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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087752/deficient-retinoid-driven-angiogenesis-may-contribute-to-failure-of-adult-human-lung-regeneration-in-emphysema
#1
John-Poul Ng-Blichfeldt, Joana Alçada, M Angeles Montero, Charlotte H Dean, Uta Griesenbach, Mark J Griffiths, Matthew Hind
BACKGROUND: Molecular pathways that regulate alveolar development and adult repair represent potential therapeutic targets for emphysema. Signalling via retinoic acid (RA), derived from vitamin A, is required for mammalian alveologenesis, and exogenous RA can induce alveolar regeneration in rodents. Little is known about RA signalling in the human lung and its potential role in lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine regulation of human alveolar epithelial and endothelial repair by RA, and characterise RA signalling in human emphysema...
January 13, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087565/perturbation-of-retinoid-homeostasis-increases-malformation-risk-in-embryos-exposed-to-pregestational-diabetes
#2
Leo M Y Lee, Maran B W Leung, Rachel C Y Kwok, Yun-Chung Leung, Chi-Chiu Wang, Peter J McCaffery, Andrew J Copp, Alisa S W Shum
Pregestational diabetes is highly associated with increased risk of birth defects. However, factors that can increase or reduce expressivity and penetrance of malformations in diabetic pregnancies remain poorly identified. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) plays crucial roles in embryogenesis. Here, we find that Cyp26a1, which encodes a key enzyme for catabolic inactivation of RA required for tight control of local RA concentrations, is significantly down-regulated in embryos of diabetic mice. Embryonic tissues expressing Cyp26a1 show reduced efficiency of RA clearance...
January 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067449/13cra-regulates-the-differentiation-of-antler-chondrocytes-through-targeting-runx3
#3
Hong-Liang Zhang, Hang Cao, Zhan-Qing Yang, Shuang Geng, Kai Wang, Hai-Fan Yu, Bin Guo, Zhan-Peng Yue
Although 13cRA is involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation, its physiological roles in chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation still remain unknown. Here we showed that 13cRA could induce the proliferation of sika deer antler chondrocytes and expression of Ccnd3 and Cdk6. Administration of 13cRA to antler chondrocytes resulted in an obvious increase in the expression of chondrocyte marker Col II and hypertrophic chondrocyte marker Col X. Silencing of Crabp2 expression by specific siRNA could prevent the 13cRA-induced up-regulation of Col X, whereas overexpression of Crabp2 showed the opposite effects...
January 9, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904043/role-of-the-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-cyp-during-mouse-liver-development
#4
Wataru Ochiai, Akiyo Hirose, Taisuke Kawamura, Kyoko Komachi, Yuka Yamamoto, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Yoshiki Kusunoki, Risako Kon, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
The drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP is mainly involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver, such as drugs, endogenous substances, and carcinogens. Recent reports have also revealed that CYP1B1 plays a major role in the developmental process. Because the level of CYP expression is markedly high in the liver, we hypothesize that CYP plays a role in the developmental process of the liver. To verify this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression patterns of various CYP molecular species and their functions during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ES cells) into hepatocytes and the developmental process in mice...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904037/analysis-of-cyp2r1-and-cyp26a1-expression-patterns-in-regeneration-in-mice-with-liver-injury
#5
