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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156539/epidemiological-investigations-of-four-cowpox-virus-outbreaks-in-alpaca-herds-germany
#1
Almut Prkno, Donata Hoffmann, Daniela Goerigk, Matthias Kaiser, Anne Catherine Franscisca van Maanen, Kathrin Jeske, Maria Jenckel, Florian Pfaff, Thomas W Vahlenkamp, Martin Beer, Rainer G Ulrich, Alexander Starke, Martin Pfeffer
Four cowpox virus (CPXV) outbreaks occurred in unrelated alpaca herds in Eastern Germany during 2012-2017. All incidents were initially noticed due to severe, generalized, and finally lethal CPXV infections, which were confirmed by testing of tissue and serum samples. As CPXV-infection has been described in South American camelids (SACs) only three times, all four herds were investigated to gain a deeper understanding of CPXV epidemiology in alpacas. The different herds were investigated twice, and various samples (serum, swab samples, and crusts of suspicious pox lesions, feces) were taken to identify additionally infected animals...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155664/prioritizing-zoonoses-for-global-health-capacity-building-themes-from-one-health-zoonotic-disease-workshops-in-7-countries-2014-2016
#2
Stephanie J Salyer, Rachel Silver, Kerri Simone, Casey Barton Behravesh
Zoonotic diseases represent critical threats to global health security. Effective mitigation of the impact of endemic and emerging zoonotic diseases of public health importance requires multisectoral collaboration and interdisciplinary partnerships. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention created the One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization Tool to help countries identify zoonotic diseases of greatest national concern using input from representatives of human health, agriculture, environment, and wildlife sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155663/frameworks-for-preventing-detecting-and-controlling-zoonotic-diseases
#3
Miriam L Shiferaw, Jeffrey B Doty, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Juliette Morgan, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Otar Parkadze, Marina Donduashvili, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Leopold Mulumba, Jean Malekani, Joelle Kabamba, Theresa Kanter, Linda Lucy Boulanger, Abraham Haile, Abyot Bekele, Meseret Bekele, Kasahun Tafese, Andrea A McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. The first, rabies control in Ethiopia, was implemented using an umbrella approach: a comprehensive program designed for accelerated impact. The second, a monkeypox program in Democratic Republic of the Congo, was implemented in a stepwise manner, whereby incremental improvements and activities were incorporated into the program...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155661/zoonotic-disease-programs-for-enhancing-global-health-security
#4
Ermias D Belay, James C Kile, Aron J Hall, Casey Barton-Behravesh, Michele B Parsons, Stephanie Salyer, Henry Walke
Most infectious diseases that recently emerged in humans originated in animals. Besides close contact between animals and humans, other factors probably contribute to the cross-species transmission of infectious diseases. It is critical to establish effective mechanisms for coordination and collaboration between the animal, human, and environmental health sectors before new threats emerge by bringing the different sectors together to tackle endemic zoonotic diseases of greatest concern. Such multisectoral partnerships should begin by identifying priority zoonotic diseases for national engagement with equal input from the different sectors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155658/building-global-epidemiology-and-response-capacity-with-field-epidemiology-training-programs
#5
Donna S Jones, Richard C Dicker, Robert E Fontaine, Amy L Boore, Jared O Omolo, Rana J Ashgar, Henry C Baggett
More than ever, competent field epidemiologists are needed worldwide. As known, new, and resurgent communicable diseases increase their global impact, the International Health Regulations and the Global Health Security Agenda call for sufficient field epidemiologic capacity in every country to rapidly detect, respond to, and contain public health emergencies, thereby ensuring global health security. To build this capacity, for >35 years the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with countries around the globe to develop Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs)...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155651/enhancing-surveillance-and-diagnostics-in-anthrax-endemic-countries
#6
Antonio R Vieira, Johanna S Salzer, Rita M Traxler, Katherine A Hendricks, Melissa E Kadzik, Chung K Marston, Cari B Kolton, Robyn A Stoddard, Alex R Hoffmaster, William A Bower, Henry T Walke
