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Plant based nutrition

Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Weihua Chen, Hooman Salari, Matthew C Taylor, Ricarda Jost, Oliver Berkowitz, Russell Barrow, Deyun Qiu, Remi Branco, Josette Masle
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major membrane phospholipid and a precursor for most signalling molecules. Understanding its synthesis is important for improving plant growth, nutritional value and resistance to stress. PC synthesis is complex, involving several interconnected pathways, one of which proceeds from serine-derived phosphoethanolamine (PEA) to form phosphocholine (PCho) through three sequential phospho-base methylations catalysed by phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferases (PEAMTs). The contribution of this pathway to the production of PC and plant growth has been a matter of some debate...
May 18, 2018: Plant Physiology
M Amin Jalali, M Reza Mehrnejad, Peter C Ellsworth, Fateme Ranjbar, Mahdi Ziaaddini
BACKGROUND: Knowledge on the nutritional ecology of predatory coccinellids is important to selection of efficient biocontrol agents. We examined five species common to pistachio orchards and nutritional indices when fed on the key psylla pest of the system, Agonoscena pistaciae, in contrast to an alternative prey common on herbaceous plants in orchards, Aphis gossypii. RESULTS: Feeding studies revealed that Oenopia conglobata contaminata and Adalia bipunctata may be more efficient as biocontrol agents for A...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Dohyup Kim, Bushra F Minhas, Hongmei Li-Byarlay, Allison K Hansen
Microbes are known to influence insect-plant interactions; however, it is unclear if host-plant diet influences the regulation of nutritional insect symbioses. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , requires its nutritional endosymbiont, Buchnera , for the production of essential amino acids. We hypothesize that key aphid genes that regulate the nutritional symbioses respond to host-plant diet when aphids feed on a specialized (alfalfa) compared to a universal host-plant diet (fava), which vary in amino acid profiles...
May 16, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Ziqi Liu, Aiping Fang, Jingjing He, Xin Shen, Rong Gao, Xintian Zhao, Keji Li
This study aimed to assess the association of habitually low dietary calcium intake with blood pressure or hypertensive risk using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. We included 6298 participants (2890 men and 3408 women) aged 18 years or older in this analysis. Food intakes were measured by 3-day 24-h individual recalls combined with a weighing and measuring of household food inventory. The participants were divided into normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive groups according to their mean blood pressure of three repeated measurements...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
Narges Moradtalab, Markus Weinmann, Frank Walker, Birgit Höglinger, Uwe Ludewig, Guenter Neumann
Low soil temperature in spring is a major constraint for the cultivation of tropical and subtropical crops in temperate climates, associated with inhibition of root growth and activity, affecting early growth and frequently plant performance and final yield. This study was initiated to investigate the physiological base of cold-protective effects induced by supplementation with silicon (Si), widely recommended as a stress-protective mineral nutrient. Maize was used as a cold-sensitive model plant, exposed to chilling stress and low root-zone temperature (RZT) during early growth in a lab to field approach...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
Christian S Kessler, Andreas Michalsen, Sophie Holler, Vijayendra S Murthy, Holger Cramer
The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p < 0.001), physical health (p = 0.017) and food taste (p = 0.001) as more and love of animals as less important (p < 0...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Xinghai Yang, Xiuzhong Xia, Yu Zeng, Baoxuan Nong, Zongqiong Zhang, Yanyan Wu, Faqian Xiong, Yuexiong Zhang, Haifu Liang, Guofu Deng, Danting Li
Rice is an important cereal in the world. The study of the genetic basis of important agronomic traits in rice landraces and identification of genes will facilitate the breed improvement. Gelatinization temperature (GT), gel consistency (GC) and pericarp color (PC) are important indices of rice cooking and eating quality evaluation and potential nutritional importance, which attract wide attentions in the application of genetic and breeding. To dissect the genetic basis of GT, GC and PC, a total of 419 rice landraces core germplasm collections consisting of 330 indica lines, 78 japonica lines and 11 uncertain varieties were planted, collected, then GT, GC, PC were measured for two years, and sequenced using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology...
2018: PloS One
Sungjin Park, Pil Kyun Jung, Myungsup Choi, Hongdeok Seok, Hansol Kim, Sung-Soo Oh, Sang-Baek Koh
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the association between occupational clusters and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: The study was based on data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES: 2007-2015). This study included 46,965 individuals: 20,491 men and 26,474 women. AR was defined as having been diagnosed by a physician. Occupations were classified according to occupational characteristics and skill levels into white (chief executives, senior officials, legislators, managers, professionals, and technicians), pink (clerks, clerical support workers, services and sales workers), blue (craft and related trades workers, drivers, plant and machine operators, assemblers, elementary occupation workers), and green (skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers) categories...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health
Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Sarie Lee, Ria Laubscher, Hester H Vorster
OBJECTIVE: South Africa (SA) is in the midst of a health transition characterized by a quadruple burden of diseases and a nutrition transition. The existing nutrition transition in SA, accompanied by the coexistence of under- and overnutrition in the population, motivated the present study. Its objectives were to measure and report the changes in nutrient intakes of rural and urban black Africans over time to assess the impact of urbanization and modernization of lifestyles on dietary intakes and non-communicable disease (NCD) risk...
