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Uma Sriram, Beth L Hill, Jonathan M Cenna, Larisa Gofman, Nicole C Fernandes, Bijayesh Haldar, Raghava Potula
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection...
2016: PloS One
Wei-Guang Shao, Dian-Mei Liu
The present study aimed to detect the bone Ca(2+) content of L3 vertebrae in adults by gemstone spectral computed tomography. In total, 235 patients were selected and divided into age groups of 10 years each. The scanning data were used to detect the water-based and Ca(2+)-based substance levels on the L3 vertebral cancellous bone images. The results indicated that there were significant differences in vertebral Ca(2+)-water and water-Ca(2+) densities determined by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) between males and females in subjects aged 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and ≥80 years (P<0...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Jingang Liu, Wenjuan Wang, Xingsheng Zhao, Zhen Shen, Weiguang Shao, Xizhen Wang, Lixin Li, Bin Wang
INTRODUCTION: To explore the value of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) and metal artefact reduction sequence (MARs) to reduce the artefacts of metal seeds. METHODS: Thirty-five patients with (125) I seed implantation in their abdomens underwent GSI CT. Six types of monochromatic images and the corresponding MARs images at 60-110 keV (interval of 10 keV) were reconstructed. The differences in the quality of the images of three imaging methods were subjectively assessed by three radiologists...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Jessie Y Huang, David S Followill, Rebecca M Howell, Xinming Liu, Dragan Mirkovic, Francesco C Stingo, Stephen F Kry
PURPOSE: Dose calculation errors near metal implants are caused by limitations of the dose calculation algorithm in modeling tissue/metal interface effects as well as density assignment errors caused by imaging artifacts. The purpose of this study was to investigate two strategies for reducing dose calculation errors near metal implants: implementation of metal-based energy deposition kernels in the convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation method and use of metal artifact reduction methods for computed tomography (CT) imaging...
September 2016: Medical Physics
Ji-Zheng Lin, Liang Zhang, Chuan-Yu Zhang, Lei Yang, He-Nan Lou, Ze-Guo Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging parameters in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules, during the contrast-enhanced early phase and late phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. One hundred thirty-nine patients with solitary pulmonary nodules proved by pathology underwent double-phase enhanced CT scan using gemstone spectral imaging mode on a Discovery CT750 HD, and were divided into an active inflammatory group (43 cases), a malignant group (65 cases), and a tuberculosis group (31 cases)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Weiguang Shao, Jingang Liu, Dianmei Liu
BACKGROUND: This study aims to provide a reference for the diagnosis of iodine deficiency disorder by evaluating the normal thyroid iodine content by energy spectrum computed tomography (CT) and calculating the iodine content ratio of thyroid to sternocleidomastoid. METHODS: The thyroid glands of 226 patients were scanned by energy spectrum CT, and the images were analyzed using the GSI Viewer software. Based on the imaging findings, the iodine levels of the thyroid lobes as well as the bilateral sternocleidomastoids were evaluated, and their iodine content ratios were calculated...
2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Liang Yang, Dehong Luo, Lin Li, Yanfeng Zhao, Meng Lin, Wei Guo, Chunwu Zhou
The accurate diagnosis of malignant cervical lymphadenopathy remains challenging. In this study, we determined the value of quantitative parameters derived from dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for differentiating malignant cervical lymphadenopathy caused by thyroid carcinoma (TC), salivary gland carcinoma (SC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and lymphoma. We retrospectively analysed 92 patients with pathologically confirmed cervical lymphadenopathy due to TC, SC, SCC and lymphoma. All patients received a DECT scan before therapy...