Naturally occurring anthrax disproportionately affects the health and economic welfare of poor, rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control programs. Effective prevention of anthrax outbreaks among humans is accomplished through routine livestock vaccination programs and prompt response to animal outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154929/identification-of-genetic-variants-of-brucella-spp-through-genome-wide-association-studies
#7
Jagadesan Sankarasubramanian, Udayakumar S Vishnu, Paramasamy Gunasekaran, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. We present a phylogeny of 552 strains based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determined by an alignment-free k-mer approach. A total of 138,029 SNPs were identified from 552 Brucella genomes. Of these, 31,152 and 106,877 were core and non-core SNPs, respectively. Based on pan-genome analysis 11,937 and 972 genes were identified as pan and core genome, respectively. The pan-genome-wide analysis studies (Pan-GWAS) could not identify the group-specific variants in Brucella spp...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154369/hepatitis-e-virus-infection
#8
REVIEW
Nassim Kamar, Jacques Izopet, Nicole Pavio, Rakesh Aggarwal, Alain Labrique, Heiner Wedemeyer, Harry R Dalton
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis as well as to extrahepatic manifestations such as neurological and renal disease; it is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Four genotypes are responsible for most infection in humans, of which HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are obligate human pathogens and HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are mostly zoonotic. Until quite recently, HEV was considered to be mainly responsible for epidemics of acute hepatitis in developing regions owing to contamination of drinking water supplies with human faeces...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152884/economic-impacts-of-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-kerala-india
#9
G Govindaraj, R Sridevi, S N Nandakumar, R Vineet, P Rajeev, M K Binu, V Balamurugan, H Rahman
This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules...
November 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152269/leptospirosis-presenting-as-acute-acalculous-cholecystitis
#10
Peter Davies, Yuki Aoyagi
Leptospirosis is the commonest zoonotic infection worldwide but is vastly underreported and extremely heterogeneous in its presentation. Acalculous cholecystitis is an under recognized presentation of acute leptospirosis. In the appropriate clinical context, with a clear exposure history, recognition of this association presents a unifying diagnosis and limits unnecessary surgical interventions.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151852/ancient-oncogenesis-infection-and-human-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Riaan F Rifkin, Marnie Potgieter, Jean-Baptiste Ramond, Don A Cowan
The recent discovery that malignant neoplastic lesions date back nearly 2 million years ago not only highlights the antiquity of cancer in the human lineage, but also provides remarkable insight into ancestral hominin disease pathology. Using these Early Pleistocene examples as a point of departure, we emphasize the prominent role of viral and bacterial pathogens in oncogenesis and evaluate the impact of pathogens on human evolutionary processes in Africa. In the Shakespearean vernacular "what's past is prologue," we highlight the significance of novel information derived from ancient pathogenic DNA...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#12
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#13
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150826/rethinking-human-nonhuman-primate-contact-and-pathogenic-disease-spillover
#14
REVIEW
Victor Narat, Lys Alcayna-Stevens, Stephanie Rupp, Tamara Giles-Vernick
Zoonotic transmissions are a major global health risk, and human-animal contact is frequently raised as an important driver of transmission. A literature examining zooanthroponosis largely agrees that more human-animal contact leads to more risk. Yet the basis of this proposition, the term contact, has not been rigorously analyzed. To understand how contact is used to explain cross-species spillovers, we conducted a multi-disciplinary review of studies addressing human-nonhuman primate (NHP) engagements and pathogenic transmissions and employing the term contact...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150700/prevalence-of-intestinal-parasites-in-companion-dogs-with-diarrhea-in-beijing-china-and-genetic-characteristics-of-giardia-and-cryptosporidium-species
#15
Zhongjia Yu, Yang Ruan, Mengjie Zhou, Siyuan Chen, Yinxin Zhang, Liya Wang, Guan Zhu, Yonglan Yu
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25...
