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Alzheimer inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821008/trans-caryophyllene-inhibits-amyloid-%C3%AE-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-neuroinflammation-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#1
Yawei Hu, Ziling Zeng, Baojie Wang, Shougang Guo
Amyloid β (Aβ) is the major component of senile plaques (SP) in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and serves as an inflammatory stimulus for microglia. Trans-caryophyllene (TC), a major component in the essential oils derived from various species of medicinal plants, has displayed its neuro-protective effects in previous studies. However, whether TC has a protective role in AD remains unknown. In this study, the effects of TC on Aβ1-42-induced neuro-inflammation were investigated. We found that TC reduced the release of LDH in BV-2 microglial cells treated with Aβ1-42...
August 15, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816110/reduced-beta-amyloid-sensitivity-for-platelet-monocyte-aggregates-in-edta-blood-of-alzheimer-patients
#2
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by beta-amyloid plaques, Tau pathology, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Besides that, alterations in monocytes and platelets have been reported in the blood of Alzheimer patients. In the present study, we measured circulating levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates in EDTA blood of cognitively healthy participants and 40 AD patients, and examined their changes induced by stimulation with beta-amyloid peptides...
August 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#3
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811745/inhibition-of-inflammation-mediated-through-the-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-biochemical-pathway-can-lead-to-favorable-outcomes-in-alzheimer-disease
#5
REVIEW
Daniah Shamim, Michael Laskowski
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802916/brain-region-and-sex-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-function-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Wanda M Snow, Claudia Perez, Tak Pan Wong, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common late onset neurodegenerative disorder with indications that women are disproportionally affected. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been one of the most discussed hypotheses associated with the early onset and progression of AD, and it has been attributed to intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ). It was suggested that one of the possible mediators for Aβ-impaired mitochondrial function is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. NF-κB plays important roles in brain inflammation and antioxidant defense, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial function, and studies have confirmed altered NF-κB signaling in AD brain...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799796/immune-modulation-by-curcumin-the-role-of-interleukin-10
#7
Hamid Mollazadeh, Arrigo F G Cicero, Christopher N Blesso, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Cytokines are small secreted proteins released by different types of cells with specific effects on cellular signaling and communication via binding to their receptors on the cell surface. IL-10 is known to be a pleiotropic and potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine that is produced by both innate and adaptive immunity cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, natural killer cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, B cells, CD8(+) T cells, and TH1, TH2, and TH17 and regulatory T cells...
August 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798686/strong-association-between-plasma-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-activity-and-impaired-cognitive-function-in-elderly-population-with-normal-glucose-tolerance
#8
Bo Chen, Tianpeng Zheng, Linyuan Qin, Xueping Hu, Xiaoxi Zhang, Yihong Liu, Hongbo Liu, Shenghua Qin, Gang Li, Qinghua Li
Objective: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are risk factors for cognitive impairment. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) was identified as a novel adipokine capable of enhancing these risk factors. Hence, we investigated the relationship between plasma DPP4 activity and impaired cognitive function in elderly Chinese population with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 1229 elderly participants (60 years or older) in Guilin...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798667/the-foxp2-driven-network-in-developmental-disorders-and-neurodegeneration
#9
Franz Oswald, Patricia Klöble, André Ruland, David Rosenkranz, Bastian Hinz, Falk Butter, Sanja Ramljak, Ulrich Zechner, Holger Herlyn
The transcription repressor FOXP2 is a crucial player in nervous system evolution and development of humans and songbirds. In order to provide an additional insight into its functional role we compared target gene expression levels between human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) stably overexpressing FOXP2 cDNA of either humans or the common chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, and marmoset, respectively. RNA-seq led to identification of 27 genes with differential regulation under the control of human FOXP2, which were previously reported to have FOXP2-driven and/or songbird song-related expression regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798312/the-hypothesis-that-helicobacter-pylori-predisposes-to-alzheimer-s-disease-is-biologically-plausible
#10
Contaldi Felice, Capuano Federico, Fulgione Andrea, Aiese Cigliano Riccardo, Sanseverino Walter, Iannelli Domenico, Medaglia Chiara, Capparelli Rosanna
There is epidemiological evidence that H. pylori might predispose to Alzheimer's disease. To understand the cellular processes potentially linking such unrelated events, we incubated the human gastric cells MNK-28 with the H. pylori peptide Hp(2-20). We then monitored the activated genes by global gene expression. The peptide modulated 77 genes, of which 65 are listed in the AlzBase database and include the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease: APP, APOE, PSEN1, and PSEN2. A large fraction of modulated genes (30 out of 77) belong to the inflammation pathway...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794151/peripheral-inflammatory-markers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-175-studies
#11
Ka Sing P Lai, Celina S Liu, Allison Rau, Krista L Lanctôt, Cristiano A Köhler, Maureen Pakosh, André F Carvalho, Nathan Herrmann
OBJECTIVES: Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. This study quantitatively summarised the data on peripheral inflammatory markers in patients with AD compared with healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Original reports containing measurements of peripheral inflammatory markers in AD patients and HC were included for meta-analysis. Standardised mean differences were calculated using a random effects model. Meta-regression and exploration of heterogeneity was performed using publication year, age, gender, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, plasma versus serum measurements and immunoassay type...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790893/brain-and-peripheral-atypical-inflammatory-mediators-potentiate-neuroinflammation-and-neurodegeneration
#12
REVIEW
Duraisamy Kempuraj, Ramasamy Thangavel, Govindhasamy P Selvakumar, Smita Zaheer, Mohammad E Ahmed, Sudhanshu P Raikwar, Haris Zahoor, Daniyal Saeed, Prashant A Natteru, Shankar Iyer, Asgar Zaheer