May 8, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Hui Wang, Yuying Shi, Doudou Wang, Zhongtong Yao, Yimei Wang, Jiayin Liu, Shumei Zhang, Aoxue Wang
In this study, a strain named WXCDD105, which has strong antagonistic effects on Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke, was screened out from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants. The tomato plants had inhibition diameter zones of 5.00 mm during the dual culture for four days. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, the 16S rDNA sequence, and the gyrB gene sequence analysis, the strain WXCDD105 was identified as Bacillus subtilis suBap. subtilis . The results of the mycelial growth test showed that the sterile filtrate of the strain WXCDD105 could significantly inhibit mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guilhermo F S Congio, Camila D A Batalha, Marília B Chiavegato, Alexandre Berndt, Patrícia P A Oliveira, Rosa T S Frighetto, Thomas M R Maxwell, Pablo Gregorini, Sila C Da Silva
Agricultural systems are responsible for environmental impacts that can be mitigated through the adoption of more sustainable principles. Our objective was to investigate the influence of two pre-grazing targets (95% and maximum canopy light interception during pasture regrowth; LI95% and LIMax , respectively) on sward structure and herbage nutritive value of elephant grass cv. Cameroon, and dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, stocking rate, enteric methane (CH4 ) emissions by Holstein × Jersey dairy cows...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Allison L Hicks, Kerry Jo Lee, Mara Couto-Rodriguez, Juber Patel, Rohini Sinha, Cheng Guo, Sarah H Olson, Anton Seimon, Tracie A Seimon, Alain U Ondzie, William B Karesh, Patricia Reed, Kenneth N Cameron, W Ian Lipkin, Brent L Williams
The microbiome is essential for extraction of energy and nutrition from plant-based diets and may have facilitated primate adaptation to new dietary niches in response to rapid environmental shifts. Here we use 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiota of wild western lowland gorillas and sympatric central chimpanzees and demonstrate compositional divergence between the microbiotas of gorillas, chimpanzees, Old World monkeys, and modern humans. We show that gorilla and chimpanzee microbiomes fluctuate with seasonal rainfall patterns and frugivory...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Zahra Ghasemi, Seyed Majid Ghaderian, Carmela Monterroso, Petra S Kidd
Phytomining techniques based on metal-hyperaccumulating plants can be implemented in serpentine quarry wastes for Ni recovery. However, strategies must be developed to overcome the unfavourable plant growth conditions that these substrates present and to optimize Ni yields. In this study, the Ni hyperaccumulators Alyssum serpyllifolium, Alyssum inflatum, and Alyssum bracteatum were evaluated for their Ni phytoextraction efficiency from quarry tailings. Effects of two organic amendments, composted municipal sewage sludge and cow manure, on plant growth and physiological status and Ni removal were determined...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Zhi Bao Wang, Mei Sun, Zhen Ya Liu, Xiao Ning Zhang, Hang Wang, Yun Zhang, De Rong Xiao
Based on the forecasted warming scenarios by IPCC, we studied the impacts of warming (increased by 2.0 and 3.5 ℃) on seed reproduction of two lakeside dominant species (Schoeno-plectus tabernaemontani and Sparganium stoloniferum) in a typical plateau wetland (Napahai) in Northwestern Yunnan, by using "open-top chamber" technique. The results showed that warming had significant effects on the seed setting rate of both species, though with interspecific variation. The seed setting rate of S. tabernaemontani was significantly increased under two warming treatments, while that of S...
March 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Sophie J Krizsan, Alejandro Mateos-Rivera, Stefan Bertilsson, Annika Felton, Anne Anttila, Mohammad Ramin, Merko Vaga, Helena Gidlund, Pekka Huhtanen
Evolutionary morphological and physiological differences between browsers and grazers contribute to species-specific digestion efficiency of food resources. Rumen microbial community structure of browsers is supposedly adapted to characteristic nutrient composition of the diet source. If this assumption is correct, domesticated ruminants, or grazers, are poor model animals for assessing the nutritional value of food consumed by browsing game species. In this study, typical spring and summer foods of the European moose ( Alces alces ) were combined with rumen fluid collected from both dairy cows ( Bos taurus ) and from moose, with the aim of comparing fermentation efficiency and microbial community composition...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Miklós Mézes, Márta Erdélyi
Antioxidants have some health benefit, but up to now there was less attention paid to the antioxidant properties of dietary fibre. The antioxidant effect of dietary fibre is based on the polyphenol compounds bound to polysaccharide complexes, which are released in the gut and functioning as antioxidants. Another type of antioxidant, calcium fructoborate was also isolated from plant cell wall. It has a marked antioxidant capacity, however, its active component is not a polyphenol, but the boron. There are lots of food plants which have relatively high antioxidant dietary fibre content, thus they support the antioxidant defence of the gastrointestinal tract, and consequently the whole body...
May 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Jing Dai, Wei Qiu, Nanqi Wang, Hiromi Nakanishi, Yuanmei Zuo
Intercropping is a vital technology in resource-limited agricultural systems with low inputs. Peanut/maize intercropping enhances iron (Fe) nutrition in calcareous soil. In this study, the transcriptome of peanut and maize roots was analyzed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and microarray analysis separately. We constructed four SSH libraries using the cDNA of peanut roots based on two cropping patterns: monocropping and intercropping, and two growth stages: vegetative stage and reproductive stage...
April 23, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Willis Gwenzi, Lynda Mangori, Concilia Danha, Nhamo Chaukura, Nothando Dunjana, Edmond Sanganyado
Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions...
April 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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