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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334684/aberrant-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-revealed-by-multimodal-neuroimaging-data
#1
Qing Li, Xia Wu, Fufang Xie, Kewei Chen, Li Yao, Jiacai Zhang, Xiaojuan Guo, Rui Li
BACKGROUND: Making use of multimodal data simultaneously to understand the neural mechanism of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been in the focus nowadays. The simultaneous use of multimodal data can take advantage of each modality which may only provide the view of one specific aspect of the brain. OBJECTIVE: To this end, the present study used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and florbetapir PET to reveal the integrated brain network between MCI and normal controls (NCs)...
January 13, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333504/community-based-physical-activity-as-adjunctive-smoking-cessation-treatment-rationale-design-and-baseline-data-for-the-lifestyle-enhancement-program-leap-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Mark W Vander Weg, Mace Coday, Michelle B Stockton, Barbara McClanahan, George Relyea, Mary C Read, Nancy Wilson, Stephanie Connelly, Phyllis Richey, Karen C Johnson, Kenneth D Ward
Despite advances in behavioral and pharmacological treatment for tobacco use and dependence, quit rates remain suboptimal. Increasing physical activity has shown some promise as a strategy for improving cessation outcomes. However, initial efficacy studies focused on intensive, highly structured exercise programs that may not be applicable to the general population of smokers. We describe the rationale and study design and report baseline participant characteristics from the Lifestyle Enhancement Program (LEAP), a two-group, randomized controlled trial...
March 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#3
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332052/when-art-meets-gardens-does-it-enhance-the-benefits-the-nancy-hypothesis-of-care-for-persons-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Thérèse Rivasseau Jonveaux, Reinhard Fescharek
The creation of healing gardens for persons with Alzheimer's disease and related diseases (ADRD) offers vast potential. They can play a role in the scaffolding of cognitive disorders, emotional stress, sensory processing, sense of harmony, and appeasement. These effects are achieved through a distributed interplay of psychological functions with the immediate environment and local culture on the one hand, and dialogue on the other. The garden, a natural canvas created by man, shares with art the ability to foster an esthetic sense for which the perception can be measured by functional neurological imaging exploration...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332050/supplemental-retinal-carotenoids-enhance-memory-in-healthy-individuals-with-low-levels-of-macular-pigment-in-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Rebecca Power, Robert F Coen, Stephen Beatty, Riona Mulcahy, Rachel Moran, Jim Stack, Alan N Howard, John M Nolan
BACKGROUND: There is a biologically plausible rationale whereby the dietary carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ), which are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP) in the central retina (macula), support the maintenance of cognition via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of supplemental L, Z, and MZ on memory, executive function, and verbal fluency among healthy individuals with low MP levels...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331971/a-study-protocol-for-a-non-randomised-comparison-trial-evaluating-the-feasibility-and-effectiveness-of-a-mobile-cognitive-behavioural-programme-with-integrated-coaching-for-anxious-adults-in-primary-care
#6
Eva Szigethy, Francis Solano, Meredith Wallace, Dina L Perry, Lauren Morrell, Kathryn Scott, Megan Jones Bell, Megan Oser
INTRODUCTION: Generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and subclinical GAD are highly prevalent in primary care. Unmanaged anxiety worsens quality of life in patients seen in primary care practices and leads to increased medical utilisation and costs. Programmes that teach patients cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques have been shown to improve anxiety and to prevent the evolution of anxiety symptoms to disorders, but access and engagement have hampered integration of CBT into medical settings...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331876/app-go-protein-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complex-signaling-mediates-a%C3%AE-degeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#7
Elena Anahi Bignante, Nicolás Eric Ponce, Florencia Heredia, Juliana Musso, María C Krawczyk, Julieta Millán, Gustavo F Pigino, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Mariano M Boccia, Alfredo Lorenzo
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ), the proteolytic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), might cause neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the direct involvement of APP in the mechanism of Aβ-induced degeneration in AD remains on debate. Here, we analyzed the interaction of APP with heterotrimeric Go protein in primary hippocampal cultures and found that Aβ deposition dramatically enhanced APP-Go protein interaction in dystrophic neurites. APP overexpression rendered neurons vulnerable to Aβ toxicity by a mechanism that required Go-Gβγ complex signaling and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331730/exenatide-exerts-cognitive-effects-by-modulating-the-bdnf-trkb-neurotrophic-axis-in-adult-mice
#8
Manuela Bomba, Alberto Granzotto, Vanessa Castelli, Noemi Massetti, Elena Silvestri, Lorella M T Canzoniero, Annamaria Cimini, Stefano L Sensi
Modulation of insulin-dependent signaling is emerging as a valuable therapeutic tool to target neurodegeneration. In the brain, the activation of insulin receptors promotes cell growth, neuronal repair, and protection. Altered brain insulin signaling participates in the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's disease patients and the aging brain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates insulin secretion and, along with GLP-1 analogues, enhances neurotrophic signaling and counteracts cognitive deficits in preclinical models of neurodegeneration...