Neuroinflammatory response is primarily a protective mechanism in the brain. However, excessive and chronic inflammatory responses can lead to deleterious effects involving immune cells, brain cells and signaling molecules. Neuroinflammation induces and accelerates pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuroinflammatory pathways are indicated as novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. Mast cells are immune cells of hematopoietic origin that regulate inflammation and upon activation release many proinflammatory mediators in systemic and central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790798/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-reporter-cell-line-for-investigation-of-neuroinflammation
#13
Marie-Theres Zeuner, Thomas Vallance, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri, Graeme S Cottrell, Darius Widera
Aberrant activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, as well as uncontrolled inflammation, has been linked to autoimmune diseases, development and progression of cancer, and neurological disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Reporter cell lines are a valuable state-of-the art tool for comparative analysis of in vitro drug screening. However, a reporter cell line for the investigation of NF-κB-driven neuroinflammation has not been available. Thus, we developed a stable neural NF-κB-reporter cell line to assess the potency of proinflammatory molecules and peptides, as well as anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790012/mdivi-1-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-via-the-suppression-of-inflammation-related-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-based-apoptosis
#14
Lin-Feng Fan, Ping-You He, Yu-Cong Peng, Qing-Hua Du, Yi-Jun Ma, Jian-Xiang Jin, Hang-Zhe Xu, Jian-Ru Li, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Sheng-Long Cao, Tao Li, Feng Yan, Chi Gu, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
Aberrant modulation of mitochondrial dynamic network, which shifts the balance of fusion and fission towards fission, is involved in brain damage of various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. A recent research has shown that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to characterize the effects of the inhibition of dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1, a dominator of mitochondrial fission) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuronal apoptosis following SAH and the potential mechanisms...
August 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782486/nf-kb-as-a-mediator-of-brain-inflammation-in-ad
#15
Jin Tae Hong
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by beta-amyloid peptide fibrils which are extracellular deposition of a specific protein, and is accompanied by extensive neuroinflammation. Various studies show the presence of a number of inflammation markers in the AD brain: elevated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and an accumulation of activated microglia in the damaged regions. NF-kB is a redox of transcriptional factors, and it is known to be located in the genes involved in amyloidogenesis and inflammation...
August 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770113/potential-roles-of-exosomal-micrornas-as-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-application-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Jian-Jiao Chen, Bin Zhao, Jie Zhao, Shao Li
Exosomes are bilipid layer-enclosed vesicles derived from endosomes and are released from neural cells. They contain a diversity of proteins, mRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs) that are delivered to neighboring cells and/or are transported to distant sites. miRNAs released from exosomes appear to be associated with multiple neurodegenerative conditions linking to Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is marked by hyperphosphorylated tau proteins and accumulation of Aβ plaques. Exciting findings reveal that miRNAs released from exosomes modulate the expression and function of amyloid precursor proteins (APP) and tau proteins...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770024/metformin-and-its-sulfenamide-prodrugs-inhibit-human-cholinesterase-activity
#17
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Joanna Sikora, Łukasz Mateusiak, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Kristiina M Huttunen
The results of epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may predispose to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The two conditions present similar glucose levels, insulin resistance, and biochemical etiologies such as inflammation and oxidative stress. The diabetic state also contributes to increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, which is one of the factors leading to neurodegeneration in AD. The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of metformin, phenformin, and metformin sulfenamide prodrugs on the activity of human AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and establish the type of inhibition...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769864/study-on-analysis-of-peripheral-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-diagnosis
#18
Palaniswamy Rani, Sreeram Krishnan, Chellappa Rani Cathrine
Many factors are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology including tau phosphorylation, amyloid β protein (Aβ) accumulation, lipid dysregulation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The markers of these pathological processes in cerebral spinal fluid are used currently for AD diagnosis. However, peripheral biomarkers are the need of the hour for large population screening for AD. The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the peripheral levels of redox markers, lipid peroxidation (LPO) indicators, and pathological markers in AD patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768545/trem2-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Taylor R Jay, Victoria E von Saucken, Gary E Landreth
TREM2 variants have been identified as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Because TREM2 encodes a receptor exclusively expressed on immune cells, identification of these variants conclusively demonstrates that the immune response can play an active role in the pathogenesis of NDDs. These TREM2 variants also confer the highest risk for developing Alzheimer's disease of any risk factor identified in nearly two decades, suggesting that understanding more about TREM2 function could provide key insights into NDD pathology and provide avenues for novel immune-related NDD biomarkers and therapeutics...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760679/amelioration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-retinal-inflammatory-responses-by-a-lxr-agonist-to901317-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-nlrp3-inflammasome
#20
Chunyan Lei, Ru Lin, Jiaming Wang, Lifei Tao, Xinyu Fu, Yiguo Qiu, Bo Lei
Amyloid β (Aβ) is a pathogenic peptide associated with many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The retinal inflammation in response to Aβ is implicated in the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases including age-related macular degeneration, Alzheimer's-related optic neuropathy and glaucoma. In the present study, we found that a single intravitreal injection of oligomeric Aβ1-40 in mouse activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and the NF-κB signaling, induced the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
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