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The Gluten-Free Diet

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817113/clinical-and-histologic-mimickers-of-celiac-disease
#1
REVIEW
Amrit K Kamboj, Amy S Oxentenko
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria...
August 17, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815514/intraepithelial-lymphocyte-immunophenotype-a-useful-tool-in-the-diagnosis-of-celiac-disease
#2
Rebeca Saborido, Nazareth Martinón, Alexandra Regueiro, Vanesa Crujeiras, Pablo Eiras, Rosaura Leis
According to new ESPGHAN guidelines, gluten challenge is considered necessary when there is doubt about the initial diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). The main aim of this study was to quantify intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) immunophenotype on celiac patients on gluten-containing diet (GCD) compared to those on gluten-free diet (GFD). Another aim was to evaluate the clinical utility of IELs in the CD diagnosis, especially in selected patients on GFD where diagnostic uncertainty remains. IEL immunophenotype (TCRγδ and NK-like IELs) were studied by flow cytometry in 111 children with CD (81 children with CD on GCD and 30 celiac patients on GFD) and a control group (10 children)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814219/coeliac-disease-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Marjorie M Walker, Jonas F Ludvigsson, David S Sanders
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disease triggered by exposure to gluten, and manifested by small intestinal enteropathy and gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. Recent guidelines recommend a concerted use of clear definitions of the disease. In Australia, the most recent estimated prevalence is 1.2% in adult men (1:86) and 1.9% in adult women (1:52). Active case finding is appropriate to diagnose coeliac disease in high risk groups. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is important to prevent nutritional deficiency and long term risk of gastrointestinal malignancy...
August 21, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810029/celiac-disease-and-nonceliac-gluten-sensitivity-a-review
#4
Maureen M Leonard, Anna Sapone, Carlo Catassi, Alessio Fasano
Importance: The prevalence of gluten-related disorders is rising, and increasing numbers of individuals are empirically trying a gluten-free diet for a variety of signs and symptoms. This review aims to present current evidence regarding screening, diagnosis, and treatment for celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Observations: Celiac disease is a gluten-induced immune-mediated enteropathy characterized by a specific genetic genotype (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 genes) and autoantibodies (antitissue transglutaminase and antiendomysial)...
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808808/ketogenic-diet-versus-gluten-free-casein-free-diet-in-autistic-children-a-case-control-study
#5
Omnia El-Rashidy, Farida El-Baz, Yasmin El-Gendy, Randa Khalaf, Dina Reda, Khaled Saad
Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806297/adherence-to-a-gluten-free-diet-assessment-by-dietician-interview-and-serology
#6
Pooja Mehta, Zhaoxing Pan, Marisa Dzarnoski Riley, Edwin Liu
We aimed to 1) determine if tissue transglutaminase autoantibody (tTG) positivity was associated with dietitian-assessed adherence to a gluten-free diet in pediatric patients with celiac disease and 2) identify areas where adherence falters. We reviewed the records of children with celiac disease who had a standardized evaluation of adherence by a registered dietitian. A negative tTG value was not associated with good adherence (p = NS). Adherent and nonadherent children differed with respect to purposeful and accidental gluten exposure (p < 0...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797308/coeliac-disease-in-infants-antibodies-to-deamidated-gliadin-peptide-come-first
#7
Michele Arigliani, Francesca Rech Morassutti, Martina Fabris, Paola Melli, Elio Tonutti, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: The onset of coeliac disease (CD) in the first year of life is uncommon and the diagnosis can be challenging due to the suboptimal sensitivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG) at this age and the many other possible causes of malabsorption in infants. Antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGPs), especially IgG, may appear earlier than IgA anti-tTG in very young children with CD. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here on an 8-month-old child who was evaluated for failure to thrive, constipation and developmental delay...
