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Colon ca

Kenneth C Cummings Iii, Nicole M Zimmerman, Kamal Maheshwari, Gregory S Cooper, Linda C Cummings
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Epidural analgesia may be associated with fewer postoperative complications and is associated with improved survival after colon cancer resection. This study used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) to assess any association between epidural analgesia (versus non-epidural) and complications after colectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 603 hospitals in the United States reporting data to NSQIP...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Stella Arelaki, Athanasios Arampatzioglou, Konstantinos Kambas, Efthimios Sivridis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis
Inflammation is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC). Neutrophils are well-known mediators in tumor biology but their role in solid tumors, including CRC, was redefined by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Given that it was recently demonstrated that platelet-derived polyP primes neutrophils to release NETs, we examined surgical specimens from CRC to investigate the presence of polyP, as a possible NET inducer. Biopsies with adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy colon tissues were used as controls...
2018: PloS One
P Marega, E A Liberti, J J S Freitas, K S Kietzer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is common in patients with cancer. There are a few studies about the myenteric plexus in the presence of anatomically remote tumors. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into a control (CT) or Walker-256 (TW) group. Tumor cells were subcutaneously injected and saline was injected in the CT group. After 14 days, the small and large intestines were removed for histochemical analysis. The macroscopic morphology of the intestines and the fecal excretion were also observed...
March 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Antonio Fadda, Davide Gentilini, Loredana Moi, Ludovic Barault, Vera Piera Leoni, Pia Sulas, Luigi Zorcolo, Angelo Restivo, Francesco Cabras, Federica Fortunato, Cesare Zavattari, Liliana Varesco, Viviana Gismondi, Maria Rosaria De Miglio, Antonio Mario Scanu, Federica Colombi, Pasquale Lombardi, Ivana Sarotto, Eleonora Loi, Francesco Leone, Silvia Giordano, Federica Di Nicolantonio, Amedeo Columbano, Patrizia Zavattari
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through the accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, while the former are already used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers, the latter are less well characterized. Here, performing global methylation analysis on both CRCs and adenomas by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Bead Chips, we identified a panel of 74 altered CpG islands, demonstrating that the earliest methylation alterations affect genes coding for proteins involved in the crosstalk between cell and surrounding environment...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
L G J Leijssen, A M Dinaux, H Kunitake, L G Bordeianou, D L Berger
PURPOSE: Proximal and distal colon cancers differ in terms of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and pathologic features. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of right-sided (RC), transverse (TC), and left-sided (LC) colon cancer on morbidity rates and oncological outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with resected colon cancer between 2004 and 2014 was conducted. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess predictors of overall (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS), as well as disease-free survival (DFS)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Ben Lariviere, Katherine S Garman, N Lynn Ferguson, Deborah A Fisher, Nan M Jokerst
Early detection and surveillance of disease progression in epithelial tissue is key to improving long term patient outcomes for colon and esophageal cancers, which account for nearly a quarter of cancer related mortalities worldwide. Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) is a non-invasive optical technique to sense biological changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level that occur when normal tissue becomes diseased, and has the potential to significantly improve the current standard of care for endoscopic gastrointestinal (GI) screening...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Masumeh Sanaei, Fraidoon Kavoosi, Ali Valiani, Mohamed Amin Ghobadifar
Background: One of the main causes of mortality is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which accounts for the third leading cause of deaths and one in forty deaths worldwide. The flavonoids, natural antioxidant compounds, account for a major group of polyphenolic compounds. One of the major isoflavones in soybean is genistein (GE) which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. Isoflavones, major type of phenolic materials, derived from dietary plants and medicinal herbs play a significant role in cancer prevention and treatment...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Carol Cremin, Sarah Howard, Lyly Le, Aly Karsan, David F Schaeffer, Daniel Renouf, Kasmintan A Schrader
