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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351657/characterization-of-the-spatial-and-temporal-distribution-of-nipah-virus-spillover-events-in-bangladesh-2007-2013
#1
Maria C Cortes, Simon Cauchemez, Noemie Lefrancq, Stephen P Luby, M Jahangir Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Peter Daszak, Henrik Salje, Emily S Gurley
Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus, harbored by bats and lethal to humans. Bat to human spillovers occur every winter in Bangladesh. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the number of spillovers detected by district and year that remains unexplained. We analyzed data from all 57 spillovers from 2007-2013 and found that temperature differences explained 36% of the year-to-year variation in the total number of spillovers each winter while distance to surveillance hospitals explained 45% of spatial heterogeneity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351076/parasites-in-stray-dogs-from-italy-prevalence-risk-factors-and-management-concerns
#2
Claudio De Liberato, Federica Berrilli, Livio Odorizi, Roberto Scarcella, Marco Barni, Cristina Amoruso, Alessia Scarito, Margherita Montalbano Di Filippo, Andrea Carvelli, Francesca Iacoponi, Paola Scaramozzino
Parasites are among the most common pathogens recorded in dogs. High prevalence rates are usually reported in stray and shelter dogs, as these animals are less likely to be tested and treated. In this study a survey was carried out on intestinal and lung parasites of stray dogs at the moment of the admission in a shelter in Central Italy. In the period June 2014-June 2015, 262 individual faecal samples were examined. Twelve parasitic taxa were detected. Helminths were more prevalent than protozoa (61.8% and 25...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351071/a-frequent-roundworm-baylisascaris-transfuga-in-overpopulated-brown-bears-ursus-arctos-in-slovakia-a-problem-worthy-of-attention
#3
Gabriela Štrkolcová, Mária Goldová, Viliam Šnábel, Marta Špakulová, Tatiana Orosová, Miloš Halán, Jana Mojžišová
The genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida) includes numerous relatively host-specific nematodes, which are common in intestines of wild mammals. Some of them may have impact on veterinary and public health, as their larvae have the potential to cause visceral, ocular, and/or neural larva migrans in a wide range of mammals, birds, and humans. Baylisascaris transfuga is a parasite occurring in a range of bear species throughout the world. We present the current data on B. transfuga occurrence in brown bears from a relatively restricted territory of the Poľana Protected Landscape Area in Central Slovakia, obtained by traditional methods (faecal examination, morphology)...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350589/epidemiological-investigation-and-genotype-of-chlamydia-exposure-in-pigeons-in-three-provinces-in-northern-china
#4
Xin Wang, Nian-Zhang Zhang, Chun-Feng Ma, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Quan Zhao, Hong-Bo Ni
Chlamydia is considered as one of the most widely prevalent zoonotic pathogens. It can spread from infected birds to human beings through direct or indirect contact with fecal shedding of Chlamydia. However, data concerning prevalence and genotypes of Chlamydia in pigeons are limited. In the present study, a total of 963 serum samples was collected from Jilin Province, Liaoning Province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) in China between August 2015 and December 2016 and the seroprevalence for Chlamydia was analyzed by indirect hemagglutination assay test...
