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Plant based nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911807/cellulose-nanofibrils-cnfs-from-ammophilaarenaria-a-natural-and-a-fast-growing-grass-plant
#1
Zayneb Jebali, Abdelkader Nabili, Hatem Majdoub, Sami Boufi
The production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with a high yield from Ammophilaarenariahas been explored and the ensuing CNFs were characterized in terms of morphology, crystallinity and rheological properties. Ammophilaarenaria (marram grass) is a perennial grass plant with high tolerance to drought, which is growing naturally in nutritionally poor sand with low organic matter. Fibers were extracted from the plant by conventional alkaline pulping and bleaching with a yield around 50% based on the dry weight of the plant...
September 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911768/natural-isotope-abundance-in-metabolites-techniques-and-kinetic-isotope-effect-measurement-in-plant-animal-and-human-tissues
#2
Illa Tea, Guillaume Tcherkez
The natural isotope abundance in bulk organic matter or tissues is not a sufficient base to investigate physiological properties, biosynthetic mechanisms, and nutrition sources of biological systems. In fact, isotope effects in metabolism lead to a heterogeneous distribution of (2)H, (18)O, (13)C, and (15)N isotopes in metabolites. Therefore, compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) is crucial to biological and medical applications of stable isotopes. Here, we review methods to implement CSIA for (15)N and (13)C from plant, animal, and human samples and discuss technical solutions that have been used for the conversion to CO2 and N2 for IRMS analysis, derivatization and isotope effect measurements...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905629/nanoparticle-and-ionic-zn-promote-nutrient-loading-of-sorghum-grain-under-low-npk-fertilization
#3
Christian Dimkpa, Jason C White, Wade H Elmer, Jorge L Gardea-Torresdey
This study evaluated the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) or Zn salt amendment on sorghum yield, macronutrient use efficiency, and grain Zn-enrichment. Amendments were through soil and foliar pathways, under ''low'' and ''high'' NPK. In soil and foliar amendments, grain yield was significantly (p≤0.05) increased by both Zn types, albeit insignificantly with soil-applied Zn at low NPK. Across NPK levels and Zn exposure pathways, both Zn types increased N and P accumulation relative to control plants. Compared to N and K, both Zn types had a mixed effect on P accumulation, depending on NPK level and Zn exposure pathway, and permitted greater soil P retention...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900838/comparative-nutritional-value-of-jatropha-curcas-protein-isolate-and-soy-protein-isolate-in-common-carp
#4
Sunil Nepal, Vikas Kumar, Harinder P S Makkar, Timo Stadtlander, Nicholas Romano, Klaus Becker
Jatropha seed cake (JSC) is an excellent source of protein but does contain some antinutritional factors (ANF) that can act as toxins and thus negatively affect the growth and health status of fish. While this can limit the use of JSC, detoxified Jatropha protein isolate (DJPI) may be a better option. An 8-week study was performed to evaluate dietary DJPI to common carp Cyprinus carpio. Five iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein of 38%) were formulated that consisted of a C ontrol (fish meal (FM) based protein), J 50 or J 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI), and S 50 or S 75 (50 and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate, SPI) and fed to triplicate groups of 75 carp fingerlings (75; av...
September 12, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894623/ethnopharmacological-values-of-cassava-and-its-potential-for-diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-management-knowledge-survey-and-critical-review-of-report
#5
Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Bonaventure C Onodu, Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor, Mathew O Sedowo, John N Okuzor, Richard J Culas
BACKGROUND: Beyond nutritional values are the pharmacological potentials of cassava comparative with other staple carbohydrate plant-based foods such as wheat. The knowledge of applicability to diabetes and its cardiovascular complications management seems not just limited but unacknowledged. As a preliminary study, a community's knowledge of pharmacological value of cassava is investigated. METHODS: Descriptive observational study using questionnaire-based "cross-sectional" survey was conducted...
July 2017: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887684/plant-based-nutrition-an-essential-component-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Hena Patel, Sonal Chandra, Sarah Alexander, Jeffrey Soble, Kim Allan Williams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize and discuss the role of plant-based nutrition as an adjunct to the management of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Discussion of nutrition and the benefits of a plant-based diet should be highlighted during healthcare provider visits as an essential part of the overall CVD prevention and management care plan. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from prospective cohort studies indicates that a high consumption of predominantly plant-based foods, such as fruit and vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, is associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD...