December 19, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329463/ginsenoside-rh1-a-systematic-review-of-its-pharmacological-properties
#9
Dao Ngoc Hien Tam, Duy Hieu Truong, Thi Thanh Hoa Nguyen, Le Nhat Quynh, Linh Tran, Hong Duong Nguyen, Bahaa Eldin Shamandy, Thi Minh Huong Le, Dang Khoa Tran, Dina Sayed, Van Vinh Vu, Shusaku Mizukami, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Ginsenoside Rh1 is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. The objective of this study was to review the pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 in a systematic manner. We performed searches on eight electronic databases including MEDLINE (Pubmed), Scopus, Google Scholar, POPLINE, Global Health Library, Virtual Health Library, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report to select the original research publications reporting the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 from in vitro and in vivo studies regardless of publication language and study design...
January 12, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329288/soil-transmitted-helminth-infection-loss-of-education-and-cognitive-impairment-in-school-aged-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Noel Pabalan, Eloisa Singian, Lani Tabangay, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Michael J Boivin, Amara E Ezeamama
BACKGROUND: Evidence of an adverse influence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections on cognitive function and educational loss is equivocal. Prior meta-analyses have focused on randomized controlled trials only and have not sufficiently explored the potential for disparate influence of STH infection by cognitive domain. We re-examine the hypothesis that STH infection is associated with cognitive deficit and educational loss using data from all primary epidemiologic studies published between 1992 and 2016...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328907/weaving-new-insights-for-the-genetic-regulation-of-human-cognitive-phenotypes
#11
Bernard Mulvey, Joseph D Dougherty
Psychiatric genetic studies have drawn associations between human cognitive traits and noncoding genomic variants. However, the mechanistic effects of these variants are unclear. By weaving in strands of genomic data from developing human brains, de la Torre-Ubieta et al. tie disease-associated loci to functional enhancers, target genes, and putatively affected cell types.
January 11, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327228/postoperative-intermittent-fasting-prevents-hippocampal-oxidative-stress-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#12
Yuan Hu, Miao Zhang, Yunyun Chen, Ying Yang, Jun-Jian Zhang
PURPOSE: Whether intermittent fasting (IF) treatment after stroke can prevent its long-term detrimental effects remains unknown. Here, we investigate the effects of postoperative IF on cognitive deficits and its underlying mechanisms in a permanent two-vessel occlusion (2VO) vascular dementia rat model. METHODS: Rats were subjected to either IF or ad libitum feeding 1 week after 2VO surgery. The cognition of rats was assessed using the novel object recognition (NOR) task and Morris water maze (MWM) 8 weeks after surgery...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327125/icariin-improves-cognitive-impairment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-by-enhancing-hippocampal-acetylation
#13
Zi-Gang Zhang, Xin Wang, Jin-Hai Zai, Cai-Hua Sun, Bing-Chun Yan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of icariin (ICA) on the cognitive impairment induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice and the underlying mechanisms related to changes in hippocampal acetylation level. METHODS: The modifified free-fall method was used to establish the TBI mouse model. Mice with post-TBI cognitive impairment were randomly divided into 3 groups using the randomised block method (n=7): TBI (vehicle-treated), low-dose (75 mg/kg) and high-dose (150 mg/kg) of ICA groups...