Akiyo Hirose, Wataru Ochiai, Yuka Yamamoto, Masashi Fukaya, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Nozomi Wakui, Ayumi Takahashi, Yusuke Takahashi, Satoshi Kitaoka, Jo Hatogai, Nobutomo Ikarashi, Kiyoshi Sugiyama
Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of various substances in the liver and small intestine and show markedly higher expression levels in the liver compared to other organs. The liver exhibits a remarkable capacity to regenerate. After excision of 70% of the liver, the organ can regenerate to its original size in approximately 1 week. Unlike the normal liver, in the injured liver, hepatic stem cells known as oval cells are considered to play an important role in regeneration. However, the role of CYPs in liver regeneration remains unclear...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893754/cyp26-enzymes-facilitate-second-heart-field-progenitor-addition-and-maintenance-of-ventricular-integrity
#6
Ariel B Rydeen, Joshua S Waxman
Although retinoic acid (RA) teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT) malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF) progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs), and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF) ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865410/comparative-analysis-of-testis-transcriptomes-associated-with-male-infertility-in-cattleyak
#7
Xin Cai, Shumin Yu, TserangDonko Mipam, Fang Yang, Wangsheng Zhao, Wenjing Liu, SuiZhong Cao, Liuhong Shen, Fangfang Zhao, Lei Sun, Chuanfei Xu, Shixin Wu
Cattleyak exhibit equivalent adaptability to harsh environment as yak and much higher performances than yak. However, male infertility of cattleyak due to spermatogenic arrest greatly restricts their effective utilization in yak breeding. Although much work has been done to investigate the mechanisms of spermatogenic arrest, there is little information available in regard to the differences in transcriptomic profiling between cattleyak and yak testes. In this work, histologic observation indicated that spermatogonia were the main type of germ cells present in cattleyak testis, whereas all types of germ cells in differentiation were present in yak testis...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860312/cytochrome-p450-26a1-modulates-natural-killer-cells-in-mouse-early-pregnancy
#8
Chao-Yang Meng, Zhong-Yin Li, Wen-Ning Fang, Zhi-Hui Song, Dan-Dan Yang, Dan-Dan Li, Ying Yang, Jing-Pian Peng
Cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) has a spatiotemporal expression pattern in the uterus, with a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels during peri-implantation. Inhibiting the function or expression of CYP26A1 can cause pregnancy failure, suggesting an important regulatory role of CYP26A1 in the maintenance of pregnancy. However, little is known about the exact mechanism involved. In this study, using a pCR3.1-cyp26a1 plasmid immunization mouse model and a Cyp26a1-MO (Cyp26a1-specific antisense oligos) knockdown mouse model, we report that the number of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) lectin-positive uterine natural killer (uNK) cells was reduced in pCR3...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638841/restoring-retinoic-acid-attenuates-intestinal-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-apcmin-mice
#9
Hweixian Leong Penny, Tyler R Prestwood, Nupur Bhattacharya, Fionna Sun, Justin A Kenkel, Matthew G Davidson, Lei Shen, Luis A Zuniga, E Scott Seeley, Reetesh Pai, Okmi Choi, Lorna Tolentino, Jinshan Wang, Joseph L Napoli, Edgar G Engleman
Chronic intestinal inflammation accompanies familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer in patients with this disease, but the cause of such inflammation is unknown. Because retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis in the intestine, we hypothesized that altered RA metabolism contributes to inflammation and tumorigenesis in FAP. To assess this hypothesis, we analyzed RA metabolism in the intestines of patients with FAP as well as APC(Min/+) mice, a model that recapitulates FAP in most respects...
