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Carlos Rafaell Correia-Oliveira, João Paulo Lopes-Silva, Romulo Bertuzzi, Glenn K McConell, David John Bishop, Adriano Eduardo Lima-Silva, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal'Molin Kiss
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of pre-exercise metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on power output (PO) and aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). METHODS: Eleven recreationally trained cyclists (VO2peak 54.1 ± 9.3 mL·kg·min) performed a 4-km TT 100 min after ingesting in a double-blind matter 0.15 g·kg of body mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, acidosis), 0.3 g·kg of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, alkalosis) or 0.15 g·kg of CaCO3 (placebo)...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Tayyab Mohyuddin, Shahbaz Sarwar, Dawar Ayyaz
We report a case of 34-year patient who had uncomplicated elective caesarean-section. Postoperatively, she developed sudden hypotension, bradycardia, dyspnea and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), all signs associated with amniotic fluid embolism (AFE). Echocardiogram showed signs of acutely increased right ventricular after load including McConell's sign, i.e. right ventricular dilatation, segmental hypokinesia (mid-right ventricular) and hypercontractile right ventricular apex and overall right ventricular dysfunction...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Kim A Sjøberg, Christian Frøsig, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Lykke Sylow, Maximilian Kleinert, Andrew C Betik, Christopher S Shaw, Bente Kiens, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Stephen Rattigan, Erik A Richter, Glenn K McConell
Insulin resistance is a major health risk and although exercise clearly improves skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, the mechanisms are unclear. Here we show that initiation of a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp four hours after single-legged exercise in humans increased microvascular perfusion (determined by contrast enhanced ultrasound) by 65% in the exercised leg and 25% in the rested leg (p<0.05) and leg glucose uptake increased 50% more (p<0.05) in the exercised leg than the rested leg. Importantly, infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NMMA into both femoral arteries reversed the insulin stimulated increase in microvascular perfusion in both legs and abrogated the greater glucose uptake in the exercised compared with the rested leg...
March 14, 2017: Diabetes
Cara A Timpani, Adam J Trewin, Vanesa Stojanovska, Ainsley Robinson, Craig A Goodman, Kulmira Nurgali, Andrew C Betik, Nigel Stepto, Alan Hayes, Glenn K McConell, Emma Rybalka
Duchenne muscular dystrophy arises from the loss of dystrophin and is characterized by calcium dysregulation, muscular atrophy, and metabolic dysfunction. The secondary reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) from the sarcolemma reduces NO production and bioavailability. As NO modulates glucose uptake, metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics, we investigated whether an 8-week nitrate supplementation regimen could overcome metabolic dysfunction in the mdx mouse. Dystrophin-positive control (C57BL/10) and dystrophin-deficient mdx mice were supplemented with sodium nitrate (85 mg/l) in drinking water...
December 5, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Robert S Lee-Young, Nolan J Hoffman, Kate T Murphy, Darren C Henstridge, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Andrew L Siebel, Peter Iliades, Borivoj Zivanovic, Yet H Hong, Timothy D Colgan, Michael J Kraakman, Clinton R Bruce, Paul Gregorevic, Glenn K McConell, Gordon S Lynch, Grant R Drummond, Bronwyn A Kingwell, Jerry R Greenfield, Mark A Febbraio
OBJECTIVE: The development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early physiological defect, yet the intracellular mechanisms accounting for this metabolic defect remained unresolved. Here, we have examined the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. METHODS: Multiple mouse disease states exhibiting insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, as well as obese humans defined as insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, or pre-diabetic, were examined...