January 19, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350404/gastrointestinal-protists-and-helminths-of-habituated-agile-mangabeys-cercocebus-agilis-at-bai-hokou-central-african-republic
#5
Barbora Pafčo, Zuzana Tehlárová, Kateřina Jirků Pomajbíková, Angelique Todd, Hideo Hasegawa, Klára J Petrželková, David Modrý
Infectious diseases including those caused by parasites can be a major threat to the conservation of endangered species. There is thus a great need for studies describing parasite infections of these species in the wild. Here we present data on parasite diversity in an agile mangabey (Cercocebus agilis) group in Bai Hokou, Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas (DSPA), Central African Republic. We coproscopically analyzed 140 mangabey fecal samples by concentration techniques (flotation and sedimentation). Agile mangabeys hosted a broad diversity of protistan parasites/commensals, namely amoebas (Entamoeba spp...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350160/effects-of-culling-on-leptospira-interrogans-carriage-by-rats
#6
Michael J Lee, Kaylee A Byers, Christina M Donovan, Julie J Bidulka, Craig Stephen, David M Patrick, Chelsea G Himsworth
We found that lethal, urban rat control is associated with a significant increase in the odds that surviving rats carry Leptospira interrogans. Our results suggest that human interventions have the potential to affect and even increase the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens within rat populations.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349897/antibiogram-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-with-zoonotic-potential-isolated-from-morbid-native-chickens-and-pigeons-in-egypt
#7
E Abdeen, W Elmonir, I I A Suelam, W S Mousa
AIMS: This study investigated the possible role of Fayoumi chickens and pigeons in the transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella with zoonotic potential. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morbid Fayoumi chickens (70) and pigeons (30) were examined to detect the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella and to detect and sequence sodC-1 gene as a zoonotic and phylogenetic marker. Salmonella isolates were detected in 14.3% and 20% of the examined Fayoumi chickens and pigeons, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346413/genetic-diversity-and-potential-routes-of-transmission-of-mycobacterium-bovis-in-mozambique
#8
Adelina Machado, Teresa Rito, Solomon Ghebremichael, Nuelma Muhate, Gabriel Maxhuza, Custodia Macuamule, Ivania Moiane, Baltazar Macucule, Angelica Suzana Marranangumbe, Jorge Baptista, Joaquim Manguele, Tuija Koivula, Elizabeth Maria Streicher, Robin Mark Warren, Gunilla Kallenius, Paul van Helden, Margarida Correia-Neves
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease with largely unknown impact in Africa, with risk factors such as HIV and direct contact with animals or consumption of Mycobacterium bovis infected animal products. In order to understand and quantify this risk and design intervention strategies, good epidemiological studies are needed. Such studies can include molecular typing of M. bovis isolates. The aim of this study was to apply these tools to provide novel information concerning the distribution of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in Mozambique and thereby provide relevant information to guide policy development and strategies to contain the disease in livestock, and reduce the risk associated with transmission to humans...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346277/vaccinia-virus-in-blood-samples-of-humans-domestic-and-wild-mammals-in-brazil
#9
Marina G Peres, Thais S Bacchiega, Camila M Appolinário, Acácia F Vicente, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Bruna L D Ribeiro, Clóvis R S Fonseca, Vanessa C Pelícia, Fernando Ferreira, Graziele P Oliveira, Jonatas S Abrahão, Jane Megid
Outbreaks of Vaccinia virus (VACV) affecting cattle and humans have been reported in Brazil in the last 15 years, but the origin of outbreaks remains unknown. Although VACV DNA have been already detected in mice (Mus musculus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and dogs during VACV zoonotic outbreaks, no transmission to cattle or humans from any of these were reported during Brazilian outbreaks. In this work, we assessed the PCR positivity to VACV in blood samples of cows and other domestic mammals, wild rodents and other wild mammals, and humans from areas with or without VACV infection reports...
January 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344803/toxoplasma-gondii-prevalence-and-characterization-of-new-genotypes-in-free-range-chickens-from-south-brazil
#10
Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves Vieira, João Pedro Sasse, Ana Flávia Minutti, Ana Carolina Miura, Luiz Daniel de Barros, Sergio Tosi Cardim, Thais Agostinho Martins, Mércia de Seixas, Milton Issashi Yamamura, Chunlei Su, João Luis Garcia
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Recent studies showed that T. gondii strains from South America are genetically diverse. The present work aimed to determine T. gondii prevalence in free-ranging chicken in northwest Parana state in Brazil by two serological tests, to isolate the parasites from seropositive chickens and to genotype the isolates. Antibodies to T. gondii in 386 serum samples from 24 farms were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and modified agglutination test (MAT)...