September 16, 2016: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619487/transcriptional-regulation-of-genes-involved-in-retinoic-acid-metabolism-in-senegalese-sole-larvae
#10
Anaïs Boglino, Marian Ponce, Xavier Cousin, Enric Gisbert, Manuel Manchado
The aim of this study was the characterization of transcriptional regulatory pathways mediated by retinoic acid (RA) in Senegalese sole larvae. For this purpose, pre-metamorphic larvae were treated with a low concentration of DEAB, an inhibitor of RALDH enzyme, until the end of metamorphosis. No differences in growth, eye migration or survival were observed. Nevertheless, gene expression analysis revealed a total of 20 transcripts differentially expressed during larval development and only six related with DEAB treatments directly involved in RA metabolism and actions (rdh10a, aldh1a2, crbp1, igf2r, rarg and cyp26a1) to adapt to a low-RA environment...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590114/normalizing-microbiota-induced-retinoic-acid-deficiency-stimulates-protective-cd8-t-cell-mediated-immunity-in-colorectal-cancer
#11
Nupur Bhattacharya, Robert Yuan, Tyler R Prestwood, Hweixian Leong Penny, Michael A DiMaio, Nathan E Reticker-Flynn, Charles R Krois, Justin A Kenkel, Tho D Pham, Yaron Carmi, Lorna Tolentino, Okmi Choi, Reyna Hulett, Jinshan Wang, Daniel A Winer, Joseph L Napoli, Edgar G Engleman
Although all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a key regulator of intestinal immunity, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. We found that mice with colitis-associated CRC had a marked deficiency in colonic atRA due to alterations in atRA metabolism mediated by microbiota-induced intestinal inflammation. Human ulcerative colitis (UC), UC-associated CRC, and sporadic CRC specimens have similar alterations in atRA metabolic enzymes, consistent with reduced colonic atRA. Inhibition of atRA signaling promoted tumorigenesis, whereas atRA supplementation reduced tumor burden...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589347/accelerated-skeletal-maturation-in-disorders-of-retinoic-acid-metabolism-a-case-report-and-focused-review-of-the-literature
#12
O Nilsson, N Isoherranen, M H Guo, J C Lui, Y H Jee, I Guttmann-Bauman, C Acerini, W Lee, R Allikmets, J A Yanovski, A Dauber, J Baron
Nutritional excess of vitamin A, a precursor for retinoic acid (RA), causes premature epiphyseal fusion, craniosynostosis, and light-dependent retinopathy. Similarly, homozygous loss-of-function mutations in CYP26B1, one of the major RA-metabolizing enzymes, cause advanced bone age, premature epiphyseal fusion, and craniosynostosis. In this paper, a patient with markedly accelerated skeletal and dental development, retinal scarring, and autism-spectrum disease is presented and the role of retinoic acid in longitudinal bone growth and skeletal maturation is reviewed...
November 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569851/expression-of-retinoic-acid-metabolizing-enzymes-aldh1a1-aldh1a2-aldh1a3-cyp26a1-cyp26b1-and-cyp26c1-in-canine-testis-during-post-natal-development
#13
V R Kasimanickam
Mammalian spermatogenesis involves highly regulated temporal and spatial dynamics, carefully controlled by several signalling processes. Retinoic acid (RA) signalling could have a critical role in spermatogenesis by promoting spermatogonia differentiation, adhesion of germ cells to Sertoli cells, and release of mature spermatids. An optimal testicular RA concentration is maintained by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which oxidize RA precursors to produce RA, whereas the CYP26 class of enzymes catabolizes (oxidize) RA into inactive metabolites...
December 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27424662/comparison-of-the-ligand-binding-site-of-cyp2c8-with-cyp26a1-and-cyp26b1-a-structural-basis-for-the-identification-of-new-inhibitors-of-the-retinoic-acid-hydroxylases
#14
Robert S Foti, Philippe Diaz, Dominique Douguet
The CYP26s are responsible for metabolizing retinoic acid and play an important role in maintaining homeostatic levels of retinoic acid. Given the ability of CYP2C8 to metabolize retinoic acid, we evaluated the potential for CYP2C8 inhibitors to also inhibit CYP26. In vitro assays were used to evaluate the inhibition potencies of CYP2C8 inhibitors against CYP26A1 and CYP26B1. Using tazarotenic acid as a substrate for CYP26, IC50 values for 17 inhibitors of CYP2C8 were determined for CYP26A1 and CYP26B1, ranging from ∼20 nM to 100 μM, with a positive correlation observed between IC50s for CYP2C8 and CYP26A1...