August 10, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782118/undetectable-negative-tissue-transglutaminase-iga-antibodies-predict-mucosal-healing-in-treated-coeliac-disease-patients
#8
H Fang, K S King, J J Larson, M R Snyder, T T Wu, M J Gandhi, J A Murray
BACKGROUND: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) immunoglobulin A (IgA) testing is a sensitive adjunct to the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The threshold for positivity was developed for diagnosis, with negative results reported as below the reference value (<4 U/mL). AIM: To investigate if an undetectable (tTG IgA<1.2 U/mL) is more predictive of healing compared to patients with negative but detectable serology (1.2-3.9 U/mL). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 402 treated coeliac disease patients seen at the Mayo Clinic with negative tTG IgA values drawn within 1 month of duodenal biopsy between January 2009 and December 2015...
August 7, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771262/commercially-available-gluten-free-pastas-elevate-postprandial-glycemia-in-comparison-to-conventional-wheat-pasta-in-healthy-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-crossover-trial
#9
C S Johnston, D Snyder, C Smith
Given the popularity of gluten-free diets, research regarding the health implications of gluten-free (GF) products is necessary. This study compared the postprandial glycemic responses to three GF pastas commonly available in the U.S. market to that of wheat pasta in healthy adults. Thirteen healthy non-smoking men and women from a university campus population were enrolled in this randomized 4 × 4 block crossover study and completed all four treatments. Participants followed a standardized diet and activity protocol the day prior to testing, and one week separated testing periods...
August 3, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762296/current-nutritional-approaches-in-managing-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-review
#10
Hande Cekici, Nevin Sanlier
The link between nutrition and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a complex developmental disorder manifesting itself in significant delays or deviation in interaction and communication, has provided a fresh point of view and signals that nutrition may have a role in the aetiology of ASD, as well as play an active role in treatment by alleviating symptoms. OBJECTIVE: In this review study aimed at evaluating, with scientific and concrete proof, the current medical nutrition implementations on ASD, existing medical nutrition therapies have been addressed and their effects on ASD symptoms have been discussed in light of current research...
August 1, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760445/coeliac-disease
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin Lebwohl, David S Sanders, Peter H R Green
Coeliac disease occurs in about 1% of people in most populations. Diagnosis rates are increasing, and this seems to be due to a true rise in incidence rather than increased awareness and detection. Coeliac disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unknown environmental factors, develop an immune response that is subsequently triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The disease has many clinical manifestations, ranging from severe malabsorption to minimally symptomatic or non-symptomatic presentations...
July 28, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759621/identification-of-novel-antibody-reactive-detection-sites-for-comprehensive-gluten-monitoring
#12
Niels Röckendorf, Barbara Meckelein, Katharina A Scherf, Kathrin Schalk, Peter Koehler, Andreas Frey
Certain cereals like wheat, rye or barley contain gluten, a protein mixture that can trigger celiac disease (CD). To make gluten-free diets available for affected individuals the gluten content of foodstuff must be monitored. For this purpose, antibody-based assays exist which rely on the recognition of certain linear gluten sequence motifs. Yet, not all CD-active gluten constituents and fragments formed during food processing/fermentation may be covered by those tests. In this study, we therefore assayed the coverage of reportedly CD-active gluten components by currently available detection antibodies and determined the antibody-inducing capacity of wheat gluten constituents in order to provide novel diagnostic targets for comprehensive gluten quantitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758924/unusual-onset-of-celiac-disease-and-addison-s-disease-in-a-12-year-old-boy
#13
Francesco Miconi, Emanuela Savarese, Giovanni Miconi, Gabriele Cabiati, Valentina Rapaccini, Nicola Principi, Susanna Esposito
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder deriving from an aberrant adaptive immune response against gluten-containing grains in genetically predisposed subjects. In a number of patients, CD is associated with one or more other autoimmune diseases. Primary Addison's disease (AD) and CD may co-exist, although this association is relatively uncommon in children. In addition, it is not precisely defined whether a gluten-free diet influences the course of AD. CASE PRESENTATION: A case of CD in a 12-year-old boy presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency is described here...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756881/self-reported-oral-health-and-xerostomia-in-adult-patients-with-celiac-disease-versus-a-comparison-group
#14
Tom van Gils, Gerd Bouma, Hetty J Bontkes, Chris J J Mulder, Henk S Brand
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of celiac disease (CD) on oral health and xerostomia. STUDY DESIGN: Members of the Dutch Celiac Society (n = 5522) were invited to complete an online questionnaire based on the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) and Xerostomia Inventory (XI). Acquaintances and partners of the CD respondents served as the comparison group. In total, data of 740 patients with CD and 270 comparison participants were evaluated...
