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Lung ca

Michael P Shea, Kathleen A O'Leary, Kyle A Wegner, Chad M Vezina, Linda A Schuler
Metastatic estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERα+) cancers account for most breast cancer mortality. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and dense/stiff extracellular matrices are implicated in aggression and therapy resistance. We examined this interplay and response to mTOR inhibition using ERα+ adenocarcinomas from NRL-PRL females in combination with Col1a1tmJae/+ (mCol1a1) mice, which accumulate collagen-I around growing tumors. Orthotopic transplantation of tumor cells to mCol1a1 but not wildtype hosts resulted in striking desmoplasia...
June 20, 2018: Cancer Letters
Yingzhi Qin, Xiaoyun Zhou, Cheng Huang, Li Li, Hongsheng Liu, Naixin Liang, Yeye Chen, Dongjie Ma, Zhijun Han, Xiaohui Xu, Jia He, Shangqing Li
Aberrantly microRNAs (miRs) expression is reported to be involved in tumorigenesis and development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MiR-340 had been identified to be downregulated in NSCLC in the previous study. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-340 involved in NSCLC progression still needed to be well known. In the present study, we confirmed that miR-340 expression was notably down-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent noncancerous lung tissues by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses...
June 20, 2018: Gene
Kurtis D Davies, Anh T Le, Jamie Sheren, Hala Nijmeh, Katherine Gowan, Kenneth L Jones, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Dara L Aisner, Robert C Doebele
INTRODUCTION: ROS1 gene fusions are a well-characterized class of oncogenic driver found in approximately 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancer patients. ROS1-directed therapy in these patients is more efficacious and is associated with fewer side effects compared to chemotherapy and is thus now considered standard-of-care for patients with advanced disease. Consequently, accurate detection of ROS1 rearrangements/fusions in clinical tumor samples is vital. In this study, we compared the performance of three common molecular testing approaches on a cohort of ROS1 rearrangement/fusion-positive patient samples...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Susan Combs Scott, Nathan A Pennell
BACKGROUND: Checkpoint inhibitors augment the immune system's natural surveillance mechanisms and have increasing applications in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunosuppressive corticosteroids are also frequently used in this population to treat unwanted inflammation. Based on this mechanistic opposition, we investigated the interaction between nivolumab and corticosteroids in patients with advanced NSCLC. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 210 NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab at the Cleveland Clinic was performed...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Jessica J Lin, Viola W Zhu, Adam J Schoenfeld, Beow Y Yeap, Ashish Saxena, Lorin A Ferris, Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack, Anna F Farago, Angela Taber, Anne Traynor, Smitha Menon, Justin F Gainor, Jochen K Lennerz, Andrew J Plodkowski, Subba R Digumarthy, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alice T Shaw, Gregory J Riely
BACKGROUND: The second-generation ALK inhibitor alectinib recently demonstrated superior efficacy compared to the first-generation ALK inhibitor crizotinib in advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), establishing alectinib as the new standard first-line therapy. Brigatinib, another second-generation ALK inhibitor, has demonstrated substantial activity in patients with crizotinib-refractory ALK-positive NSCLC; however, its activity in the alectinib-refractory setting is unknown...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Kathleen Watt, Daniel Newsted, Elena Voorand, Robert J Gooding, Adrianna Majewski, Peter Truesdell, Binchen Yao, Thomas Tuschl, Neil Renwick, Andrew W Craig
MicroRNA-206 (miR-206) has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects in a variety of cancers. Numerous studies have identified aberrantly expressed targets of miR-206 that contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, however, the broader gene-networks and pathways regulated by miR-206 remain poorly defined. Here, we have ectopically expressed miR-206 in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and tumors to identify differentially expressed genes, and study the effects on tumor growth and metastasis. In H1299 tumor xenograft assays, stable expression of miR-206 suppressed both tumor growth and metastasis in mice...
