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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904994/rapamycin-protects-sepsis-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mouse-hippocampus-by-enhancing-autophagy
#1
Wenyu Liu, Jia'nan Guo, Jie Mu, Linyu Tian, Dong Zhou
The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway might mediate neuroprotection in a mouse model of septic encephalopathy and also to identify the role of autophagy. Mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or a sham operation, and all 50 mice were randomly assigned to five groups: sham, CLP+ saline, CLP+ rapamycin (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) groups. Two weeks after the operation, Morris water maze was conducted for behavioral test; Nissl staining was used for observing glia infiltration; immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measures in hippocampi were performed to detect mTOR targets and autophagy indicators...
December 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903722/adenosine-kinase-deficiency-in-the-brain-results-in-maladaptive-synaptic-plasticity
#2
Ursula S Sandau, Mariana Colino-Oliveira, Abbie Jones, Bounmy Saleumvong, Shayla Q Coffman, Long Liu, Catarina Miranda-Lourenço, Cátia Palminha, Vânia L Batalha, Yiming Xu, Yuqing Huo, Maria J Diógenes, Ana M Sebastião, Detlev Boison
: Adenosine kinase (ADK) deficiency in human patients (OMIM:614300) disrupts the methionine cycle and triggers hypermethioninemia, hepatic encephalopathy, cognitive impairment, and seizures. To identify whether this neurological phenotype is intrinsically based on ADK deficiency in the brain or if it is secondary to liver dysfunction, we generated a mouse model with a brain-wide deletion of ADK by introducing a Nestin-Cre transgene into a line of conditional ADK deficient Adk(fl/fl) mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903706/phase-amplitude-coupling-and-long-range-phase-synchronization-reveal-frontotemporal-interactions-during-visual-working-memory
#3
Jonathan Daume, Thomas Gruber, Andreas K Engel, Uwe Friese
: It has been suggested that cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) particularly in temporal brain structures serves as a neural mechanism for coordinated working memory storage. In this magnetoencephalography study, we show that during visual working memory maintenance, temporal cortex regions, which exhibit enhanced PAC, interact with prefrontal cortex via enhanced low-frequency phase synchronization. Healthy human participants were engaged in a visual delayed-matching-to-sample task with pictures of natural objects...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903322/non-use-of-day-care-services-for-dementia-in-singapore-a-dilemma-for-caregivers
#4
Shan Huang, Konstadina Griva, Christina A Bryant, Philip Yap
BACKGROUND: Day care services for patients with dementia (PWD) are generally under-utilized worldwide despite evidence of positive outcomes, such as improved behavioral, psychological, and cognitive functioning for patients, and reduced caregiver burden. This study sought to gain an in-depth understanding of the reasons for non-utilization of day care services in Singapore using qualitative methodology. METHODS: A purposive sample of 16 caregivers of PWD who had never attended day care services participated in semi-structured interviews...
December 1, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903132/a-trans-theoretical-training-designed-to-promote-understanding-and-management-of-countertransference-for-trainee-therapists
#5
Claire Cartwright, Carrie Barber, Sue Cowie, Neil Thompson
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that awareness of countertransference (CT) in combination with a conceptualization of CT facilitates its management. This study examines the impact of a trans-theoretical training designed to make the construct of CT accessible to trainee therapists in programs oriented towards cognitive-behavioral therapy. The training aimed to enhance trainees' awareness, understanding, and management of CT. METHOD: Academics at five New Zealand universities introduced the training into their curriculum...
November 30, 2016: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902447/a-unique-type-of-gsk-3-inhibitor-brings-new-opportunities-to-the-clinic
#6
Avital Licht-Murava, Rom Paz, Lilach Vaks, Limor Avrahami, Batya Plotkin, Miriam Eisenstein, Hagit Eldar-Finkelman
Development of protein kinase inhibitors is a focus of many drug discovery programs. A major problem, however, is the limited specificity of the commonly used adenosine triphosphate-competitive inhibitors and the weak inhibition of the more selective substrate-competitive inhibitors. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a promising drug target for treating neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), but most GSK-3 inhibitors have not reached the clinic. We describe a new type of GSK-3 inhibitor, L807mts, that acts through a substrate-to-inhibitor conversion mechanism that occurs within the catalytic site of the enzyme...
