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Alzheimer inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731428/development-of-nasal-lipid-nanocarriers-containing-curcumin-for-brain-targeting
#1
Gustavo Richter Vaz, Gabriela Hädrich, Juliana Bidone, Jamile Lima Rodrigues, Mariana Corrêa Falkembach, Jean-Luc Putaux, Mariana Appel Hort, José Maria Monserrat, Antônio Sergio Varela Junior, Helder Ferreira Teixeira, Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Paula Horn, Cristiana Lima Dora
BACKGROUND: Curcumin (CUR) has properties that can be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Such properties are the inhibition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, Aβ-induced inflammation, and activities of β-secretase and acetylcholinesterase. However, previous studies have revealed that CUR exhibited low bioavailability and difficulties in reaching the brain. OBJECTIVE: To overcome such drawbacks, this study aims at developing nasal lipid nanocarriers loaded with CUR to effectively target the brain...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730967/microglia-and-astrocytes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-for-therapy
#2
Marc Fakhoury
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of neurons, which typically leads to severe impairments in cognitive functions including memory and learning. Key pathological features of this disease include the deposition of highly insoluble amyloid β peptide and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the brain. Over the past few years, mounting evidence has implicated sustained glial-mediated inflammation as a major contributor of the neurodegenerative processes and cognitive deficits observed in AD...
July 19, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729832/the-role-of-microglia-in-retinal-neurodegeneration-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-and-glaucoma
#3
REVIEW
Ana I Ramirez, Rosa de Hoz, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Juan J Salazar, Blanca Rojas, Daniel Ajoy, Inés López-Cuenca, Pilar Rojas, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720893/nanoplasmonic-fiber-tip-probe-detects-significant-reduction-of-intracellular-alzheimer-s-disease-related-oligomers-by-curcumin
#4
Feng Liang, Yu Wan, Diane Schaak, Joseph Ward, Xunuo Shen, Rudolph E Tanzi, Can Zhang, Qimin Quan
Considerable evidence shows critical roles of intracellular pathogenic events of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, intracellular amyloid-β accumulation and oligomerization are early AD pathologic processes, which may lead to changes in inflammatory molecules and other AD-related pathological components. Curcumin and its analogs have been identified as potential drug candidates for AD. However, the effects of curcumin on intracellular AD pathologic processes remain largely unknown. Here we utilized a recently developed nanoplasmonic fiber tip probe (nFTP) technology and investigated whether curcumin leads to intracellular AD pathologic changes...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720101/drug-candidates-in-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Shih-Ya Hung, Wen-Mei Fu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major form of senile dementia, characterized by progressive memory and neuronal loss combined with cognitive impairment. AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting one-fifth of those aged over 85 years. Recent therapeutic approaches have been strongly influenced by five neuropathological hallmarks of AD: acetylcholine deficiency, glutamate excitotoxicity, extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ plague), formation of intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NTFs), and neuroinflammation...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720071/developmental-expression-and-dysregulation-of-mir-146a-and-mir-155-in-down-s-syndrome-and-mouse-models-of-down-s-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
A Arena, A M Iyer, I Milenkovic, G G Kovács, I Ferrer, M Perluigi, E Aronica
miR-146a and miR-155 are key regulators of the innate immune response. We hypothesized that an inflammation-mediated dysregulation of these miRNAs may occur in patients with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The miRNA expression patterns were investigated by in situ hybridization in developing hippocampus from controls, patients with DS and in adults with AD pathology (DS and sporadic AD; sAD). quantitative real-time PCR was employed to evaluate the miRNA levels in the hippocampus of sAD and in mouse models of DS and AD...
July 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719891/serum-interleukin-10-levels-correlate-with-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-beta-deposition-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#7
Lucio D'Anna, Samir Abu-Rumeileh, Martina Fabris, Cinzia Pistis, Antonio Baldi, Nova Sanvilli, Francesco Curcio, Gian Luigi Gigli, Sebastiano D'Anna, Mariarosaria Valente
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Alzheimer disease (AD) inflammation becomes evident throughout the course of the disease. However, the association between inflammation, cognitive impairment, and cerebrospinal biomarkers (Aβ42, t-tau, p-tau181, and Aβ42/p-tau181 ratio) is poorly understood. METHODS: A large panel of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor) was analyzed using a multiplex immunoassay in 27 patients with a diagnosis of AD dementia and in 18 control subjects...