June 20, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Kirsten L Moek, Rudolf S N Fehrmann, Bert van der Vegt, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Derk Jan A de Groot
Glypican 3 (GPC3), a membrane-bound heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is overexpressed in ∼70% to 80% of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), but uncommonly expressed in healthy tissues. This raised interest in GPC3 as drug target, and several GPC3-targeting drugs are in clinical development. We therefore predicted GPC3 protein overexpression across tumors and validated these predictions. Functional genomic mRNA profiling was applied to expression profiles of 18,055 patient-derived tumor samples to predict GPC3 overexpression at the protein level in 60 tumor types and subtypes using healthy tissues as reference...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Hongyu Jing, Xinglong Qu, Lingyun Liu, Huan Xia
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of a novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), LL22NC03-N64E9.1, and its effect on the phenotype of lung cancer cells and tissues using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing data and other publicly available profiling data. MATERIAL AND METHODS The lung cancer dataset GSE30219 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Differentially expressed lncRNA, LL22NC03-N64E9.1, in 48 lung cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal lung tissues, normal lung cell lines BEAS-2B and A549, and lung cancer cell lines, H1703, and H292, were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (qRT-PCR)...
June 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
D Dvornikov, M A Schneider, S Ohse, M Szczygieł, I Titkova, M Rosenblatt, T Muley, A Warth, F J Herth, H Dienemann, M Thomas, J Timmer, M Schilling, H Busch, M Boerries, M Meister, U Klingmüller
In lung cancer a deregulation of Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ) signaling has been observed. Yet, the impact of TGFβ in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LUSC) remained to be determined. We combined phenotypic and transcriptome-wide studies and showed that the stimulation of the LUSC cell line SK-MES1 with TGFβ results in an increase of migratory invasive properties. The analysis of the dynamics of gene expression by next-generation sequencing revealed that TGFβ stimulation orchestrates the upregulation of numerous motility- and actin cytoskeleton-related genes...
June 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yukihiro Toi, Shunichi Sugawara, Yosuke Kawashima, Tomoiki Aiba, Sachiko Kawana, Ryohei Saito, Kyoji Tsurumi, Kana Suzuki, Hisashi Shimizu, Jun Sugisaka, Hirotaka Ono, Yutaka Domeki, Keisuke Terayama, Atsushi Nakamura, Shinsuke Yamanda, Yuichiro Kimura, Yoshihiro Honda
BACKGROUND: Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are frequently observed with nivolumab monotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether the development of irAEs correlates with treatment response in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients who received nivolumab monotherapy at Sendai Kousei Hospital ( n  = 70). The patients were categorized into two groups based on the incidence of irAEs: those with irAEs (irAE group) or those without (non-irAE group)...
June 22, 2018: Oncologist
Chun-Chi Chang, Wen-Wei Sung, Hui-Ting Hsu, Chung-Min Yeh, Chien-Hsun Lee, Ya-Ling Chen, Ta-Chih Liu, Kun-Tu Yeh
OBJECTIVE: Lung adenocarcinoma is a non-small cell lung cancer, a common cancer in both genders, and has poor clinical outcome. Our aim was to evaluate the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain multiple 6 (EGFL6) and its prognostic significance in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: EGFL6 expression was studied by immunohistochemical staining of specimens from 150 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. The correlation between clinicopathological features and EGFL6 expression was quantitatively analysed...
June 22, 2018: BMJ Open
Gautam Sethi, Muthu K Shanmugam, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar
Evolving strategies to counter cancer initiation and progression rely on the identification of novel therapeutic targets that exploit the aberrant genetic changes driving oncogenesis. Several chromatin associated enzymes have been shown to influence post-translational modification on DNA, histones, and non-histone proteins. Any deregulation of this core group of enzymes often leads to cancer development. Ubiquitylation of histone H2B in mammalian cells was identified over three decades ago. An exciting really interesting new gene (RING) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, known as RNF20 and RNF40, monoubiquitinates histone H2A at K119 or H2B at K120 and is known to function in transcription elongation, DNA double strand break repair processes, maintenance of chromatin differentiation, and exerting tumor suppressor activity...
