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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#1
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033574/surgical-site-infections-following-instrumented-stabilization-of-the-spine
#2
Ulrike Dapunt, Caroline Bürkle, Frank Günther, Wojciech Pepke, Stefan Hemmer, Michael Akbar
BACKGROUND: Implant-associated infections are still a feared complication in the field of orthopedics. Bacteria attach to the implant surface and form so-called biofilm colonies that are often difficult to diagnose and treat. Since the majority of studies focus on prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) of the hip and knee, current treatment options (eg, antibiotic prophylaxis) of implant-associated infections have mostly been adapted according to these results. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with surgical site infections following instrumented stabilization of the spine with regard to detected bacteria species and the course of the disease...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033313/developing-a-model-for-cystic-fibrosis-sociomicrobiology-based-on-antibiotic-and-environmental-stress
#3
Susana Patrícia Lopes, Nuno Filipe Azevedo, Maria Olívia Pereira
Cystic fibrosis (CF) infections are invariably biofilm-mediated and polymicrobial, being safe to assume that a myriad of factors affects the sociomicrobiology within the CF infection site and modulate the CF community dynamics, by shaping their social activities, overall functions, virulence, ultimately affecting disease outcome. This work aimed to assess changes in the dynamics (particularly on the microbial composition) of dual-/three-species biofilms involving CF-classical (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and unusual species (Inquilinus limosus and Dolosigranulum pigrum), according to variable oxygen conditions and antibiotic exposure...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033074/potentially-active-spoilage-bacteria-community-during-the-storage-of-vacuum-packaged-beefsteaks-treated-with-aqueous-ozone-and-electrolyzed-water
#4
Cristian Botta, Ilario Ferrocino, Maria Chiara Cavallero, Simonetta Riva, Manuela Giordano, Luca Cocolin
The microbial contamination that occurs during the slaughtering process and during handling of the meat results in a shortening of the shelf-life of meat. In this study, which has had the aim of extending the shelf life of beefsteaks, pilot-scale treatments were carried out with aqueous ozone (AO) and electrolyzed water (EW) before vacuum packaging (VP). The development of the potentially active microbiota and the associated volatilome were followed over 15days of storage under refrigerated conditions (4°C), in order to define the potential long-term effects of the treatments and storage condition on microbiota...
October 7, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032852/limited-influence-of-primary-treated-sewage-waters-on-bacterial-abundance-production-and-community-composition-in-coastal-seawaters
#5
Paolo Paliaga, Marino Korlević, Ingrid Ivančić, Mirjana Najdek
The response of bacteria in terms of abundance, production and community structure to changes induced by the discharge of primary treated sewage waters was investigated combining microbiological, chemical and molecular tools. The primary treatment did not affect substantially the bacterial community structure in wastewaters and did not reduce the concentrations of fecal indicators. The spatial distribution of the sewage plume was governed by vertical stratification and currents. Bacterial abundance and production in the sea receiving waste waters depended predominantly on environmental conditions...