July 19, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719625/differences-of-immune-disorders-between-alzheimer-s-disease-and-breast-cancer-based-on-transcriptional-regulation
#8
Wei Kong, Xiaoyang Mou, Jin Deng, Benteng Di, Ruxing Zhong, Shuaiqun Wang, Yang Yang, Weiming Zeng
Although chronic inflammation and immune disorders are of great importance to the pathogenesis of both dementia and cancer, the pathophysiological mechanisms are not clearly understood. In recent years, growing epidemiological evidence and meta-analysis data suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the most common form of dementia, and cancer. It has been revealed that some common genes and biological processes play opposite roles in AD and cancer; however, the biological immune mechanism for the inverse association is not clearly defined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716532/multivariate-analyses-of-peripheral-blood-leukocyte-transcripts-distinguish-alzheimer-s-parkinson-s-control-and-those-at-risk-for-developing-alzheimer-s
#9
Elaine Delvaux, Diego Mastroeni, Jennifer Nolz, Nienwen Chow, Marwan Sabbagh, Richard J Caselli, Eric M Reiman, Frederick J Marshall, Paul D Coleman
The need for a reliable, simple, and inexpensive blood test for Alzheimer's disease (AD) suitable for use in a primary care setting is widely recognized. This has led to a large number of publications describing blood tests for AD, which have, for the most part, not been replicable. We have chosen to examine transcripts expressed by the cellular, leukocyte compartment of blood. We have used hypothesis-based cDNA arrays and quantitative PCR to quantify the expression of selected sets of genes followed by multivariate analyses in multiple independent samples...
June 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713239/increased-white-matter-inflammation-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-brain
#10
Divya Raj, Zhuoran Yin, Marjolein Breur, Janine Doorduin, Inge R Holtman, Marta Olah, Ietje J Mantingh-Otter, Debby Van Dam, Peter P De Deyn, Wilfred den Dunnen, Bart J L Eggen, Sandra Amor, Erik Boddeke
Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712011/fgf21-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-cognitive-impairment-via-metabolic-regulation-and-anti-inflammation-of-obese-mice
#11
Qingzhi Wang, Jing Yuan, Zhanyang Yu, Li Lin, Yinghua Jiang, Zeyuan Cao, Pengwei Zhuang, Michael J Whalen, Bo Song, Xiao-Jie Wang, Xiaokun Li, Eng H Lo, Yuming Xu, Xiaoying Wang
Accumulating studies suggest that overnutrition-associated obesity may lead to development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromes (MetS). MetS and its components are important risk factors of mild cognitive impairment, age-related cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. It has been recently proposed that development of a disease-course modification strategy toward early and effective risk factor management would be clinically significant in reducing the risk of metabolic disorder-initiated cognitive decline...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709449/a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-candidate-targeting-inflammation-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#12
Daniel Daugherty, Joshua Goldberg, Wolfgang Fischer, Richard Dargusch, Pamela Maher, David Schubert
BACKGROUND: CAD-31 is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate that was selected on the basis of its ability to stimulate the replication of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells as well as in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 AD mice. To move CAD-31 toward the clinic, experiments were undertaken to determine its neuroprotective and pharmacological properties, as well as to assay its therapeutic efficacy in a rigorous mouse model of AD. RESULTS: CAD-31 has potent neuroprotective properties in six distinct nerve cell assays that mimic toxicities observed in the old brain...
July 14, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707482/peripheral-inflammation-apolipoprotein-e4-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-induce-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-dysfunction
#13
Felecia M Marottoli, Yuriko Katsumata, Kevin P Koster, Riya Thomas, David W Fardo, Leon M Tai
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is rapidly reemerging as a major process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is, therefore, crucial to delineate the roles of AD risk factors in cerebrovascular dysfunction. While apolipoprotein E4 ( APOE4), Amyloid-β (Aβ), and peripheral inflammation independently induce cerebrovascular damage, their collective effects remain to be elucidated. The goal of this study was to determine the interactive effect of APOE4, Aβ, and chronic repeated peripheral inflammation on cerebrovascular and cognitive dysfunction in vivo...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707073/protective-effects-of-spatholobi-caulis-extract-on-neuronal-damage-and-focal-ischemic-stroke-reperfusion-injury
#14
Hee Ra Park, Heeeun Lee, Jung-Jin Lee, Nam-Hui Yim, Min-Jung Gu, Jin Yeul Ma
Neuronal apoptotic cell death plays an important role in many neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic stroke. Spatholobi Caulis (SC) has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, inflammation, viral infection, and anemia. However, the protective effects of SC extract (SCE) against apoptotic cell death in the brain have not been reported. We investigated the protective effects of SCE against neuronal injury etoposide-induced neurotoxicity and in rats subjected to focal transient ischemic stroke middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45 min, followed by 7 days of reperfusion...