June 22, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Yuhong Lu, Yanfeng Liu, Sebastian Oeck, Peter M Glazer
The development of small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specific for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) with activating mutations has led to a new paradigm in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, most patients eventually develop resistance. Hypoxia is a key micro-environmental stress in solid tumors that is associated with poor prognosis due, in part, to acquired resistance to conventional therapy. This study, documents that long-term, moderate hypoxia promotes resistance to the EGFR TKI, gefitinib, in the NSCLC cell line, HCC827, which harbors an activating EGFR mutation...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Raymond U Osarogiagbon
The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for, and challenges to, sustainable implementation of multidisciplinary thoracic oncology programs. Multidisciplinary care is much advocated by professional groups and makers of clinical guidelines, but little practiced. The gap between universal recommendation and scant evidence of practice suggests the existence of major barriers to program implementation. We examine 2 articles published in this issue of Clinical Lung Cancer to illustrate problems with the evidence base for multidisciplinary care...
July 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Hayato Kawachi, Daichi Fujimoto, Takeshi Morimoto, Munehiro Ito, Shunsuke Teraoka, Yuki Sato, Kazuma Nagata, Atsushi Nakagawa, Kojiro Otsuka, Keisuke Tomii
BACKGROUND: Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are ineligible for clinical trials. However, few studies have reported on the profiles and treatment outcomes for these patients. Therefore, we investigated the characteristics, outcomes, and survival of patients with advanced NSCLC who were ineligible for clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data from a retrospective cohort of 786 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of advanced NSCLC...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Vivek Verma, Mohamad H Fakhreddine, Waqar Haque, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh, Charles B Simone
INTRODUCTION: Life expectancy of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) continues to rise; thus, characterization of long-term toxicities is essential. Although there are emerging data linking cardiac irradiation doses with survival for non-small cell lung cancer, there are currently minimal data on cardiac-specific mortality (CSM) in LS-SCLC. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate CSM between left- and right-sided cases. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for stage I-III primary SCLC patients receiving radiotherapy; CSM was compared between left- and right-sided diseases...
June 19, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Chunzi Jenny Jin, Weidong Kong, William J Mackillop
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Estimates of appropriate treatment rates are required for monitoring and improving access to cancer care. Optimal utilization rates for palliative radiotherapy (PRT) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain undefined. We aim to estimate the appropriate PRT rate for the general NSCLC population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ontario's population-based cancer registry identified patients with NSCLC who died of their disease between 2006 and 2010...
June 19, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Nathalia de Almeida Freire, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto de Andrade, Nathalie Henriques Silva Canedo, Michelle Agostini, Mário José Romañach
Oral and maxillofacial metastatic tumors are uncommon, with the breast, prostate, lung, and kidney representing the most common primary sites. Less than 1% of all breast cancers occur in male patients, and to date, only 8 cases of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma to the oral and maxillofacial region in a male patient have been reported in the literature. An 88-year-old male with previous history of a successfully treated primary breast adenocarcinoma 12 years earlier was referred for evaluation of an oral swelling lasting 6 months...
May 30, 2018: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Vivek Verma, J Isabelle Choi, Amit Sawant, Rao P Gullapalli, Wengen Chen, Abass Alavi, Charles B Simone
Molecular and functional imaging is increasingly being used to guide radiotherapy (RT) management and target delineation. This review summarizes existing data in several disease sites of various functional imaging modalities, chiefly positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), with respect to RT target definition and management. For gliomas, differentiation between postoperative changes and viable tumor is discussed, as well as focal dose escalation and reirradiation. Head and neck neoplasms may also benefit from precise PET/CT-based target delineation, especially for cancers of unknown primary; focal dose escalation is also described...
June 2018: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
Kartikeya Rajdev, Abdul Hasan Siddiqui, Shivika Agarwal, Yusra Ansari, Rabih Maroun
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common and significant causes of cancer-related death. Metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes and/or pleura without liver or lung involvement is an atypical pattern of colon cancer metastasis. A 70-year-old male underwent curative right side hemicolectomy and omentectomy for ascending colon cancer followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Around nine months after surgery, the patient was noted to have bilateral large pleural effusions on the restaging computed tomography scan of the chest/abdomen/pelvis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
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