January 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344801/toxoplasma-gondii-in-sympatric-domestic-and-wild-ungulates-in-the-mediterranean-ecosystem
#11
S Almería, O Cabezón, J Paniagua, D Cano-Terriza, S Jiménez-Ruiz, A Arenas-Montes, J P Dubey, I García-Bocanegra
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan of worldwide distribution. The present study provides information on risk factors affecting T. gondii infection in domestic and free-ranging wild ungulates sharing habitats in Mediterranean ecosystems in Spain. Serum samples from 482 extensively reared domestic ruminants and 2351 wild ungulates were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut-off 1:25). Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was 41.2% of 194 sheep, 18.6% of 199 cattle and 5...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343491/mexicans-head-off-spread-of-zoonotic-tuberculosis
#12
Jacqui Thornton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340657/ixodes-scapularis-acari-ixodidae-reservoir-host-diversity-and-abundance-impacts-on-dilution-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-spirochaetales-spirochaetaceae-in-residential-and-woodland-habitats-in-connecticut-united-states
#13
Megan A Linske, Scott C Williams, Kirby C Stafford, Isaac M Ortega
The dilution effect in the zoonotic disease transmission cycle theorizes that an increased diversity of host species will alter transmission dynamics, result in a decrease in pathogen prevalence, and potentially lower human disease incidence. The interrelationship of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiological agent of Lyme disease (LD), and its primary vector, blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), is a commonly used example of the dilution effect, suggesting that an increased diversity of host species will be found in large, undisturbed forested tracts and lower diversity in fragmented forests...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340468/serosurvey-of-leptospira-spp-and-toxoplasma-gondii-in-rats-captured-from-two-zoos-in-southern-brazil
#14
Maysa Pellizzaro, Francisco de Oliveira Conrado, Camila Marinelli Martins, Sâmea Fernandes Joaquim, Fernando Ferreira, Helio Langoni, Alexander Welker Biondo
INTRODUCTION: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. METHODS: Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340212/40-years-without-smallpox
#15
G A Shchelkunova, S N Shchelkunov
The last case of natural smallpox was recorded in October, 1977. It took humanity almost 20 years to achieve that feat after the World Health Organization had approved the global smallpox eradication program. Vaccination against smallpox was abolished, and, during the past 40 years, the human population has managed to lose immunity not only to smallpox, but to other zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections as well. As a result, multiple outbreaks of orthopoxvirus infections in humans in several continents have been reported over the past decades...
October 2017: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338807/genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-in-non-primate-animals
#16
Emma L Betts, Eleni Gentekaki, Adele Thomasz, Vicki Breakell, Angus I Carpenter, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Blastocystis is an anaerobic protist, commonly inhabiting the intestinal tract of both humans and other animals. Blastocystis is extremely diverse comprising 17 genetically distinct subtypes in mammals and birds. Pathogenicity of this enteric microbe is currently disputed and knowledge regarding its distribution, diversity and zoonotic potential is fragmentary. Most research has focused on Blastocystis from primates, while sampling from other animals remains limited. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis in animals held within a conservation park in South East England...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337996/occupational-exposure-to-human-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-a-systematic-review
#17
Flora Vayr, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Frederic Savall, Jean-Marc Soulat, Gaëtan Deffontaines, Fabrice Herin
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is the main causative agent of bovine zoonotic tuberculosis. The aim of this systematic review is to highlight the occupational exposure to bovine tuberculosis due to M. bovis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A computer based literature search was carried out to identify papers published between January 2006 and March 2017. "PubMed, Cochrane Library and Science Direct" databases were searched systematically. Articles presenting the following properties were included: (i) focusing on M...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336306/mers-cov-spillover-at-the-camel-human-interface
#18
Gytis Dudas, Luiz Max Carvalho, Andrew Rambaut, Trevor Bedford
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus from camels causing significant mortality and morbidity in humans in the Arabian Peninsula. The epidemiology of the virus remains poorly understood, and while case-based and seroepidemiological studies have been employed extensively throughout the epidemic, viral sequence data have not been utilised to their full potential. Here we use existing MERS-CoV sequence data to explore its phylodynamics in two of its known major hosts, humans and camels...
January 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331670/circulation-of-alphacoronavirus-betacoronavirus-and-paramyxovirus-in-hipposideros-bat-species-in-zimbabwe
#19
Mathieu Bourgarel, Davies M Pfukenyi, Vanina Boué, Loïc Talignani, Ngoni Chiweshe, Fodé Diop, Alexandre Caron, Gift Matope, Dorothée Missé, Florian Liégeois
Bats carry a great diversity of zoonotic viruses with a high-impact on human health and livestock. Since the emergence of new coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses in humans (e.g. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Nipah virus), numerous studies clearly established that bats can maintain some of these viruses. Improving our understanding on the role of bats in the epidemiology of the pathogens they harbour is necessary to prevent cross-species spill over along the wild/domestic/human gradient...
January 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330674/advances-in-serological-imaging-techniques-and-molecular-diagnosis-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#20
REVIEW
Ali Rostami, Panagiotis Karanis, Shirzad Fallahi
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is worldwide distributed zoonotic infection disease with medical importance in immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and congenitally infected newborns. Having basic information on the traditional and new developed methods is essential for general physicians and infectious disease specialists for choosing a suitable diagnostic approach for rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease and, consequently, timely and effective treatment. METHODS: We conducted English literature searches in PubMed from 1989 to 2016 using relevant keywords and summarized the recent advances in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis...
January 12, 2018: Infection
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