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Alzheimer inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242722/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-tspo-pet-ligands-for-neuroinflammation-imaging-in-neurological-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Md Maqusood Alam, Jihye Lee, Sang-Yoon Lee
Neuroinflammation is heavily associated with various neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. It is strongly characterized by the activation of microglia which can be visualized using position emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the preferred target for imaging the inflammatory progression of the microglial component. TSPO is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and present in very low concentrations in the healthy human brain, but is markedly upregulated in response to brain injury and inflammation...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234304/hypothesis-on-the-role-of-cryptochromes-in-inflammation-and-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-outcome
#2
Adriano Barreto Nogueira, Ariel Barreto Nogueira, José Carlos Esteves Veiga, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
We have recently found that the temperature variability (TV) in the day-night cycle may predict the mean intracranial pressure in the following 24 h (ICP24) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients under multimodality monitoring, sedation, and hypothermia (<35°C). Specifically, we found that ICP24 = 6 (4 - TV) mmHg. TV is the ratio between the coefficient of variation of temperature during the nocturnal and the preceding diurnal periods. This result suggests that the circadian clock reflects brain plasticity mechanisms and its malfunctioning leads to deterioration of the neurologic status...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#3
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228711/at-seeming-safe-concentrations-synergistic-effects-of-pm2-5-and-formaldehyde-co-exposure-induces-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#4
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Chen Luo, Jun Kang, Jinquan Li, Kun Wang, Ping Ma, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Air pollution is a multi-pollutants co-exposure system, which may affect brain. The indoor environment is where exposure to both air particulate matter (<2.5 μm in diameter) (PM2.5) and formaldehyde (FA) can occur simultaneously. Whether exposure to such a multi-pollutant (PM2.5 plus FA) mixture contributes to the development of AD, and whether there is a difference between exposure to PM2...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227965/human-longevity-25-genetic-loci-associated-in-389-166-uk-biobank-participants
#5
Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, Kamil Sicinski, Jone Tamosauskaite, George A Kuchel, Lorna W Harries, Pamela Herd, Robert Wallace, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer
We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of parental longevity in European descent UK Biobank participants. For combined mothers' and fathers' attained age, 10 loci were associated (p<5*10-8), including 8 previously identified for traits including survival, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease. Of these, 4 were also associated with longest 10% survival (mothers age ≥90 years, fathers ≥87 years), with 2 additional associations including MC2R intronic variants (coding for the adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor)...
December 6, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225140/reactive-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-double-edged-sword
#6
REVIEW
Heejung Chun, C Justin Lee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic and fatal disease, in which neuronal damage at its late stage cannot be easily reversed. Because AD progression is caused by multiple factors including diverse cellular processes, studies on AD pathogenesis at the molecular and cellular level are challenging. Based on the lessons from unsuccessful neuron-focused research for an AD cure, non-cell autonomous mechanisms including brain inflammation and reactive astrocytes have recently been in the spotlight as potential therapeutic targets for AD...
December 7, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224179/antidiabetic-polypill-improves-central-pathology-and-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mixed-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-type-2-diabetes
#7
Carmen Infante-Garcia, Juan Jose Ramos-Rodriguez, Carmen Hierro-Bujalance, Esperanza Ortegon, Eleanor Pickett, Rosemary Jackson, Fernando Hernandez-Pacho, Tara Spires-Jones, Monica Garcia-Alloza
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an important risk factor to suffer dementia, being Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the most common form. Both AD and T2D are closely related to aging and with a growing elderly population it might be of relevance to explore new therapeutic approaches that may slow or prevent central complications associated with metabolic disorders. Therefore, we propose the use of the antidiabetic polypill (PP), a pharmacological cocktail, commonly used by T2D patients that include metformin, aspirin, simvastatin, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223769/obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-alzheimer-s-disease-in-search-of-shared-pathomechanisms
#8
REVIEW
D Polsek, N Gildeh, D Cash, R Winsky-Sommerer, S C R Williams, F Turkheimer, G D Leschziner, M J Morrell, I Rosenzweig
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a significant public health concern. The incidence continues to rise, and it is set to be over one million in the UK by 2025. The processes involved in the pathogenesis of AD have been shown to overlap with those found in cognitive decline in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA). Currently, the standard treatment for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. Adherence to treatment can, however, be an issue, especially in patients with dementia. Also, not all patients respond adequately, necessitating the use of additional treatments...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223680/dysregulation-of-c-x-c-motif-ligand-10-during-aging-and-association-with-cognitive-performance
#9
Steven Bradburn, Jamie McPhee, Liam Bagley, Michael Carroll, Mark Slevin, Nasser Al-Shanti, Yoann Barnouin, Jean-Yves Hogrel, Mati Pääsuke, Helena Gapeyeva, Andrea Maier, Sarianna Sipilä, Marco Narici, Andrew Robinson, David Mann, Antony Payton, Neil Pendleton, Gillian Butler-Browne, Chris Murgatroyd
Chronic low-grade inflammation during aging (inflammaging) is associated with cognitive decline and neurodegeneration; however, the mechanisms underlying inflammaging are unclear. We studied a population (n = 361) of healthy young and old adults from the MyoAge cohort. Peripheral levels of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) was found to be higher in older adults, compared with young, and negatively associated with working memory performance. This coincided with an age-related reduction in blood DNA methylation at specific CpGs within the CXCL10 gene promoter...