November 18, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150322/sex-ratios-of-the-tick-ixodes-arboricola-are-strongly-female-biased-but-there-are-no-indications-of-sex-distorting-bacteria
#16
A Raoul Van Oosten, Olivier Duron, Dieter J A Heylen
Studies on sex ratio are of fundamental importance for understanding the biology of populations and biological control of pests and pathogens. In most Ixodes tick species, only females feed in the adult stage and, hence, contribute to pathogen transmission. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola infests cavity-nesting birds and has limited dispersal possibilities. It plays an important role in the maintenance of zoonotic disease cycles. Here, we quantified the sex ratio of 718 adult I. arboricola ticks obtained from a laboratory stock at nine distinct periods (cohorts) from 2008 to 2015...
November 11, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148605/an-overview-rabbit-hepatitis-e-virus-hev-and-rabbit-providing-an-animal-model-for-hev-study
#17
REVIEW
Lin Wang, Lin Liu, Ling Wang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and the causative agent of hepatitis E. The virus belongs to genus Orthohepevirus in the family Hepeviridae, which contains 4 major genotypes closely relating to humans. Genotypes 1 and 2 only infect humans whereas genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are harbored in a wide range of animal species worldwide and are zoonotic to humans. Recently, a novel animal strain of HEV has been isolated in farmed rabbits in China, and subsequently more strains were discovered in the rabbit populations in at least 7 other countries...
November 17, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148400/avian-influenza-a-h7n2-virus-in-human-exposed-to-sick-cats-new-york-usa-2016
#18
Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Jen Laplante, Yunho Jang, Brian Lynch, Natosha Zanders, Marisela Rodriguez, Joyce Jones, Sharmi Thor, Erin Hodges, Juan A De La Cruz, Jessica Belser, Hua Yang, Paul Carney, Bo Shu, LaShondra Berman, Thomas Stark, John Barnes, Fiona Havers, Patrick Yang, Susan C Trock, Alicia Fry, Larisa Gubareva, Joseph S Bresee, James Stevens, Demetre Daskalakis, Dakai Liu, Christopher T Lee, Mia Kim Torchetti, Sandra Newbury, Francine Cigel, Kathy Toohey-Kurth, Kirsten St George, David E Wentworth, Stephen Lindstrom, C Todd Davis
An outbreak of influenza A(H7N2) virus in cats in a shelter in New York, NY, USA, resulted in zoonotic transmission. Virus isolated from the infected human was closely related to virus isolated from a cat; both were related to low pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N2) viruses detected in the United States during the early 2000s.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148396/multiple-reassorted-viruses-as-cause-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-virus-epidemic-the-netherlands-2016
#19
Nancy Beerens, Rene Heutink, Saskia A Bergervoet, Frank Harders, Alex Bossers, Guus Koch
In 2016, an epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus subtype H5N8 in the Netherlands caused mass deaths among wild birds, and several commercial poultry farms and captive bird holdings were affected. We performed complete genome sequencing to study the relationship between the wild bird and poultry viruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses are related to H5 clade 2.3.4.4 viruses detected in Russia in May 2016 but contained novel polymerase basic 2 and nucleoprotein gene segments and 2 different variants of the polymerase acidic segment...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147568/environmental-influences-on-the-skin-microbiome-of-humans-and-cattle-in-rural-madagascar
#20
Melissa B Manus, James J Yu, Lawrence P Park, Olaf Mueller, Sarah C Windsor, Julie E Horvath, Charles L Nunn
Background and objectives: The skin harbors a dynamic community of microorganisms, where contact with humans, other animals and the environment can alter microbial communities. Most research on the human skin microbiome features Western populations living in hygienic conditions, yet these populations have vastly different patterns of environmental contact than the majority of people on Earth, including those living in developing countries. Methodology: We studied skin microbial communities of humans and cattle (zebu) in rural Madagascar to investigate how zebu ownership affects microbial composition of the human skin, and to characterize non-Western human and zebu skin communities more generally...
2017: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
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