August 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755266/latiglutenase-improves-symptoms-in-seropositive-celiac-disease-patients-while-on-a-gluten-free-diet
#15
Jack A Syage, Joseph A Murray, Peter H R Green, Chaitan Khosla
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Celiac disease (CD) is a widespread condition triggered by dietary gluten and treated with a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD); however, inadvertent exposure to gluten can result in episodic symptoms. A previous trial of latiglutenase (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01917630), an orally administered mixture of two recombinant gluten-specific proteases, was undertaken in symptomatic subjects with persistent injury. The primary endpoint for histologic improvement was not met, presumably due to a trial effect...
July 28, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753927/self-reported-non-celiac-wheat-sensitivity-in-high-school-students-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics
#16
Antonio Carroccio, Ornella Giambalvo, Francesco La Blasca, Rosario Iacobucci, Alberto D'Alcamo, Pasquale Mansueto
BACKGROUND: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS) has recently been included among the gluten-related disorders. As no biomarkers of this disease exist, its frequency has been estimated based on self-reported symptoms, but to date no data are available about self-reported NCWS in teenagers. AIM: To explore the prevalence of self-reported NCWS in a group of high school students and to study their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: The study was performed between April 2015 and January 2016 in two high schools of a coastal town in the south of Sicily (Italy)...
July 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738401/serum-vitamins-and-minerals-at-diagnosis-and-follow-up-in-children-with-celiac-disease
#17
Vini Deora, Nicole Aylward, AbdulRazaq Sokoro, Wael El-Matary
OBJECTIVES: Children with celiac disease (CD) may experience deficiencies of several micronutrients. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in children with CD at diagnosis, 6 months, and 18 months after the start of a gluten-free diet (GFD), and examine any correlation between micronutrient deficiencies, serum tissue transglutaminase (TtG) immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titers, and the degree of mucosal damage at diagnosis...
August 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738233/association-of-the-il-15-and-il-15r%C3%AE-genes-with-celiac-disease
#18
Celia Escudero-Hernández, Leticia Plaza-Izurieta, José A Garrote, José Ramón Bilbao, Eduardo Arranz
Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune condition triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals and the treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. The major predisposing genes are HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1, but these are not sufficient for disease development. One of the candidate genes worth studying is interleukin (IL)-15 gene, together with its specific receptor, IL-15Rα, as they participate in promoting lymphocyte signaling and survival, and the establishment of appropriate conditions for villous atrophy, then acting as key players in the immunopathogenesis of CD...
July 21, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736999/regulatory-t-cell-subsets-in-peripheral-blood-of-celiac-disease-patients-and-tlr2-expression-correlation-with-oxidative-stress
#19
Sanjay Kumar, Sadhna Lal, Archana Bhatnagar
The study was carried out to study expression of Toll like receptors 2 (TLR2), natural/inducible Treg and Interferon-γ alongside oxidative stress and understand their significance in pediatric samples. Influence of oxidative stress on Celiac Disease was analysed by evaluating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, Glutathione peroxidase, etc. A comparison was performed among CD patients, CD patients on gluten free diet (GFD), and healthy controls. Peripheral nTregs exhibited a similar pattern of reduced numbers in CD and GFD cases when compared to healthy controls...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727124/similar-effects-of-lysine-deficiency-in-muscle-biochemical-characteristics-of-fatty-and-lean-piglets
#20
P Palma-Granados, A Haro, I Seiquer, L Lara, J F Aguilera, R Nieto
The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of feeding Lys-deficient diets on muscle biochemical characteristics, particularly intramuscular fat concentration and fatty acid profile, in a fatty (Iberian) and a conventional pig genotype (Landrace × Large White [LDW]) maintained in identical experimental conditions. Performance and plasma metabolite changes were also monitored. Twenty-eight barrows of 10 kg initial BW, 14 of Iberian and 14 of LDW breed, were randomly assigned to each of 2 experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (2 breeds × 2 diets)...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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