2016: Scientific Reports
Georgia Tooulakou, Andreas Giannopoulos, Dimosthenis Nikolopoulos, Panagiota Bresta, Elissavet Dotsika, Malvina G Orkoula, Christos G Kontoyannis, Costas Fasseas, Georgios Liakopoulos, Maria I Klapa, George Karabourniotis
Land plants face the perpetual dilemma of using atmospheric carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and losing water vapors, or saving water and reducing photosynthesis and thus growth. The reason behind this dilemma is that this simultaneous exchange of gases is accomplished through the same minute pores on leaf surfaces, called stomata. In a recent study we provided evidence that pigweed, an aggressive weed, attenuates this problem exploiting large crystals of calcium oxalate as dynamic carbon pools. This plant is able to photosynthesize even under drought conditions, when stomata are closed and water losses are limited, using carbon dioxide from crystal decomposition instead from the atmosphere...
September 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ichiro Kasajima
The gemstone alexandrite is known for its feature to change color depending on the spectral quality of the incident light. Thus, the stone looks green when illuminated by white LED light but looks red when illuminated by incandescent light. This effect (alexandrite effect) is caused by a special relationship between the spectral quality of the incident light and the absorbance spectrum of the stone. Here we report an alexandrite-like effect in the petals of torenia and cyclamen flowers. These flowers are purple in sunlight but magenta (reddish) in incandescent light, and violet (bluish purple) in white LED light...
2016: Scientific Reports
Zhen-Feng Li, Xian-Hao Shao, Li-Qiang Zhang, Zhi-Ping Yang, Xin Li, Qiang Yang, Jian-Min Li
OBJECTIVE: To develop an endoscopic transnasal approach to atlas tumors and study its practicability. METHODS: This article comprises two components: an illustrative case report and observational data on 50 volunteers. As to the case report, a 34 year old man presented with occipital pain for more than 3 months and underwent systematic investigation in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University. CT and MRI scans showed bony destruction in the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) suggestive of tumor...
May 2016: Orthopaedic Surgery
Exequiel Reynoso, Carlos Capunay, Alejandro Rasumoff, Javier Vallejos, Jimena Carpio, Karen Lago, Patricia Carrascosa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of combined virtual monochromatic imaging and metal artifact reduction software (MARS) for the evaluation of musculoskeletal periprosthetic tissue. METHODS: Measurements were performed in periprosthetic and remote regions in 80 patients using a high-definition scanner. Polychromatic images with and without MARS and virtual monochromatic images were obtained. RESULTS: Periprosthetic polychromatic imaging (PI) showed significant differences compared with remote areas among the 3 tissues explored (P < 0...
July 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Xiao-Rui Yin, Wei Xia, Zhen-Wei Yao, Hui-Jin He, Xiao-Yuan Feng
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore whether optimal monochromatic reconstruction can improve the depiction of the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) on gemstone spectral computed tomographic angiography (GSCTA) compared with the polychromatic reconstruction protocol. METHODS: The prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. The 58 consecutive patients suspected of aortic aneurysm or dissection underwent aortic GSCTA...
September 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Jingjing Xing, Yaru Chai, Jianbo Gao, Yan Chen, Junqiang Dong, Songwei Yue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application value of spectral CT in the differentiation of stage T3 and T4a gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Data of 62 gastric cancer patients of stage T3 and T4a undergoing abdominal spectral CT examination in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from December 2013 to December 2014 were collected retrospectively. There were 38 male and 24 female patients, with age of 33 to 77(58.6±10.4) years old. Abdominal double-phase enhanced scanning in gemstone spectral imaging mode was used to measure Iodine concentration (IC, 100 μg/ml) and water concentration(WC, 100 μg/ml) of perigastric fat tissue adjacent to the lesion during arterial phase(AP) and venous phase(VP), and normalized iodine concentration (nIC) was calculated respectively(nIC=IC/IC of aorta on the same slice)...