November 15, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901000/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induces-the-early-appearance-of-pro-apoptotic-and-anti-apoptotic-proteins-in-neurons-of-five-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mice
#7
Hui Shen, Xiao-Dong Pan, Jing Zhang, Yu-Qi Zeng, Meng Zhou, Lu-Meng Yang, Bing Ye, Xiao-Man Dai, Yuan-Gui Zhu, Xiao-Chun Chen
BACKGROUND: Amyloid β (Aβ) deposits and the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) are both well established in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism and role of Aβ-induced ERS in AD-associated pathological progression remain to be elucidated. METHODS: The five familial AD (5×FAD) mice and wild-type (WT) mice aged 2, 7, and 12 months were used in the present study. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate their cognitive performance...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899748/cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-drives-neurogenesis-and-improves-functional-outcome-after-stroke
#8
Isabel Bravo-Ferrer, María I Cuartero, Juan G Zarruk, Jesús M Pradillo, Olivia Hurtado, Víctor G Romera, Javier Díaz-Alonso, Juan M García-Segura, Manuel Guzmán, Ignacio Lizasoain, Ismael Galve-Roperh, María A Moro
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability characterized by physical, cognitive, and emotional disturbances. Unfortunately, pharmacological options are scarce. The cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) is neuroprotective in acute experimental stroke by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, its role in chronic stroke is still unknown. METHODS: Stroke was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice; CB2R modulation was assessed by administering the CB2R agonist JWH133 ((6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran) or the CB2R antagonist SR144528 (N-[(1S)-endo-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo-[2...
November 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899296/targeting-the-norepinephrinergic-system-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-related-disorders-the-locus-coeruleus-story
#9
Yannick Vermeiren, Peter P De Deyn
Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are related, progressive and debilitating neurodegenerative disorders with hallmark features that include a variety of motor and non-motor symptoms (behavioral, autonomic and cognitive dysfunction). For almost half a century, the motor aspects have been attributed to Lewy pathology (LP) predominantly in the substantia nigra (SN), causing a major loss of dopaminergic neurons. However, the relative success of dopaminergic replacement therapies for alleviation of solely the parkinsonian features has prompted researchers to further explore other monoaminergic strategies which may tackle all PD-related aspects...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898498/intention-to-drive-after-drinking-among-medical-students-contributions-of-the-protection-motivation-theory
#10
Ricardo Abrantes Amaral, André Malbergier, Danielle Ruiz Lima, Verena Castellani Vitor Santos, Clarice Gorenstein, Arthur Guerra de Andrade
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897992/mitigating-rf-front-end-nonlinearity-of-sensor-nodes-to-enhance-spectrum-sensing
#11
Lin Hu, Hong Ma, Hua Zhang, Wen Zhao
The cognitive radio wireless sensor network (CR-WSN) has gained worldwide attention in recent years for its potential applications. Reliable spectrum sensing is the premise for opportunistic access to sensor nodes. However, as a result of the radio frequency (RF) front-end nonlinearity of sensor nodes, distortion products can easily degrade the spectrum sensing performance by causing false alarms and degrading the detection probability. Given the limitations of the widely-used adaptive interference cancellation (AIC) algorithm, this paper develops several details to avoid these limitations and form a new mitigation architecture to alleviate nonlinear distortions...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897670/boosting-cognition-effects-of-multiple-session-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory
#12
Lotte J Talsma, Henryk A Kroese, Heleen A Slagter
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising tool for neurocognitive enhancement. Several studies have shown that just a single session of tDCS over the left dorsolateral pFC (lDLPFC) can improve the core cognitive function of working memory (WM) in healthy adults. Yet, recent studies combining multiple sessions of anodal tDCS over lDLPFC with verbal WM training did not observe additional benefits of tDCS in subsequent stimulation sessions nor transfer of benefits to novel WM tasks posttraining...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896805/key-elements-of-a-family-intervention-for-schizophrenia-a-qualitative-analysis-of-an-rct
#13
Jaime Grácio, Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira, Julian Leff
Schizophrenia is a complex biopsychosocial condition in which expressed emotion in family members is a robust predictor of relapse. Not surprisingly, family interventions are remarkably effective and thus recommended in current treatment guidelines. Their key elements seem to be common therapeutic factors, followed by education and coping skills training. However, few studies have explored these key elements and the process of the intervention itself. We conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the records from a pioneering family intervention trial addressing expressed emotion, published by Leff and colleagues four decades ago...