November 23, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223600/trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-is-an-amyloid-%C3%AE-disaggregating-and-anti-inflammatory-drug-in-a-mouse-primary-cellular-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Elodie Vion, Guylène Page, Eric Bourdeaud, Marc Paccalin, Jérôme Guillard, Agnès Rioux Bilan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by several cellular and molecular damage. Therefore, the therapeutic interest of multi-target molecules is increasingly justified. Polyphenols presenting multiple pharmacological effects would be more efficient. In this study, beneficial effects of trans ε-viniferin, a natural polyphenol were thus evaluated. This study reported that this stilbenoid (1) induced the disaggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide and (2) rescued inflammation in murine primary neuronal cultures. These both effects are higher than those of resveratrol, and so, trans ε-viniferin could be a good therapeutic multi-target candidate...
December 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219064/natural-product-formulations-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-patent-review
#11
Rumiana Koynova, Boris Tenchov
INTRODUCTION: Although considerable efforts have been made to develop effective therapeutic agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD), neither a consensus concerning the pathogenesis of the disease nor a successful therapy for its treatment is available. The natural product chemistry brings tremendous diversity and abundant resource for medical needs. OBJECTIVES: The present review summarizes recent patents on natural extracts and derived drugs as agents for prevention and treatment of AD...
December 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213501/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-pathophysiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Aparecida Marcelino de Nazareth
Both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are two common forms of disease worldwide and many studies indicate that people with diabetes, especially DM, are at higher risk of developing AD. AD is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) forming senile plaques. DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin. Both diseases also share common characteristics such as loss of cognitive function and inflammation...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211044/similarity-and-differences-in-inflammation-related-characteristics-of-the-peripheral-immune-system-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Anna A Boyko, Natalya I Troyanova, Elena I Kovalenko, Alexander M Sapozhnikov
Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Both diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation in the brain-neuroinflammation. The first signs of PD and AD are most often manifested in old age, in which the immune system is usually characterized by chronic inflammation, so-called "inflammaging" In recent years, there is growing evidence that pathogenesis of these diseases is connected with both regional and peripheral immune processes...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210299/new-cyclopentaquinoline-hybrids-with-multifunctional-capacities-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Karolina Maciejewska, Robert Skibiński, Jakub Jończyk, Marek Bajda, Jacek Kabziński, Przemysław Sołowiej, Ireneusz Majsterek, Paweł Szymański
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of brain neurodegeneration and the most prevailing cause of dementia. Unfortunately, the aetiology of AD is not completely studied but different factors are associated with the development of AD such as among others low level of acetylcholine, aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The study encompass organic syntheses of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline with 5,6-dichloronicotinic acid and suitable linkers derivatives as multifunctional agents for AD treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210129/effect-of-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-on-aging-and-longevity
#15
REVIEW
Yi-Rong Li, Shiming Li, Chi-Chien Lin
Over the past years, several studies have found that foods rich in polyphenols protect against age-related disease, such as atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, cataracts, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension and Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol and pterostilbene, the polyphenol found in grape and blueberries, have beneficial effects as anti-aging compounds through modulating the hallmarks of aging, including oxidative damage, inflammation, telomere attrition and cell senescence...
December 6, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210074/white-matter-degeneration-in-vascular-and-other-ageing-related-dementias
#16
REVIEW
Yoshika Hase, Karen Horsburgh, Masafumi Ihara, Raj N Kalaria
Advances in neuroimaging have enabled greater understanding of the progression of cerebral degenerative processes associated with ageing-related dementias. Leukoaraiosis or rarefied white matter (WM) originally described on computed tomography is one of the most prominent changes which occurs in older age. White matter hyperintensities (WMH) evident on magnetic resonance imaging have become commonplace to describe WM changes in relation to cognitive dysfunction, types of stroke injury, cerebral small vessel disease and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201176/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies-on-the-roles-of-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Yunyi Yao, Jin-Zhong Huang, Liang Chen, Yingqi Chen, Xianhong Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity rate. As one of the most important signaling pathways that responds to inflammation and degeneration, the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is active in the cortexes of AD mice. At the cellular level the same effect can be observed with p38 MAPK when induced by amyloid β (Aβ)1-42, a 42-residue Aβ fragment. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in the present study protected SH-SY5Y cells from the toxicity of Aβ1-42, and alleviated the formation of senile plaques and cognitive impairment in AD mice...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201154/lymphatic-system-and-gut-microbiota-affect-immunopathology-of-neuroinflammatory-diseases-including-multiple-sclerosis-neuromyelitis-optica-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Ikuo Tsunoda
Microbial infections lead to neurological damages either by direct infection in the nervous tissues or by uncontrolled immune responses (immunopathology). For example, in Zika virus infection, microcephaly can be caused by the former, i.e., direct viral infection in the brain, while Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) seems to be antibody-mediated immunopathology. Although a variety of factors affect immunopathology, two essential systems maintaining whole-body homeostasis had long been neglected: 1) the lymphatic system and 2) microbiota...
August 2017: Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200096/tgf-%C3%AE-1-protection-against-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-inflammation-and-apoptosis-by-t%C3%AE-r-i
#19
Xiao-Xia Fang, Gao-Lin Sun, Yi Zhou, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common chronic neurodegenerative disease, is pathologically characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles because of hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and extracellular deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein termed senile plaques. Recent studies indicate that neuronal apoptosis caused by chronic neuroinflammation is one of the important pathogenesis of AD. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties...
December 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199872/inflammation-and-cognition-in-older-adults-evidence-from-taiwan
#20
Megan A Todd
Inflammation has been linked to clinical cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease. Less is known, however, about the relationship between inflammation and normal, age-associated cognitive decline. An understanding of the determinants of all types of cognitive decline is important for improving quality of life in an aging world. This study investigated whether biomarkers of inflammation were associated with cognitive function and decline in older Taiwanese adults. Data were from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging and the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study...
2017: Biodemography and Social Biology
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