September 8, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887587/a-deletion-of-the-gene-encoding-amino-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-enhances-the-pandan-like-aroma-of-winter-melon-benincasa-hispida-and-is-a-functional-marker-for-the-development-of-the-aroma
#7
Saowalak Ruangnam, Samart Wanchana, Nongnat Phoka, Chatree Saeansuk, Sugunya Mahatheeranont, Simon Jan de Hoop, Theerayut Toojinda, Apichart Vanavichit, Siwaret Arikit
The gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma of winter melon was identified. The sequence variation (804-bp deletion) found in the gene was used as the target for functional marker development. Winter melon (Benincasa hispida), a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, is a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries that is popular for its nutritional and medicinal value. A "pandan-like" aroma, which is economically important in crops including rice and soybean, is rarely found in most commercial varieties of winter melon, but is present in some landraces...
September 8, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881466/a-hot-lunch-for-herbivores-physiological-effects-of-elevated-temperatures-on-mammalian-feeding-ecology
#8
Phillipa K Beale, Karen J Marsh, William J Foley, Ben D Moore
Mammals maintain specific body temperatures (Tb ) across a broad range of ambient temperatures. The energy required for thermoregulation ultimately comes from the diet, and so what animals eat is inextricably linked to thermoregulation. Endothermic herbivores must balance energy requirements and expenditure with complicated thermoregulatory challenges from changing thermal, nutritional and toxicological environments. In this review we provide evidence that plant-based diets can influence thermoregulation beyond the control of herbivores, and that this can render them susceptible to heat stress...
September 7, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878024/molecular-mechanism-of-substrate-recognition-and-transport-by-the-atsweet13-sugar-transporter
#9
Lei Han, Yongping Zhu, Min Liu, Ye Zhou, Guangyuan Lu, Lan Lan, Xianping Wang, Yongfang Zhao, Xuejun C Zhang
Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporters (SWEETs) are recently identified sugar transporters that can discriminate and transport di- or monosaccharides across a membrane following the concentration gradient. SWEETs play key roles in plant biological processes, such as pollen nutrition, nectar secretion, seed filling, and phloem loading. SWEET13 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSWEET13) is an important sucrose transporter in pollen development. Here, we report the 2.8-Å resolution crystal structure of AtSWEET13 in the inward-facing conformation with a substrate analog, 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate, bound in the central cavity...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873690/nutritional-compound-analysis-and-morphological-characterization-of-spider-plant-cleome-gynandra-an-african-indigenous-leafy-vegetable
#10
Emmanuel O Omondi, Christof Engels, Godfrey Nambafu, Monika Schreiner, Susanne Neugart, Mary Abukutsa-Onyango, Traud Winkelmann
Spider plant is among the important indigenous African leafy vegetables having the potential to contribute to food and nutritional security in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to quantify the mineral concentration, to identify and quantify glucosinolates and flavonoids in spider plant and further to characterize spider plant entries using important morphological traits. Thirty spider plant entries from different African countries, comprising of farmers' cultivars, gene bank accessions and advanced lines were grown in a field experiment and harvested for leaves, stems, flowers and siliques at different developmental stages...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873565/the-betaine-profile-of-cereal-flours-unveils-new-and-uncommon-betaines
#11
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Giovanna Ferrari, Domenico Castaldo, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
We report the LC-ESI-MS/MS determination of betaines in commercial flours of cereals and pseudocereals most utilized in human nutrition. Results showed that glycine betaine, trigonelline, proline betaine, N(ε)-trimethyllysine were metabolites common to all examined flours, whereas an uncommon betaine, valine betaine, and glutamine betaine were present only in flours of barley, rye, oat, durum wheat, winter wheat, Triticum dicoccum and Triticum monococcum. Valine betaine and glutamine betaine, the latter never reported before in plants and animals, are not evenly distributed in the Poaceae family, but their presence or absence in flours depends on the subfamily to which the plant belongs...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868057/selenium-induced-toxicity-is-counteracted-by-sulfur-in-broccoli-brassica-oleracea-l-var-italica
#12
Ming Tian, Maixia Hui, Theodore W Thannhauser, Siyi Pan, Li Li
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to enhance the consumption of Se in human diets. A thoroughly understanding of the effects of Se on plant growth is important for Se biofortification in food crops. Given that Se is an analog of sulfur (S) and can be toxic to plants, its effect on plant growth is expected to be greatly affected by S nutrition. However, this remains to be further understood. Here, we evaluated the influence of Se treatments on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867104/the-bioavailability-of-iron-zinc-protein-and-vitamin-a-is-highly-variable-in-french-individual-diets-impact-on-nutrient-inadequacy-assessment-and-relation-with-the-animal-to-plant-ratio-of-diets
#13
Marlène Perignon, Tangui Barré, Rozenn Gazan, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
Nutritional adequacy depends on nutrient intakes and bioavailability which strongly varies with the plant- or animal-origin of foods. The aim was to estimate iron, zinc, protein and vitamin A bioavailability from individual diets, and investigate its relation with the animal-to-plant ratio (A/P) of diets. Bioavailability was estimated in 1899 French diets using diet-based algorithms or food-group specific conversion factors. Nutrient inadequacy was estimated based on i) bioavailability calculated in each individual diet and ii) average bioavailability assumed for Western-diets...