2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406002/bmp-and-retinoic-acid-regulate-anterior-posterior-patterning-of-the-non-axial-mesoderm-across-the-dorsal-ventral-axis
#15
Richard W Naylor, Lauren Brilli Skvarca, Christine Thisse, Bernard Thisse, Neil A Hukriede, Alan J Davidson
Despite the fundamental importance of patterning along the dorsal-ventral (DV) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes during embryogenesis, uncertainty exists in the orientation of these axes for the mesoderm. Here we examine the origin and formation of the zebrafish kidney, a ventrolateral mesoderm derivative, and show that AP patterning of the non-axial mesoderm occurs across the classic gastrula stage DV axis while DV patterning aligns along the animal-vegetal pole. We find that BMP signalling acts early to establish broad anterior and posterior territories in the non-axial mesoderm while retinoic acid (RA) functions later, but also across the classic DV axis...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27373883/retinoic-acid-modulates-ptgdr-promoter-activity
#16
A García-Sánchez, E Marcos-Vadillo, C Sanz, L Hernández-Hernández, G Cerutti-Müller, F Marqués-García, F Lorente, M Isidoro-García, I Dávila
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin A has been linked to the development of allergic diseases although its role is not fully understood, Retinoic acid (RA), a metabolite of Vitamin A, has been previously associated with the prostaglandin pathway, and PTGDR, a receptor of PGD2, has been proposed as a candidate gene in allergy and asthma. Considering the role of PTGDR in allergy, the goal of this study was to analyze the effect of RA on the activation of the promoter region of the PTGDR gene...
2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367670/computational-identification-of-the-paralogs-and-orthologs-of-human-cytochrome-p450-superfamily-and-the-implication-in-drug-discovery
#17
Shu-Ting Pan, Danfeng Xue, Zhi-Ling Li, Zhi-Wei Zhou, Zhi-Xu He, Yinxue Yang, Tianxin Yang, Jia-Xuan Qiu, Shu-Feng Zhou
The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily consisting of 57 functional genes is the most important group of Phase I drug metabolizing enzymes that oxidize a large number of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants. The CYP superfamily has been shown to expand itself through gene duplication, and some of them become pseudogenes due to gene mutations. Orthologs and paralogs are homologous genes resulting from speciation or duplication, respectively. To explore the evolutionary and functional relationships of human CYPs, we conducted this bioinformatic study to identify their corresponding paralogs, homologs, and orthologs...
June 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366899/effect-of-nadph-cytochrome-p450-reductase-on-all-trans-retinoic-acid-efficacy-and-cytochrome-p450-26a1-expression-in-human-myeloid-leukaemia-hl-60-cells
#18
Lei Hu, Jin-Feng Lv, Wei Zhuo, Cong-Min Zhang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Lan Fan
OBJECTIVES: All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), a naturally occurring metabolite of vitamin A, has been shown to have great potential as an antitumorigenic drug to treat acute leukaemia by promoting cancer cell differentiation. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only obligate electron donor for all of the microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP26A1 which is highly specific for ATRA metabolism and efficacy in human myeloid leukaemia cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of POR on ATRA efficacy and CYP26A1 expression in human myeloid leukaemia HL-60 cells...
September 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263491/combination-of-mouse-models-and-genomewide-association-studies-highlights-novel-genes-associated-with-human-kidney-function
#19
Jiaojiao Jing, Cristian Pattaro, Anselm Hoppmann, Yukinori Okada, Caroline S Fox, Anna Köttgen
Genomewide association studies have identified numerous chronic kidney disease-associated genetic variants, but often do not pinpoint causal genes. This limitation was addressed by combining Mouse Genome Informatics with human genomewide association studies of kidney function. Genes for which mouse models showed abnormal renal physiology, morphology, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio were identified from Mouse Genome Informatics. The corresponding human orthologs were then evaluated for GFR-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 133,814 individuals and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio-associated SNPs in 54,451 individuals in genome-wide association studies meta-analysis of the CKDGen Consortium...
October 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242163/optic-nerve-injury-upregulates-retinoic-acid-signaling-in-the-adult-frog-visual-system
#20
Mildred V Duprey-Díaz, Jonathan M Blagburn, Rosa E Blanco
Retinoic acid (RA) is important during development, in neuronal plasticity, and also in peripheral nervous system regeneration. Here we use the frog visual system as a model to investigate the changes in RA signaling that take place after axonal injury to the central nervous system. Immunocytochemistry was used to localize different components of RA signaling within sections of the retina and optic tectum, namely, the synthetic enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH), the RA binding proteins CRABPI and II, the retinoic acid receptors RARα, β and γ, and finally the catabolic enzyme CYP26A1...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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