September 23, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031434/validation-of-an-electronic-tool-for-flagging-surgical-site-infections-based-on-clinical-practice-patterns-for-triaging-surveillance-operational-successes-and-barriers
#6
T Pindyck, K Gupta, J Strymish, K M Itani, M E Carter, Y Suo, M T Bessesen, J Topkoff, A S Steele, A E Barón, A V Gundlapalli, W Branch-Elliman
BACKGROUND: Surveillance is an effective strategy for reducing surgical site infections (SSIs); however, current identification methods are resource-intensive. Therefore, we sought to validate an electronic SSI triaging tool for detection of probable infections and identify operational barriers and challenges. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP)-reviewed surgeries at 2 Veterans Affairs medical centers from October 1, 2011-September 30, 2014...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030859/outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-in-enterococcus-faecalis-infective-endocarditis
#7
M V Gil-Navarro, L E Lopez-Cortes, R Luque-Marquez, J Galvez-Acebal, A de Alarcon-Gonzalez
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Enterococcus faecalis is the third most common causal agent of infective endocarditis. Currently, the treatment recommended is a combination of ampicillin (2 g/4 h) plus ceftriaxone (2 g/12 h), so patients must remain hospitalized for almost 6 weeks to receive the treatment. They are not generally included in outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy programs because 2 different electronic pumps are required to administer these 2 antibiotics. To enable the treatment of patients with E...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026631/salmonella-typhimurium-gastroenteritis-leading-to-chronic-prosthetic-vascular-graft-infection
#8
Milo Cullinan, Michael Clarke, Tim Dallman, Steven Peart, Deborah Wilson, Daniel Weiand
Introduction. It is estimated up to 6 % of prosthetic vascular grafts become infected. Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in early infection and coagulase-negative staphylococci are predominant in late infections. Enterobacteriaceae cause 14-40 % of prosthetic vascular graft infections. This is, to our knowledge the first reported case of Salmonella gastroenteritis causing chronic prosthetic vascular graft infection (PVGI). Case presentation. A 57 years old lady presented with signs and symptoms of prosthetic vascular graft infection...
August 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026355/colistin-and-polymyxin-b-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-determined-by-etest-found-unreliable-for-gram-negative-bacilli
#9
Shelby Simar, Diane Sibley, Deborah Ashcraft, George Pankey
BACKGROUND: A reliable method of polymyxin B and E (colistin) susceptibility testing remains elusive. These drugs diffuse poorly into agar, creating potentially inaccurate Etest and disk diffusion results, and testing by these methods is not recommended. Broth microdilution is the reference testing method, although it can be sometimes difficult to interpret. Currently, when a colistin susceptibility test is ordered for a patient in the Ochsner Health System, our diagnostic microbiology laboratory performs the Etest...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020224/approach-to-the-investigation-and-management-of-patients-with-candida-auris-an-emerging-multidrug-resistant-yeast
#10
Sharon Tsay, Alexander Kallen, Brendan R Jackson, Tom M Chiller, Snigdha Vallabhaneni
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread in healthcare settings. It can cause invasive infections with high mortality and is difficult to identify using traditional yeast identification methods. C. auris has been reported in over a dozen countries, and as of July 2017, 99 clinical cases have been reported in the United States;.C. auris can colonize skin and persist in the healthcare environment, allowing for transmission between patients. Prompt investigation and aggressive interventions, including notification of public health agencies, implementation of contact precautions, thorough environmental cleaning and disinfection, infection control assessments, contact tracing and screening contacts to assess for colonization, and retrospective review of microbiology records and prospective surveillance for cases at laboratories are all needed to limit the spread of C...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017466/prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-patients-with-suspected-urinary-tract-infection-in-primary-care-denmark
#11
Gloria Córdoba, Anne Holm, Frank Hansen, Anette M Hammerum, Lars Bjerrum
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen causing Urinary Tract Infections (UTI). Data from the current National Surveillance program in Denmark (DANMAP) may not accurately represent the prevalence of resistant E. coli in primary care, because only urine samples from complicated cases may be forwarded to the microbiological departments at hospitals for diagnostic examination. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of resistant E. coli to the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in primary care in a consecutive sample of patients from general practice...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016169/the-microbiome-as-a-novel-paradigm-in-studying-stress-and-mental-health
#12
Richard T Liu
At the intersection between neuroscience, microbiology, and psychiatry, the enteric microbiome has potential to become a novel paradigm for studying the psychobiological underpinnings of mental illness. Several studies provide support for the view that the enteric microbiome influences behavior through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Moreover, recent findings are suggestive of the possibility that dysregulation of the enteric microbiota (i.e., dysbiosis) and associated bacterial translocation across the intestinal epithelium may be involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, particularly depression...