January 9, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326067/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-enhances-divergent-thinking
#14
Lorenza S Colzato, Simone M Ritter, Laura Steenbergen
Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers...
January 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325995/acetylshikonin-from-zicao-attenuates-cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampus-senescence-in-d-galactose-induced-aging-mouse-model-via-upregulating-the-expression-of-sirt1
#15
Qisen Li, Jiacheng Zeng, Meiling Su, Yu He, Banghao Zhu
Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aging model was established in male Kunming mice by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (150 mg/kg/d) for 60 days, and the mice were given AS (270, 540 and 1080 mg/kg/d) or distilled water intragastrically for 30 days after 30 days of D-gal injection...
January 8, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325563/healthcare-information-systems-the-cognitive-challenge
#16
Gavan Lintern, Al Motavalli
BACKGROUND: Healthcare work is, to a considerable extent, cognitive. Subsequently, the analysis and the design of supporting technology must be sensitive to the cognitive and adaptive demands of the work and to the cognitive strategies employed by healthcare practitioners. Despite the vital role that cognition plays in healthcare work, current technocentric design approaches for healthcare technology do not account for it, failing to observe it during analysis and failing to develop support for it during design...
January 11, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324783/sirt3-activator-honokiol-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-by-modulating-amyloidogenic-pathway
#17
Sindhu Ramesh, Manoj Govindarajulu, Tyler Lynd, Gwyneth Briggs, Danielle Adamek, Ellery Jones, Jake Heiner, Mohammed Majrashi, Timothy Moore, Rajesh Amin, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran
Honokiol (poly-phenolic lignan from Magnolia grandiflora) is a Sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) activator which exhibit antioxidant activity and augment mitochondrial functions in several experimental models. Modern evidence suggests the critical role of SIRT3 in the progression of several metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid beta (Aβ), the precursor to extracellular senile plaques, accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is related to the development of cognitive impairment and neuronal cell death...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324073/rapid-improvement-on-a-temporal-attention-task-within-a-single-session-of-high-frequency-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#18
Sarah C Tyler, Federica Contò, Lorella Battelli
This study explored the modulatory effects of high-frequency transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) on visual sensitivity during a temporal attention task. We measured sensitivity to different onset asynchronies during a temporal order judgment task as a function of active stimulation relative to sham. While completing the task, participants were stimulated bilaterally for 20 min over either the TPJ or the human middle temporal area. We hypothesized that tRNS over the TPJ, which is critical to the temporal attention network, would selectively increase cortical excitability and induce cognitive training-like effects on performance, perhaps more so in the left visual field [Matthews, N...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323042/mitochondrial-protective-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-rhodiola-crenulata-extract-on-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Jun-Mei Wang, Ze-Qiang Qu, Jin-Lang Wu, Peter Chung, Yuan-Shan Zeng
In our previous study, we found that the edible alcohol extract of the root of the medicinal plant Rhodiola crenulata (RCE) improved spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study from our laboratory showed that RCE enhanced neural cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prevented damage to hippocampal neurons in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of RCE are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of RCE and its neuroprotective mechanism of action in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321682/intermittent-metabolic-switching-neuroplasticity-and-brain-health
#20
REVIEW
Mark P Mattson, Keelin Moehl, Nathaniel Ghena, Maggie Schmaedick, Aiwu Cheng
During evolution, individuals whose brains and bodies functioned well in a fasted state were successful in acquiring food, enabling their survival and reproduction. With fasting and extended exercise, liver glycogen stores are depleted and ketones are produced from adipose-cell-derived fatty acids. This metabolic switch in cellular fuel source is accompanied by cellular and molecular adaptations of neural networks in the brain that enhance their functionality and bolster their resistance to stress, injury and disease...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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