January 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854932/a-healthy-approach-to-dietary-fats-understanding-the-science-and-taking-action-to-reduce-consumer-confusion
#14
REVIEW
Ann G Liu, Nikki A Ford, Frank B Hu, Kathleen M Zelman, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Consumers are often confused about nutrition research findings and recommendations. As content experts, it is essential that nutrition scientists communicate effectively. A case-study of the history of dietary fat science and recommendations is presented, summarizing presentations from an Experimental Biology Symposium that addressed techniques for effective scientific communication and used the scientific discourse of public understanding of dietary fats and health as an example of challenges in scientific communication...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854926/single-molecule-sequencing-and-hi-c-based-proximity-guided-assembly-of-amaranth-amaranthus-hypochondriacus-chromosomes-provide-insights-into-genome-evolution
#15
D J Lightfoot, D E Jarvis, T Ramaraj, R Lee, E N Jellen, P J Maughan
BACKGROUND: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species...
August 31, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853866/layered-double-hydroxides-potential-release-on-demand-fertilizers-for-plant-zinc-nutrition
#16
Sandra López-Rayo, Ahmad Imran, Hans Christian Bruun Hansen, Jan Schjoerring, Jakob Magid
A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake of Zn by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Antonia) was evaluated in short- (8 weeks), medium- (11 weeks) and long-term (28 weeks) experiments in quartz sand and in a calcareous soil enriched with Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs. The Zn release rate of the Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs was described by a first-order kinetics equation showing maximum release at pH 5...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851878/taxonomic-and-functional-shifts-in-the-beech-rhizosphere-microbiome-across-a-natural-soil-toposequence
#17
Y Colin, O Nicolitch, J D Van Nostrand, J Z Zhou, M-P Turpault, S Uroz
It has been rarely questioned as to whether the enrichment of specific bacterial taxa found in the rhizosphere of a given plant species changes with different soil types under field conditions and under similar climatic conditions. Understanding tree microbiome interactions is essential because, in contrast to annual plants, tree species require decades to grow and strongly depend on the nutritive resources of the soil. In this context, we tested using a natural toposequence the hypothesis that beech trees select specific taxa and functions in their rhizosphere based on the soil conditions and their nutritive requirements...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851625/reconciling-the-mitscherlich-s-law-of-diminishing-returns-with-liebig-s-law-of-the-minimum-some-results-on-crop-modeling
#18
Iuri E P Ferreira, Silvio S Zocchi, Daniel Baron
Reliable fertilizer recommendations depend on the correctness of the crop production models fitted to the data, but generally the crop models are built empirically, neglecting important physiological aspects related with response to fertilizers, or they are based in laws of plant mineral nutrition seen by many authors as conflicting theories: the Liebig's Law of the Minimum and Mitscherlich's Law of Diminishing Returns. We developed a new approach to modelling the crop response to fertilizers that reconcile these laws...
August 26, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842799/strategy-to-identify-the-causes-and-to-solve-a-sludge-granulation-problem-in-methanogenic-reactors-application-to-a-full-scale-plant-treating-cheese-wastewater
#19
Hervé Macarie, Maricela Esquivel, Acela Laguna, Olivier Baron, Rachid El Mamouni, Serge R Guiot, Oscar Monroy
Granulation of biomass is at the basis of the operation of the most successful anaerobic systems (UASB, EGSB and IC reactors) applied worldwide for wastewater treatment. Despite of decades of studies of the biomass granulation process, it is still not fully understood and controlled. "Degranulation/lack of granulation" is a problem that occurs sometimes in anaerobic systems resulting often in heavy loss of biomass and poor treatment efficiencies or even complete reactor failure. Such a problem occurred in Mexico in two full-scale UASB reactors treating cheese wastewater...
August 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837945/creating-plant-molecular-factories-for-industrial-and-nutritional-isoprenoid-production
#20
REVIEW
Marilise Nogueira, Eugenia Ma Enfissi, Juliana Almeida, Paul D Fraser
Chemical refining is a highly efficient process that has driven industrialisation and globalisation. However, dwindling fuel reserves and climatic fluctuation are now imposing key societal and economic challenges to health and welfare provision, agriculture, manufacturing outputs and energy. Plants are potentially exploitable 'green' chemical factories, with vast chemical diversity that can be used for the discovery and production of food, feed, medicines and biomaterials. Despite notable advances, plant based production under real-life scenarios remains, in most cases, economically uncompetitive when compared to inherently non-sustainable petrochemical based processes...
August 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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