October 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987590/viable-mycobacterium-avium-ssp-paratuberculosis-isolated-from-calf-milk-replacer
#13
Irene R Grant, Antonio C G Foddai, James C Tarrant, Brenna Kunkel, Faye A Hartmann, Sheila McGuirk, Chungyi Hansen, Adel M Talaat, Michael T Collins
When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984425/opportunities-for-groundwater-microbial-electro-remediation
#14
Narcís Pous, Maria Dolors Balaguer, Jesús Colprim, Sebastià Puig
Groundwater pollution is a serious worldwide concern. Aromatic compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, metals and nutrients among others can be widely found in different aquifers all over the world. However, there is a lack of sustainable technologies able to treat these kinds of compounds. Microbial electro-remediation, by the means of microbial electrochemical technologies (MET), can become a promising alternative in the near future. MET can be applied for groundwater treatment in situ or ex situ, as well as for monitoring the chemical state or the microbiological activity...
October 6, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981972/standard-versus-biofilm-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-guide-antibiotic-therapy-in-cystic-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: The antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis are typically chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980026/-bacterial-sepsis-diagnostics-and-calculated-antibiotic-therapy
#16
REVIEW
D C Richter, A Heininger, T Brenner, M Hochreiter, M Bernhard, J Briegel, S Dubler, B Grabein, A Hecker, W A Krüger, K Mayer, M W Pletz, D Störzinger, N Pinder, T Hoppe-Tichy, S Weiterer, S Zimmermann, A Brinkmann, M A Weigand, Christoph Lichtenstern
The mortality of patients with sepsis and septic shock is still unacceptably high. An effective antibiotic treatment within 1 h of recognition of sepsis is an important target of sepsis treatment. Delays lead to an increase in mortality; therefore, structured treatment concepts form a rational foundation, taking relevant diagnostic and treatment steps into consideration. In addition to the assumed focus and individual risks of each patient, local resistance patterns and specific problem pathogens must be taken into account for selection of anti-infection treatment...
October 4, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979258/tools-for-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-microbes-at-single-cell-level
#17
REVIEW
Zixi Chen, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
Microbiologists traditionally study population rather than individual cells, as it is generally assumed that the status of individual cells will be similar to that observed in the population. However, the recent studies have shown that the individual behavior of each single cell could be quite different from that of the whole population, suggesting the importance of extending traditional microbiology studies to single-cell level. With recent technological advances, such as flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing (NGS), and microspectroscopy, single-cell microbiology has greatly enhanced the understanding of individuality and heterogeneity of microbes in many biological systems...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977417/fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-improving-diagnosis-of-infection-in-patients-on-cf-lvad-longing-for-more-insights
#18
Angelo M Dell'Aquila, Nemanja Avramovic, Stefano Mastrobuoni, Arash Motekallemi, Konrad Wisniewski, Mirela Scherer, Jürgen R Sindermann, Christian Wenning
Aim: Presence and consequent extent of infection in patients on continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) can be challenging with the current diagnostic tools. The present study sought to demonstrate the diagnostic power of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in detecting infection in patients supported with CF-LVAD. Background: The present study sought to demonstrate the diagnostic power of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in detecting infection in patients supported with CF-LVAD...
July 12, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971876/risk-factors-that-influence-the-empirical-treatment-of-patients-with-acute-pyelonephritis-a-cohort-study
#19
Pau Bosch-Nicolau, Vicenç Falcó, Belén Viñado, Antonia Andreu, Oscar Len, Benito Almirante, Carles Pigrau
Objectives. The aim of the current study is to compare community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) with healthcare-associated acute pyelonephritis (HCA-APN), describe outcomes and identify variables that could predict antimicrobial susceptibility.Methods. We conducted an observational study that included all consecutive episodes of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in adults during 2014 at a Spanish university-hospital. From each episode demographic data, co-morbidities, clinical presentation, microbiological data, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded...
October 2, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968208/efficacy-and-stability-studies-of-microbial-folate-fortified-fruit-juices-prepared-using-probiotic-microorganism
#20
S Deep, S Ojha, S Kundu
Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits...
July 31, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
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