November 29, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896035/a-large-scale-test-of-the-gaming-enhancement-hypothesis
#14
Andrew K Przybylski, John C Wang
A growing research literature suggests that regular electronic game play and game-based training programs may confer practically significant benefits to cognitive functioning. Most evidence supporting this idea, the gaming-enhancement hypothesis, has been collected in small-scale studies of university students and older adults. This research investigated the hypothesis in a general way with a large sample of 1,847 school-aged children. Our aim was to examine the relations between young people's gaming experiences and an objective test of reasoning performance...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895571/neural-mechanisms-of-positive-mood-induced-modulation-of-reality-monitoring
#15
Karuna Subramaniam, Jeevit Gill, Patrick Slattery, Aditi Shastri, Daniel H Mathalon, Srikantan Nagarajan, Sophia Vinogradov
This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#16
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894892/longitudinal-functional-brain-imaging-study-in-early-course-schizophrenia-before-and-after-cognitive-enhancement-therapy
#17
Matcheri S Keshavan, Shaun M Eack, Konasale M Prasad, Chiara S Haller, Raymond Y Cho
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is characterized by impaired -social and non social cognition both of which lead to functional deficits. These deficits may benefit from cognitive remediation, but the neural underpinnings of such improvements have not been clearly delineated. METHODS: We conducted a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study in early course schizophrenia patients randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or enriched supportive therapy (EST) and treated for two years...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894380/an-attention-and-interpretation-bias-for-illness-specific-information-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#18
A M Hughes, T Chalder, C R Hirsch, R Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that specific cognitions and behaviours play a role in maintaining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, little research has investigated illness-specific cognitive processing in CFS. This study investigated whether CFS participants had an attentional bias for CFS-related stimuli and a tendency to interpret ambiguous information in a somatic way. It also determined whether cognitive processing biases were associated with co-morbidity, attentional control or self-reported unhelpful cognitions and behaviours...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894219/exposure-to-culturally-sensitive-sexual-health-information-and-impact-on-health-literacy-a-qualitative-study-among-newly-arrived-refugee-women-in-sweden
#19
Pia Svensson, Katarina Carlzén, Anette Agardh
In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden...
November 29, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893859/hippocampal-calcification-on-computed-tomography-in-relation-to-cognitive-decline-in-memory-clinic-patients-a-case-control-study
#20
Remko Kockelkoren, Jill B De Vis, Willem P Th M Mali, Jeroen Hendrikse, Pim A de Jong, Annemieke M Rozemuller, Huiberdina L Koek
BACKGROUND: It was recently shown that calcification of the hippocampus can be detected on computed tomography (CT) images and these calcifications occur in up to 20% of people over 50 years of age. However, little is known about hippocampal calcification and its relation to cognition and cognitive decline. Therefore, the aim of this study was to (1) determine the prevalence of hippocampal calcification on CT in memory clinic patients controls, and (2) to assess its relation with cognitive decline...
2016: PloS One
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