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current microbiology

Holger Munck, Anders W Jørgensen, Tejs Ehlers Klug
The purpose was to determine the current evidence for preferable antibiotic treatment in three common clinical situations with insufficient consensus: Q1: Can antibiotic treatment prevent future attacks of acute pharyngo-tonsillitis (APT) in patients with recurrent APT (RAPT)? Q2: Which antibiotic regimen is preferable in the treatment of APT in patients with RAPT? Q3: Which antibiotic regimen is preferable in the treatment of relapsing APT? Five databases were searched systematically for randomized clinical trials on patients with RAPT with or without current APT or with relapse of APT...
April 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Cengiz Demir, Recep Keşli
The aim of this study was to identify gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from various clinical specimens that were obtained from patients with suspected anaerobic infections and to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles by using the antibiotic concentration gradient method. The study was performed in Afyon Kocatepe University Ahmet Necdet Sezer Research and Practice Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory between 1 November 2014 and 30 October 2015. Two hundred and seventyeight clinical specimens accepted for anaerobic culture were enrolled in the study...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Edmund B Chen, Cori Cason, Jack A Gilbert, Karen J Ho
The role of the microbiome in human health has become a central tenant of current medical research, infiltrating a diverse disciplinary base whereby microbiology, computer science, ecology, gastroenterology, immunology, neurophysiology and psychology, metabolism, and cardiovascular medicine all intersect. Traditionally, commensal gut microbiota have been assumed to play a significant role only in the metabolic processing of dietary nutrients and host metabolites, the fortification of gut epithelial barrier function, and the development of mucosal immunity...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Sylvie Dargère, Hélène Cormier, Renaud Verdon
BACKGROUND: Despite the development of new microbiological technologies, blood cultures remain the first line tool for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. Their diagnostic value may be affected when a microorganism of questionable evidence is isolated, for example, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Bacillus spp., viridans group streptococci, Corynebacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., and Micrococcus spp. Finally, making a correct diagnosis of pathogenicity (vs contamination) is very challenging...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kathy Raven, Beth Blane, Carol Churcher, Julian Parkhill, Sharon J Peacock
Bacterial whole-genome sequencing in the clinical setting has the potential to bring major improvements to infection control and clinical practice. Sequencing instruments are not currently available in the majority of routine microbiology laboratories worldwide, but an alternative is to use external sequencing providers. To foster discussion around this we investigated whether send-out services were a viable option. Four providers offering MiSeq sequencing were selected based on cost and evaluated based on the service provided and sequence data quality...
April 5, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Angela E Douglas
Many microbial taxa associated with healthy animals have both within-host and free-living populations, but little is known about the magnitude, persistence and dispersal of their populations in the external environment. Advances, particularly in our understanding of the population dynamics of free-living populations and microbial cycling between the external environment and hosts, can be achieved by the creative use of current technologies. In particular, there are opportunities to adapt methods, such as capture-mark-release techniques widely used in animal ecology, to the study of symbiotic microorganisms...
April 3, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Sarah C J Jorgensen, Nicholas J Mercuro, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
Delafloxacin (formerly WQ-3034, ABT492, RX-3341) is a novel fluoroquinolone chemically distinct from currently marketed fluoroquinolones with the absence of a protonatable substituent conferring a weakly acidic character to the molecule. This property results in increased intracellular penetration and enhanced bactericidal activity under acidic conditions that characterize the infectious milieu at a number of sites. The enhanced potency and penetration in low pH environments contrast what has been observed for other zwitterionic fluoroquinolones, which tend to lose antibacterial potency under acidic conditions, and may be particularly advantageous against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, for which the significance of the intracellular mode of survival is increasingly being recognized...
March 31, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Grégory Dubourg, Brigitte Lamy, Raymond Ruimy
BACKGROUND: Administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is one of the key factors in surviving bloodstream infections. Blood culture (BC) is currently the gold standard for diagnosis, but conventional practices have long turnaround times while diagnosis need to be faster to improve patient care. Phenotypic methods offer an advantage over genotypic methods in that they can identify a wide range of taxa, detect the resistance currently expressed, and resist genetic variability in resistance detection...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
A K Vasquez, D V Nydam, C Foditsch, M Wieland, R Lynch, S Eicker, P D Virkler
An algorithm using only computer-based records to guide selective dry-cow therapy was evaluated at a New York State dairy farm via a randomized field trial. DairyComp 305 (Valley Ag Software, Tulare, CA) and Dairy Herd Improvement Association test-day data were used to identify cows as low risk (cows that might not benefit from dry-cow antibiotics) or high risk (cows that will likely benefit). Low-risk cows were those that had all of the following: somatic cell count (SCC) ≤200,000 cells/mL at last test, an average SCC ≤200,000 cells/mL over the last 3 tests, no signs of clinical mastitis at dry-off, and no more than 1 clinical mastitis event in the current lactation...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Alina Pushkarev, Gur Hevroni, Sheila Roitman, Jin-Gon Shim, Ahreum Choi, Kwang-Hwan Jung, Oded Béjà
Student microbial ecology laboratory courses are often conducted as condensed courses in which theory and wet lab work are combined in a very intensive short time period. In last decades, the study of marine microbial ecology is increasingly reliant on molecular-based methods, and as a result many of the research projects conducted in such courses require sequencing that is often not available on site and may take more time than a typical course allows. In this work, we describe a protocol combining molecular and functional methods for analyzing proteorhodopsins (PRs), with visible results in only 4-5 days that do not rely on sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
B de Saint Vincent, H Migaud, E Senneville, C Loiez, G Pasquier, J Girard, S Putman
BACKGROUND: Joint aspiration is currently the reference standard test for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) despite the high rate of false-negative results, of which a major cause is the fastidious nature of some micro-organisms. A rapid diagnostic test that detects alpha defensin (Synovasure™, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) in joint fluid can provide the diagnosis of PJI within a few minutes across the full spectrum of causative organisms (including mycobacteria and yeasts)...
