA molecules, with subsequent immune reactivity. These potential off-target interactions are 'set up' to generate T cell-mediated adverse drug reactions even though the precise mechanisms of most HLA-drug interactions are still poorly understood...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682531/florida-best-practice-psychotherapeutic-medication-guidelines-for-adults-with-major-depressive-disorder
#6
Roger S McIntyre, Trisha Suppes, Rajiv Tandon, Michael Ostacher
OBJECTIVE: Herein we provide the 2015 update for the Florida Best Practice Psychotherapeutic Medication Guidelines (FPG) for major depressive disorder (MDD). The FPG represent evidence-based decision support for practitioners providing care to adults with MDD. PARTICIPANTS: The consensus meeting included representatives from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration (FAHCA), advocacy members, academic experts in MDD, and multidisciplinary mental health clinicians, as well as health policy experts...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672074/collaborative-counseling-considerations-for-pharmacogenomic-tests
#7
Heather A Zierhut, Colleen A Campbell, Allison G Mitchell, Amy A Lemke, Rachel Mills, Jeffrey R Bishop
Increased use of pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in the clinical setting has revealed a number of challenges to the provision of this service. PGx is an important component of precision medicine which brings together the fields of genetics and clinical pharmacology. A model that incorporates a multi-disciplinary approach to implementation and information delivery may be the most beneficial to patients and providers. In this review, translational considerations in the provision of PGx testing and counseling services are described...
July 3, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657381/safety-profile-of-biological-therapies-for-treating-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Juan D Cañete, Victoria Hernández, Raimon Sanmartí
Biological agents such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), abatacept, rituximab and tocilizumab have proven efficacy in RA. However, these agents are also associated with adverse events so further data is essential to detect them at the earliest stage possible. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the safety profile of biological therapy, including TNFi and non-TNF agents including abatacept (ABA), rituximab (RTX) and tocilizumab (TCZ). The authors analyze both published articles and congress communications including clinical trials, meta-analyses, observational studies, data from registries and spontaneous clinical reports...
June 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654165/using-personalized-medicine-in-the-management-of-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Nina Elk, Otito F Iwuchukwu
Diabetes mellitus is a worldwide problem of immense pharmacoeconomic burden. The multifactorial and complex nature of the disease lends itself to personalized pharmacotherapeutic approaches to treatment. Variability in individual risk and subsequent development of diabetes have been reported, in addition to differences in response to the many oral glucose lowering therapies currently available for diabetes pharmacotherapy. Pharmacogenomic studies have attempted to uncover the heritable components of individual variability in risk susceptibility and response to pharmacotherapy...
June 27, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653280/clozapine-as-a-model-for-antipsychotic-development
#10
REVIEW
Frederick C Nucifora, Marina Mihaljevic, Brian J Lee, Akira Sawa
Schizophrenia is a devastating illness that affects up to 1% of the population; it is characterized by a combination of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. Currently, treatment consists of one class of medications known as antipsychotics, which include typical (first-generation) and atypical (second-generation) agents. Unfortunately, antipsychotic medications have limited efficacy, with up to a third of patients lacking a full response. Clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic developed, is the only medication shown to be superior to all other antipsychotics...
June 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636828/pharmacokinetic-drug-evaluation-of-extended-release-lorcaserin-for-the-treatment-of-obesity
#11
Kathryn Hurren, Marissa W Dunham
Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor antagonist that was FDA approved in 2012. Lorcaserin is recently available as an extended-release (ER) formulation for the treatment of obesity as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of lorcaserin ER will be reviewed. Expert opinion: Lorcaserin ER 20mg daily provides drug exposure bioequivalent to lorcaserin immediate release (IR) 10mg twice daily. Lorcaserin IR is associated with 3.3% and 3.0% placebo-subtracted weight loss in patients without and with diabetes, respectively...
