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Quantum coherence

Ya-Fen Hsiao, Pin-Ju Tsai, Hung-Shiue Chen, Sheng-Xiang Lin, Chih-Chiao Hung, Chih-Hsi Lee, Yi-Hsin Chen, Yong-Fan Chen, Ite A Yu, Ying-Cheng Chen
Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Fei Xue, A H MacDonald
We study the phase diagram of a model quantum spin Hall system as a function of band inversion and band-coupling strength, demonstrating that when band hybridization is weak, an interaction-induced nematic insulator state emerges over a wide range of band inversion. This property is a consequence of the long-range Coulomb interaction, which favors interband phase coherence that is weakly dependent on momentum and therefore frustrated by the single-particle Hamiltonian at the band inversion point. For weak band hybridization, interactions convert the continuous gap closing topological phase transition at inversion into a pair of continuous phase transitions bounding a state with broken time-reversal and rotational symmetries...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Kateřina Luková, Radim Nesvadba, Tereza Uhlíková, Daniel A Obenchain, Dennis Wachsmuth, Jens-Uwe Grabow, Štěpán Urban
The saturated part of the 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) molecule allows for the possibility of multiple conformers' existence. High-resolution microwave spectroscopy, supported by high-level quantum chemistry calculations, was used to determine the precise molecular structures of the conformers of THQ. Via the MP2 calculations, we were able to discriminate four stable conformations, i.e. two pairs of energetically equivalent enantiomorphic conformers. The results of the calculations also indicate that energetically non-equivalent conformers are separated by a low energy barrier (104 cm-1) that allows for conformational cooling to occur...
May 17, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
José Roberto Pereira Guedes, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
INTRODUCTION:  There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality...
May 16, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Minhaeng Cho
Parametric down-conversion is a second-order nonlinear optical process annihilating a pump photon and creating a pair of photons in the signal and idler modes. Then, by using two parametric down-converters and introducing a path indistinguishability for the two generated idler modes, a quantum coherence between two conjugate signal beams can be induced. Such a double spontaneous or stimulated parametric down-conversion scheme has been used to demonstrate quantum spectroscopy and imaging with undetected idler photons via measuring one-photon interference between their correlated signal beams...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Paul Brumer
Light-induced processes that occur in nature, such as photosynthesis and photoisomerization in the first steps in vision, are often studied in the laboratory using coherent pulsed laser sources, which induce time-dependent coherent wavepacket molecule dynamics. Nature, however, uses stationary incoherent thermal radiation, such as sunlight, leading to a totally different molecular response, the time-independent steady state. It is vital to appreciate this difference in order to assess the role of quantum coherence effects in biological systems...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Saya Otake, Kou Okuro, Davide Bochicchio, Giovanni M Pavan, Takuzo Aida
FL NBD-BAMPEG2k bearing a nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) unit and an oleyl terminus conjugated via a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer ( Mn = 2,000), was designed to fluorescently label cell membranes by docking its hydrophobic oleyl terminus. During laser scanning microscopy in a minimal essential medium (MEM), human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells labelled with FL NBD-BAMPEG2k appeared to undergo optoporation at their plasma membrane. We confirmed this unprecedented possibility by a series of cellular uptake experiments using negatively charged and therefore membrane-impermeable quantum dots (QDs; Dh = 4...
May 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Mangesh Bhattarai, Vineet Bharti, Vasant Natarajan
We demonstrate a technique for continuous tuning of the Hanle effect from electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) by changing the polarization ellipticity of a control beam. In contrast to previous work in this field, we use spatially separated probe and control beams. The experiments are done using magnetic sublevels of the Fg  = 4 → Fe  = 5 closed hyperfine transition in the 852 nm D2 line of 133 Cs. The atoms are contained in a room temperature vapor cell with anti-relaxation (paraffin) coating on the walls...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Konstantin E Dorfman, Dazhi Xu, Jianshu Cao
Quantum coherence has been demonstrated in various systems including organic solar cells and solid state devices. In this article, we report the lower and upper bounds for the performance of quantum heat engines determined by the efficiency at maximum power. Our prediction based on the canonical three-level Scovil and Schulz-Dubois maser model strongly depends on the ratio of system-bath couplings for the hot and cold baths and recovers the theoretical bounds established previously for the Carnot engine. Further, introducing a fourth level to the maser model can enhance the maximal power and its efficiency, thus demonstrating the importance of quantum coherence in the thermodynamics and operation of the heat engines beyond the classical limit...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Felix Leditzky, Debbie Leung, Graeme Smith
We determine both the quantum and the private capacities of low-noise quantum channels to leading orders in the channel's distance to the perfect channel. It has been an open problem for more than 20 yr to determine the capacities of some of these low-noise channels such as the depolarizing channel. We also show that both capacities are equal to the single-letter coherent information of the channel, again to leading orders. We thus find that, in the low-noise regime, superadditivity and degenerate codes have a negligible benefit for the quantum capacity, and shielding does not improve the private capacity beyond the quantum capacity, in stark contrast to the situation when noisier channels are considered...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
H J Williams, L Caldwell, N J Fitch, S Truppe, J Rodewald, E A Hinds, B E Sauer, M R Tarbutt
We demonstrate coherent microwave control of the rotational, hyperfine, and Zeeman states of ultracold CaF molecules, and the magnetic trapping of these molecules in a single, selectable quantum state. We trap about 5×10^{3} molecules for almost 2 s at a temperature of 70(8)  μK and a density of 1.2×10^{5}  cm^{-3}. We measure the state-specific loss rate due to collisions with background helium.