Background: Approximately 5% to 10% of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a hereditary basis. In most of these defined hereditary cancer syndromes, PDAC is not the predominant cancer type. Traditional criteria for publicly funded genetic testing typically require the presence of a set combination of the predominant syndrome-associated cancer types in the family history.We report the identification of a CDKN2A pathogenic variant in a PDAC-prone family without the cutaneous features of multiple moles or melanoma that are characteristic of the Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) Syndrome identified in a universal testing algorithm for inherited mutations in pancreatic cancer patients...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Sang Yeon Cho, Jang Wook Gwak, Yoo Chul Shin, Daeju Moon, Jihyuok Ahn, Hyon Woo Sol, Sungha Kim, Gwanghun Kim, Hyun Mu Shin, Kyung Ha Lee, Ji Yeon Kim, Jin Soo Kim
Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is a transcriptional regulator of the Hippo pathway, which regulates the development and progression of a number of types of cancer, including that of the colon. In the present study, the expression levels of Hippo pathway genes and their clinical significance were investigated in 458 patients with colon adenocarcinoma (COAD), the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease globally, using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Notably, mRNA expression of YAP1 was higher in COAD than in other types of gastrointestinal tract cancer...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Shuko Hakata, Jun Terashima, Yu Shimoyama, Kouji Okada, Shiho Fujioka, Erika Ito, Wataru Habano, Shogo Ozawa
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a key therapeutic drug used in the treatment of colorectal cancer, although acquired or constitutive resistance to CPT-11 (and its activated metabolite SN-38) can lead to tumor progression. Since the acquisition of drug resistance can result from DNA hypermethylation, the antitumor activity of CPT-11 and SN-38 was assessed in combination with a known DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, also known as decitabine (DAC). DAC potentiated the antitumor activity of CPT-11 additively, and that of SN-38 synergistically, as measured by colony formation in the human colorectal cancer HCT116 cell line...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Guangzhong Xu, Kai Li, Nengwei Zhang, Bin Zhu, Guosheng Feng, Qing Fan
Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy with a high prevalence and associated mortality rate. However, the preclinical tools currently used for drug development are insufficient. The aim of the present study was to establish and characterize a specific patient-derived colon cancer xenograft (PDCCX) mouse model for drug testing. Primary colon tumors were obtained from 10 patients by surgical resection, and tumor tissues were subsequently grafted into nude mice followed by consecutive passages. Primary tumors and xenograft tumors were collected and processed for DNA sequencing, histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Chengzheng Han, Guozheng Xing, Mengying Zhang, Min Zhong, Zhen Han, Chiyi He, Xiaoping Liu
Wogonoside, the main effective constituent of traditional Chinese medicine Scutellaria , belongs to the glucuronide family, with various functions, including detoxification, anti-inflammation and nourishing gallbladder, lowering blood pressure, diuresis and anti-allergic reactions. However, the effects of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effect of wogonoside on human colon cancer cells in vitro and its anticancer mechanisms. The results demonstrated that wogonoside significantly inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and mitochondrial-mediated autophagy of colon cancer cells...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Wenjie Dong, Na Li, Xiufeng Pei, Xinai Wu
Dual-specificity phosphatase-2 (DUSP2), a negative regulator of extracellular-regulated kinase activity, has been identified as an important kinase with emerging roles in cancer. However, the clinical significance of DUSP2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of DUSP2 was investigated using immunohistochemistry in 96 patients with CRC. Cell viability was estimated using a cell counting kit-8 assay, and cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. The relationship between DUSP2 expression and patient characteristics, including overall survival, were studied retrospectively in these patients...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jutaek Nam, Sejin Son, Lukasz J Ochyl, Rui Kuai, Anna Schwendeman, James J Moon
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a promising cancer treatment modality, but PTT generally requires direct access to the source of light irradiation, thus precluding its utility against disseminated, metastatic tumors. Here, we demonstrate that PTT combined with chemotherapy can trigger potent anti-tumor immunity against disseminated tumors. Specifically, we have developed polydopamine-coated spiky gold nanoparticles as a new photothermal agent with extensive photothermal stability and efficiency. Strikingly, a single round of PTT combined with a sub-therapeutic dose of doxorubicin can elicit robust anti-tumor immune responses and eliminate local as well as untreated, distant tumors in >85% of animals bearing CT26 colon carcinoma...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Jens Sundbøll, Katalin Veres, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Kasper Adelborg, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Background -Venous thromboembolism can be a presenting symptom of cancer, but the association between lower limb arterial thrombosis and cancer is unknown. We therefore examined cancer risk and prognosis of cancer in patients with lower limb arterial thrombosis. Methods -Using nationwide population-based Danish medical registries, we identified all patients diagnosed with first-time lower limb arterial thrombosis (1994-2013) and followed them until the occurrence of any subsequent cancer diagnosis, emigration, death, or 30 November 2013, whichever came first...