July 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706608/the-effects-of-melilotus-officinalis-extract-on-expression-of-daxx-nfkb-and-vegf-genes-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Niloofar Bazazzadegan, Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Kioomars Saliminejad, Koorosh Kamali, Mehdi Banan, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid
BACKGROUND: Possible mechanisms of Alzheimer Disease (AD) such as inflammation and oxidative stresses in the brain led us to investigate potential AD therapeutics of Melilotus officinalis, an herbal extract, with possible role as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. Among different genes which had important role in Sporadic AD (SAD), three genes including DAXX, NFkB and VEGF have shown significant statistical diversity in the brains of Alzheimer patients. METHODS: These genes were chosen to be investigated for neuroprotective effects of the extract by comparing the expression level in the hippocampus of Sporadic AD (SAD) rat model using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the treated and untreated groups...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705658/disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-down-syndrome-role-of-iron-dysmetabolism
#16
REVIEW
Eugenio Barone, Andrea Arena, Elizabeth Head, D Allan Butterfield, Marzia Perluigi
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic form of intellectual disability that leads in the majority of cases to development of early-onset Alzheimer-like dementia (AD). The neuropathology of DS has several common features with AD including alteration of redox homeostasis, mitochondrial deficits, and inflammation among others. Interestingly, some of the genes encoded by chromosome 21 are responsible of increased oxidative stress (OS) conditions that are further exacerbated by decreased antioxidant defense...
July 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701379/loss-of-clusterin-shifts-amyloid-deposition-to-the-cerebrovasculature-via-disruption-of-perivascular-drainage-pathways
#17
Aleksandra M Wojtas, Silvia S Kang, Benjamin M Olley, Maureen Gatherer, Mitsuru Shinohara, Patricia A Lozano, Chia-Chen Liu, Aishe Kurti, Kelsey E Baker, Dennis W Dickson, Mei Yue, Leonard Petrucelli, Guojun Bu, Roxana O Carare, John D Fryer
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition in brain parenchyma as plaques and in cerebral blood vessels as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). CAA deposition leads to several clinical complications, including intracerebral hemorrhage. The underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate plaque and CAA deposition in the vast majority of sporadic AD patients remain unclear. The clusterin (CLU) gene is genetically associated with AD and CLU has been shown to alter aggregation, toxicity, and blood-brain barrier transport of Aβ, suggesting it might play a key role in regulating the balance between Aβ deposition and clearance in both brain and blood vessels...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698968/inhibition-of-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-enhances-gene-expression-of-selected-sirtuins-and-app-cleaving-enzymes-in-amyloid-beta-cytotoxicity
#18
Przemysław L Wencel, Walter J Lukiw, Joanna B Strosznajder, Robert Piotr Strosznajder
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and sirtuins (SIRTs) are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism, transcription, and DNA repair. Alterations of these enzymes may play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous results indicated that amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and inflammation led to activation of PARP1 and cell death. This study focused on a role of PARP1 in the regulation of gene expression for SIRTs and beta-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) cleaving enzymes under Aβ42 oligomers (AβO) toxicity in pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697565/the-relationship-between-markers-of%C3%A2-inflammation-and-degeneration-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-central-nervous-system-and%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Paweł Muszyński, Agnieszka Kulczyńska-Przybik, Renata Borawska, Ala Litman-Zawadzka, Agnieszka Słowik, Aleksandra Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Joanna Pera, Tomasz Dziedzic, Barbara Mroczko
BACKGROUND: It is known that YKL-40- a marker of glial inflammation, and VILIP-1- a marker of neuronal injury, reflect functional and structural changes in AD brains, although there is limited data concerning their potential influence on blood-brain barrier (BBB) homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between markers of inflammation and degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as immunological response in CNS and BBB function...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696433/elevated-plasma-ferritin-in-elderly-individuals-with-high-neocortical-amyloid-%C3%AE-load
#20
K Goozee, P Chatterjee, I James, K Shen, H R Sohrabi, P R Asih, P Dave, C ManYan, K Taddei, S J Ayton, M L Garg, J B Kwok, A I Bush, R Chung, J S Magnussen, R N Martins
Ferritin, an iron storage and regulation protein, has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, it has not been investigated in preclinical AD, detected by neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL), before cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional analyses were carried out for plasma and serum ferritin in participants in the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Aging Health cohort. Subjects were aged 65-90 years and were categorized into high and low NAL groups via positron emission tomography using a standard uptake value ratio cutoff=1...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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