March 23, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Jordi Rello, Tjitske S R van Engelen, Emine Alp, Thierry Calandra, Vincent Cattoir, Winfried V Kern, Mihai G Netea, Saad Nseir, Steven M Opal, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mark H Wilcox, W Joost Wiersinga
BACKGROUND: Our current understanding of the pathophysiology and management of sepsis is associated with a lack of progress in clinical trials, which partly reflects insufficient appreciation of the heterogeneity of this syndrome. Consequently, more patient specific approaches to treatment should be explored. AIMS: To summarize the current evidence on precision medicine in sepsis, with an emphasis on translation from theory to clinical practice. A secondary objective is to develop a framework enclosing recommendations on management and priorities for further research...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Simen Akkermans, Filip Logist, Jan F Van Impe
When building models to describe the effect of environmental conditions on the microbial growth rate, parameter estimations can be performed either with a one-step method, i.e., directly on the cell density measurements, or in a two-step method, i.e., via the estimated growth rates. The two-step method is often preferred due to its simplicity. The current research demonstrates that the two-step method is, however, only valid if the correct data transformation is applied and a strict experimental protocol is followed for all experiments...
April 2018: Food Research International
Ana C Miranda Bastos, Stefaan J Vandecasteele, Anne Spinewine, Paul M Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke
Objectives: To develop a population model describing temocillin pharmacokinetics (PK) in patients undergoing haemodialysis and investigate how pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets can be met with different dosage regimens. Patients and methods: Sixteen patients received the currently licenced dosing of 1, 2 or 3 g of temocillin (total of 61 doses) corresponding to an inter-dialytic period of 20, 44 or 68 h, respectively, and a dialysis period of 4 h...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Abhilasha Karunasagar, Roshan Jalastagi, Ashok Naik, Praveen Rai
OBJECTIVE: Current studies on the association between bacteria and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have relied solely on microbiological culture, which can sometimes be negative due to prior antibiotic therapy or lack of transport media. The objective of the study was to understand whether bacteria are associated with culture-negative cases. METHODS: We investigated 20 cases of CRS undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery by both culture and 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing...
March 24, 2018: Laryngoscope
Laura Y Hardefeldt, J R Gilkerson, H Billman-Jacobe, M A Stevenson, K Thursky, K E Bailey, G F Browning
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are yet to be widely implemented in veterinary practice and medical programs are unlikely to be directly applicable to veterinary settings. OBJECTIVE: To gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence effective AMS in veterinary practices in Australia. METHODS: A concurrent explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase of the study consisted of an online questionnaire to assess veterinarians' attitudes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use in animals, and the extent to which AMS currently is implemented (knowingly or unknowingly)...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Ellen R Wald, Gregory P DeMuri
There has been a substantial change in the prevalence and microbiologic characteristics of cases of acute otitis media secondary to the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Current trends in nasopharyngeal colonization and the microbiology of acute otitis media support a change in the recommendation for antibiotic management of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis in children.
March 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Malama Chisanga, Howbeer Muhamadali, David I Ellis, Royston Goodacre
The microbial world forms a huge family of organisms that exhibit the greatest phylogenetic diversity on Earth and thus colonize virtually our entire planet. Due to this diversity and subsequent complex interactions, the vast majority of microorganisms are involved in innumerable natural bioprocesses and contribute an absolutely vital role toward the maintenance of life on Earth, whilst a small minority cause various infectious diseases. The ever-increasing demand for environmental monitoring, sustainable ecosystems, food security, and improved healthcare systems drives the continuous search for inexpensive but reproducible, automated and portable techniques for detection of microbial isolates and understanding their interactions for clinical, environmental, and industrial applications and benefits...
January 1, 2018: Applied Spectroscopy
S M Shiels, M Bouchard, H Wang, J C Wenke
BThe use of internal intramedullary nails for long bone fracture fixation is a common practice among surgeons. Bacteria naturally attach to these devices, increasing the risk for wound infection, which can result in non- or malunion, additional surgical procedures and extended hospital stays. Intramedullary nail surface properties can be modified to reduce bacterial colonisation and potentially infectious complications. In the current study, a coating combining a non-fouling property with leaching chlorhexidine for orthopaedic implantation was tested...
March 22, 2018: European Cells & Materials
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