November 2016: Molecular Metabolism
M Kaur, A L Wooldridge, M J Wilkes, W S Pitchford, P I Hynd, G K McConell, K L Gatford
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has adverse effects on metabolic health and early life, whereas physical activity is protective against later development of metabolic disease. Relationships between birth weight and physical activity in humans, and effects of IUGR on voluntary activity in rodents, are mixed and few studies have measured physical activity in a free-ranging environment. We hypothesized that induced restriction of placental growth and function (PR) in sheep would decrease spontaneous ambulatory activity (SAA) in free-ranging adolescent and young adult progeny from multi-fetal pregnancies...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Itamar Levinger, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, Nigel K Stepto, George Jerums, Lewan Parker, Glenn K McConell, Mitchell Anderson, Andrew Garnham, David L Hare, Peter R Ebeling, Ego Seeman
BACKGROUND: Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) increases insulin sensitivity in mice. In humans, data are supportive, but the studies are mostly cross-sectional. Exercise increases whole-body insulin sensitivity, in part via ucOC, while acute glucocorticoid treatment suppresses ucOC in humans and mice. OBJECTIVES: A single dose of prednisolone reduces the rise in ucOC produced by exercise, which partly accounts for the failed increase in insulin sensitivity following exercise...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Andrew C Betik, Jay Aguila, Glenn K McConell, Andrew J McAinch, Michael L Mathai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Yet Hoi Hong, Christine Yang, Andrew C Betik, Robert S Lee-Young, Glenn K McConell
Nitric oxide influences intramuscular signaling that affects skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise. The role of the main NO-producing enzyme isoform activated during skeletal muscle contraction, neuronal nitric oxide synthase-μ (nNOSμ), in modulating glucose uptake has not been investigated in a physiological exercise model. In this study, conscious and unrestrained chronically catheterized nNOSμ(+/+) and nNOSμ(-/-) mice either remained at rest or ran on a treadmill at 17 m/min for 30 min. Both groups of mice demonstrated similar exercise capacity during a maximal exercise test to exhaustion (17...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shaun A Mason, Dale Morrison, Glenn K McConell, Glenn D Wadley
Recent research highlights the importance of redox signalling pathway activation by contraction-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in normal exercise-related cellular and molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss some potentially important redox signalling pathways in skeletal muscle that are involved in acute and chronic responses to contraction and exercise. Specifically, we discuss redox signalling implicated in skeletal muscle contraction force, mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzyme induction, glucose uptake and muscle hypertrophy...
September 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Glenn D Wadley, Rhianna C Laker, Glenn K McConell, Mary E Wlodek
Being born small for gestational age increases the risk of developing adult cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to examine if early-life exercise could increase heart mass in the adult hearts from growth restricted rats. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation to induce uteroplacental insufficiency and fetal growth restriction in the offspring (Restricted) or sham surgery (Control) was performed on day 18 of gestation in WKY rats. A separate group of sham litters had litter size reduced to five pups at birth (Reduced litter), which restricted postnatal growth...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
Itamar Levinger, Ego Seeman, George Jerums, Glenn K McConell, Mark S Rybchyn, Samantha Cassar, Elizabeth Byrnes, Steve Selig, Rebecca S Mason, Peter R Ebeling, Tara C Brennan-Speranza
Aging is associated with a reduction in osteoblast life span and the volume of bone formed by each basic multicellular unit. Each time bone is resorbed, less is deposited producing microstructural deterioration. Aging is also associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia, either of which may cause, or be the result of, a decline in undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), a protein produced by osteoblasts that increases insulin sensitivity. We examined whether glucose-loading reduces bone remodeling and ucOC in vivo and osteoblast function in vitro, and so compromises bone formation...
February 2016: Physiological Reports
Scott Betteridge, Raúl Bescós, Miquel Martorell, Antoni Pons, Andrew P Garnham, Christos C Stathis, Glenn K McConell
Beetroot juice, which is rich in nitrate (NO3 (-)), has been shown in some studies to decrease oxygen consumption (V̇o2) for a given exercise workload, i.e., increasing efficiency and exercise tolerance. Few studies have examined the effect of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on exercise metabolism. Eight healthy recreationally active males participated in three trials involving ingestion of either beetroot juice (Beet; ∼8 mmol NO3 (-)), Placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet), or Beet + mouthwash (Beet+MW), all of which were performed in a randomized single-blind crossover design...