March 14, 2018: Circulation
Yuan-Lin Cao, Meng-Han Zhang, Yun-Fang Lu, Chen-Yang Li, Jin-Shan Tang, Miao-Miao Jiang
Six new cardenolides (1-6), including three 14-hydroxylated cardenolides and three 14-carbonylated cardenolides were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Nerium oleander Linn in addition to twenty-seven known compounds (7-33). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic evidences and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1, 4, 7-10 and 13 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against four colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, HT29, SW620, RKO), one gastric cancer cell line (GT) and one cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in vitro...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Yesol Bak, Hui-Joo Jang, Jong-Woon Shin, Soo-Jin Kim, Hyun Woo Chun, Ji-Hye Seo, Su-Hyun No, Jung-Il Chae, Dong Hee Son, Seung Yeoun Lee, Jintae Hong, Do-Young Yoon
The carcinogenicity of chemicalsin the environment is a major concern. Recently, numerous studies have attempted to develop methods for predicting carcinogenicity including rodent and cell-based approaches. However, rodent carcinogenicity tests for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of a chemical to humans are time-consuming and costly. This study focused on the development of an alternative method for predicting carcinogenicity using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and colon cancer stem cells.A toxicogenomic method,mRNA profiling, is useful for predicting carcinogenicity...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tonje S Steigedal, Jimita Toraskar, Richard P Redvers, Marit Valla, Synnøve N Magnussen, Anna M Bofin, Signe Opdahl, Steinar Lundgren, Bedrich L Eckhardt, John M Lamar, Judy Doherty, Richard O Hynes, Robin L Anderson, Gunbjørg Svineng
Most cancer patients with solid tumors who succumb to their illness die of metastatic disease. While early detection and improved treatment have led to reduced mortality, even for those with metastatic cancer, some patients still respond poorly to treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of metastasis is important to improve prognostication, to stratify patients for treatment, and to identify new targets for therapy. We have shown previously that expression of nephronectin (NPNT) is correlated with metastatic propensity in breast cancer cell lines...
March 11, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Ju-Mi Hong, Sung-Suk Suh, Tai Kyoung Kim, Jung Eun Kim, Se Jong Han, Ui Joung Youn, Joung Han Yim, Il-Chan Kim
Lobaric acid and lobarstin, secondary metabolites derived from the antarctic lichen Stereocaulon alpnum , exert various biological activities, including antitumor, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. However, the underlying mechanisms of these effects have not yet been elucidated in human cervix adenocarcinoma and human colon carcinoma. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of lobaric acid and lobarstin on human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa cells and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Motohiro Tamiya, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takayuki Shiroyama, Ayako Tanaka, Naoko Morishita, Norio Okamoto, Kenichi Sakai, Hironori Shigeoka, Kunimitsu Kawahara, Tomonori Hirashima
Background Bevacizumab (Bev) is generally well-tolerated, and Bev-associated intestinal perforation (BAP) is a rare albeit serious side effect in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, the present study aimed to identify clinical predictors of BAP to help predict and manage the development of life-threatening intestinal complications among patients receiving Bev. Methods This retrospective study evaluated demographic, clinical, and treatment factors for patients with NSCLC who were treated with Bev between February 2010 and August 2015 at our center...
March 14, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
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