June 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631723/pharmacogenetic-biomarkers-of-response-in-crohn-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
T M Linares-Pineda, M Cañadas-Garre, A Sánchez-Pozo, M Á Calleja-Hernández
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic condition, which affects the immune system. It can also affect any part of the digestive tract and be associated with external manifestations. The causes of the disease remain unknown, although it seems to be the result of a combination of factors, such as genetic predisposition, environment, lifestyle and the composition of the microbiota, among others. The treatment protocol begins with a change in eating and smoking habits, and is continued with different lines of treatment, including corticosteroids, immunomodulators and biologic therapy (infliximab and adalimumab), which have shown differences in response among patients, especially with biologic treatment...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623161/the-genetics-of-ischemic-heart-disease-from-current-knowledge-to-clinical-implications
#13
Roberto Elosua, Sergi Sayols-Baixeras
Ischemic heart disease continues to cause high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is expected to increase due to population aging, and its prevention is a major goal of health policies. The risk of developing ischemic heart disease is related to a complex interplay between genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in knowledge of the genetic architecture of this disease. This narrative review provides an overview of current knowledge of the genetics of ischemic heart disease and of its translation to clinical practice: identification of new therapeutic targets, assessment of the causal relationship between biomarkers and disease, improved risk prediction, and identification of responders and nonresponders to specific drugs (pharmacogenomics)...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619604/clinical-implementation-of-pharmacogenomics-for-personalized-precision-medicine-barriers-and-solutions
#14
REVIEW
Michelle Elizabeth Klein, Md Masud Parvez, Jae-Gook Shin
Clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics (PGx) leads to personalized medicine, which improves the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of treatments. Although PGx-based research has been conducted for more than a decade, several barriers have slowed down its widespread implementation in clinical practice. Globally, there is an imbalance in programs and solutions required to empower the clinical implementation of PGx between countries. Therefore, we aimed to review these issues comprehensively, determine the major barriers, and find the best solutions...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616427/specific-genes-associated-with-adverse-events-of-methylphenidate-use-in-the-pediatric-population-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
Beinta Joensen, Morten Meyer, Lise Aagaard
The aim of this study was to review empirical studies examining associations between candidate genes and adverse events (AEs) from methylphenidate (MPH) use in children and adolescents. The PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched from their inception until March 2017. We included empirically based articles on pharmacogenetic studies in 0-17-year-old patients that investigated associations between specific candidate genes, their polymorphisms, and reported AEs. We extracted information about study design, setting, type of AE reporter, studied genes and their polymorphisms, age and gender, administered doses, method of genotyping, outcome measures, and main findings...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612644/methods-to-analyze-big-data-in-pharmacogenomics-research
#16
Ruowang Li, Dokyoon Kim, Marylyn D Ritchie
The scale and scope of pharmacogenomics research continues to expand as the cost and efficiency of molecular data generation techniques advance. These new technologies give rise to enormous opportunity for the identification of important genetic and genomic factors important for drug treatment response. With this opportunity come significant challenges. Most of these can be categorized as 'big data' issues, facing not only pharmacogenomics, but other fields in the life sciences as well. In this review, we describe some of the analysis techniques and tools being implemented for genetic/genomic discovery in pharmacogenomics...
June 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607508/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-pharmacogenetics-of-anti-tnf-treatment-response-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
S Bek, A B Bojesen, J V Nielsen, J Sode, S Bank, U Vogel, V Andersen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects ~1% of the Caucasian population. Over the last decades, the availability of biological drugs targeting the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α, anti-TNF drugs, has improved the treatment of patients with RA. However, one-third of the patients do not respond to the treatment. We wanted to evaluate the status of pharmacogenomics of anti-TNF treatment. We performed a PubMed literature search and all studies reporting original data on associations between genetic variants and anti-TNF treatment response in RA patients were included and results evaluated by meta-analysis...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607506/cost-effectiveness-of-pharmacogenetic-guided-treatment-are-we-there-yet
#18
REVIEW
M Verbelen, M E Weale, C M Lewis
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) has the potential to personalize pharmaceutical treatments. Many relevant gene-drug associations have been discovered, but PGx-guided treatment needs to be cost-effective as well as clinically beneficial to be incorporated into standard health-care. We reviewed economic evaluations for PGx associations listed in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labeling. We determined the proportion of evaluations that found PGx-guided treatment to be cost-effective or dominant over the alternative strategies, and estimated the impact on this proportion of removing the cost of genetic testing...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607505/predictive-genetic-markers-in-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-esophageal-cancer-a-long-way-to-go-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
M Gusella, E Pezzolo, Y Modena, C Barile, D Menon, G Crepaldi, F La Russa, A P Fraccon, F Pasini
The role of genetic molecular markers in neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced esophageal cancer has been reviewed, focusing strictly on concurrent chemoradiation protocols followed by surgery. Eleven studies evaluated the role of mRNA expression profile; the end point was overall survival (OS) in two studies and different definitions of histological response in nine. Genes reported as significant were involved in cell cycle control (30), apoptosis (7), structural molecules (9), cell metabolism (6) and DNA repair (1)...
June 13, 2017: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604601/personalized-medicine-new-perspectives-for-the-diagnosis-and-the-treatment-of-renal-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Robert Olszewski, Maciej Banach, Jacek Rysz
The prevalence of renal diseases is rising and reaching 5-15% of the adult population. Renal damage is associated with disturbances of body homeostasis and the loss of equilibrium between exogenous and endogenous elements including drugs and metabolites. Studies indicate that renal diseases are influenced not only by environmental but also by genetic factors. In some cases the disease is caused by mutation in a single gene and at that time severity depends on the presence of one or two mutated alleles. In other cases, renal disease is associated with the presence of alteration within a gene or genes, but environmental factors are also necessary for the development of disease...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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