February 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Itamar Levinger, Tara C Brennan-Speranza, George Jerums, Nigel K Stepto, Fabio R Serpiello, Glenn K McConell, Mitchell Anderson, David L Hare, Elizabeth Byrnes, Peter R Ebeling, Ego Seeman
Bone remodelling markers (BRMs) are suppressed following a glucose load and during glucose infusion. As exercise increases indices of bone health and improves glucose handling, we hypothesised that, at rest, hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp will suppress BRMs in obese men and that exercise prior to the clamp will prevent this suppression. Eleven obese nondiabetic men (age 58.1±2.2 years, body mass index=33.1±1.4 kg m(-2) mean±s.e.m.) had a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp (HEC) at rest (Control) and 60 min post exercise (four bouts × 4 min cycling at 95% of hazard ratiopeak)...
2015: BoneKEy Reports
I Levinger, X Lin, X Zhang, T C Brennan-Speranza, B Volpato, A Hayes, G Jerums, E Seeman, G McConell
UNLABELLED: We tested whether GPRC6A, the putative receptor of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), is present in mouse muscle and whether ucOC increases insulin sensitivity following ex vivo muscle contraction. GPPRC6A is expressed in mouse muscle and in the mouse myotubes from a cell line. ucOC potentiated the effect of ex vivo contraction on insulin sensitivity. INTRODUCTION: Acute exercise increases skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. In humans, exercise increases circulating ucOC, a hormone that increases insulin sensitivity in rodents...
February 2016: Osteoporosis International
Craig A Goodman, Derk Pol, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Robert S Lee-Young, Rod J Snow, Aaron P Russell, Glenn K McConell
One serious side effect of statin drugs is skeletal muscle myopathy. Although the mechanism(s) responsible for statin myopathy remains to be fully determined, an increase in muscle atrophy gene expression and changes in mitochondrial content and/or function have been proposed to play a role. In this study, we examined the relationship between statin-induced expression of muscle atrophy genes, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, and markers of mitochondrial content in slow- (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) rat skeletal muscles...
2015: PloS One
Acuña D Aravena, R Pruzzo, N Barrena, H Amaral, P Torres, Y McConell, S Ramírez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Yet Hoi Hong, Andrew C Betik, Dino Premilovac, Renee M Dwyer, Michelle A Keske, Stephen Rattigan, Glenn K McConell
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to be involved in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise, especially in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). To examine the potential mechanisms, we examined the effect of local NO synthase (NOS) inhibition on muscle glucose uptake and muscle capillary blood flow during contraction in healthy and T2D rats. T2D was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats using a combined high-fat diet (23% fat wt/wt for 4 wk) and low-dose streptozotocin injections (35 mg/kg). Anesthetized animals had one hindlimb stimulated to contract in situ for 30 min (2 Hz, 0...
May 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Yet Hoi Hong, Tony Frugier, Xinmei Zhang, Robyn M Murphy, Gordon S Lynch, Andrew C Betik, Stephen Rattigan, Glenn K McConell
Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) significantly attenuates the increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction/exercise, and a greater attenuation is observed in individuals with Type 2 diabetes compared with healthy individuals. Therefore, NO appears to play an important role in mediating muscle glucose uptake during contraction. In this study, we investigated the involvement of neuronal NOSμ (nNOSμ), the main NOS isoform activated during contraction, on skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contraction...
May 1, 2015: Journal of Applied Physiology
Glenn K McConell, Gunveen Kaur, Filippe Falcão-Tebas, Yet H Hong, Kathryn L Gatford
In healthy humans and rodents, chronic and acute exercise improves subsequent insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle. A large animal species with similar metabolic responses to exercise would permit longitudinal studies, including repeated biopsies of muscle and other tissues not possible in rodents, and enable study of interactions with insulin-resistant physiological states not feasible in humans. Therefore, we examined whether acute exercise increases insulin sensitivity in adult sheep. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) in mature female sheep (n = 7)...
March 15, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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