May 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Y Li, C J Zhu, E W Hagley, L Deng
The Feynman relation, a much celebrated condensed matter physics gemstone for more than 70 years, predicts that the density excitation spectrum and structure factor of a condensed Bosonic system in the phonon regime drops linear and continuously to zero. Until now, this widely accepted monotonic excitation energy drop as the function of reduced quasi-momentum has never been challenged in a spin-preserving process. We show rigorously that in a light-matter wave-mixing process in a Bosonic quantum gas, an optical-dipole potential arising from the internally-generated field can profoundly alter the Feynman relation and result in a new dynamic relation that exhibits an astonishing non-Feynman-like onset and cut-off in the excitation spectrum of the ground state energy of spin-preserving processes...
2016: Scientific Reports
S Y Wang, J B Gao, R Zhang, P Liang, H J Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To observe the diagnostic efficiency of gemstone spectral CT imaging in diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). METHODS: A total of 114 patients with SPN proved by pathology (from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and 13 cooperative hospitals) underwent spectral CT from July 2014 to July 2015.All the patients were divided into malignant group(63 cases), inflammatory group(32 cases) and tuberculosis group(19 cases) .Iodine concentration(IC), normalized iodine concentration(NIC) and slope rate of spectral curve(40-80 keV) in both arterial and venous phase were measured and calculated...
April 5, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Ying Wang, Chunhuan Jiang, Wenhui He, Kelong Ai, Xiaoyan Ren, Lin Liu, Mengchao Zhang, Lehui Lu
Achieving high-resolution imaging of bone-cracks and even monitoring them in live organisms are of great significance for understanding their extreme biological effects but remain quite challenging, especially for adopting commercial imaging systems. Herein, we explore the use of the clinical gemstone spectral computed tomography (GSCT) technique as a powerful tool for targeted imaging of bone-cracks in rats via intramuscularly administrating crack-targeted ytterbium-based contrast agents (CAs). Material density images of GSCT reveal that bone-cracks targeted with CAs can be successfully differentiated from healthy bone based on their different X-ray attenuation characteristics, giving GSCT a distinct advantage over conventional CT...
April 26, 2016: ACS Nano
Qi-Yu Liu, Chuan-Dong He, Ying Zhou, Dan Huang, Hua Lin, Zhong Wang, Dong Wang, Jin-Qiu Wang, Li-Ping Liao
AIM: To assess the value of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) in efficacy evaluation in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment. METHODS: Thirty patients with HCC underwent GSI, including nonenhanced, arterial, portalvenous and delayed phase scans, after TACE treatment. Arterial phase images were acquired with GSI for reconstruction of virtual nonenhanced images and color overlay images. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in all these patients...
March 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Guangming Ma, Taiping He, Yong Yu, Haifeng Duan, Chuangbo Yang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical value of using monochromatic images in spectral CT pulmonary angiography to improve image quality of bronchial arteries. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the chest CT images of 38 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced spectral CT. These images included a set of 140kVp polychromatic images and the default 70keV monochromatic images. Using the standard Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) viewer on an advanced workstation (AW4...
2016: PloS One
Fengdan Wang, Yan Zhang, Huadan Xue, Wei Han, Xianda Yang, Zhengyu Jin, Richard Zwar
BACKGROUND: Spinal fusion surgery is an important procedure for treating spinal diseases and computed tomography (CT) is a critical tool for postoperative evaluation. However, CT image quality is considerably impaired by metal artifacts and image noise. PURPOSE: To explore whether metal artifacts and image noise can be reduced by combining two technologies, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and monochromatic imaging generated by gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) dual-energy CT...
February 25, 2016: Acta Radiologica
Luis Sánchez-Muñoz, Adolfo del Campo, José F Fernández
Spinodal decomposition is a phase-separation phenomenon occurring at non-equilibrium conditions. In isotropic materials, it is expected to improve the physical properties, in which modulated structures arise from a single system of spinodal waves. However, in anisotropic materials this process is controversial and not very well understood. Here, we report anisotropic spinodal decomposition patterns in single crystals of K-rich feldspar with macroscopic monoclinic 2/m symmetry. The periodicity of the spinodal waves at ~450 nm produces a blue iridescence, typical of the gemstone moonstone...
2016: Scientific Reports
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