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chun-Jiong Huang, Youjin Deng, Yuan Wan, Zi Yang Meng
We study the quantum spin dynamics of a frustrated XXZ model on a pyrochlore lattice by using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic analytic continuation. In the low-temperature quantum spin ice regime, we observe signatures of coherent photon and spinon excitations in the dynamic spin structure factor. As the temperature rises to the classical spin ice regime, the photon disappears from the dynamic spin structure factor, whereas the dynamics of the spinon remain coherent in a broad temperature window...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
T Madhu Trivikram, M Schlösser, W Ubachs, E J Salumbides
The hydrogen molecule has become a test ground for quantum electrodynamical calculations in molecules. Expanding beyond studies on stable hydrogenic species to the heavier radioactive tritium-bearing molecules, we report on a measurement of the fundamental T_{2} vibrational splitting (v=0→1) for J=0-5 rotational levels. Precision frequency metrology is performed with high-resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy at an experimental uncertainty of 10-12 MHz, where sub-Doppler saturation features are exploited for the strongest transition...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Murphy Yuezhen Niu, Isaac L Chuang, Jeffrey H Shapiro
We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized-using only linear optics and χ^{(2)} (three-wave mixing) interactions-in any (n+1)-dimensional qudit basis of the n-pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ^{(2)} Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u(3) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ^{(2)} interactions...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Rui Han, Gerd Leuchs, Markus Grassl
When quantum states are used to send classical information, the receiver performs a measurement on the signal states. The amount of information extracted is often not optimal due to the receiver's measurement scheme and experimental apparatus. For quantum nondemolition measurements, there is potentially some residual information in the postmeasurement state, while part of the information has been extracted and the rest is destroyed. Here, we propose a framework to characterize a quantum measurement by how much information it extracts and destroys, and how much information it leaves in the residual postmeasurement state...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
H Y Chen, E R MacQuarrie, G D Fuchs
We study the resonant optical transitions of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center that is coherently dressed by a strong mechanical drive. Using a gigahertz-frequency diamond mechanical resonator that is strain coupled to a NV center's orbital states, we demonstrate coherent Raman sidebands out to the ninth order and orbital-phonon interactions that mix the two excited-state orbital branches. These interactions are spectroscopically revealed through a multiphonon Rabi splitting of the orbital branches which scales as a function of resonator driving amplitude and is successfully reproduced in a quantum model...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Hyukjoon Kwon, Hyunseok Jeong, David Jennings, Benjamin Yadin, M S Kim
In thermodynamics, quantum coherences-superpositions between energy eigenstates-behave in distinctly nonclassical ways. Here we describe how thermodynamic coherence splits into two kinds-"internal" coherence that admits an energetic value in terms of thermodynamic work, and "external" coherence that does not have energetic value, but instead corresponds to the functioning of the system as a quantum clock. For the latter form of coherence, we provide dynamical constraints that relate to quantum metrology and macroscopicity, while for the former, we show that quantum states exist that have finite internal coherence yet with zero deterministic work value...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Shai Machnes, Elie Assémat, David Tannor, Frank K Wilhelm
Quantum computation places very stringent demands on gate fidelities, and experimental implementations require both the controls and the resultant dynamics to conform to hardware-specific constraints. Superconducting qubits present the additional requirement that pulses must have simple parameterizations, so they can be further calibrated in the experiment, to compensate for uncertainties in system parameters. Other quantum technologies, such as sensing, require extremely high fidelities. We present a novel, conceptually simple and easy-to-implement gradient-based optimal control technique named gradient optimization of analytic controls (GOAT), which satisfies all the above requirements, unlike previous approaches...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nina Megier, Walter T Strunz, Carlos Viviescas, Kimmo Luoma
We derive a family of Gaussian non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equations for the dynamics of open quantum systems. The different unravelings correspond to different choices of squeezed coherent states, reflecting different measurement schemes on the environment. Consequently, we are able to give a single shot measurement interpretation for the stochastic states and microscopic expressions for the noise correlations of the Gaussian process. By construction, the reduced dynamics of the open system does not depend on the squeezing parameters...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ge Bai, Giulio Chiribella
Quantum benchmarks are routinely used to validate the experimental demonstration of quantum information protocols. Many relevant protocols, however, involve an infinite set of input states, of which only a finite subset can be used to test the quality of the implementation. This is a problem, because the benchmark for the finitely many states used in the test can be higher than the original benchmark calculated for infinitely many states. This situation arises in the teleportation and storage of coherent states, for which the benchmark of 50% fidelity is commonly used in experiments, although finite sets of coherent states normally lead to higher benchmarks...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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