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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353353/peripheral-th17-treg-imbalance-in-elderly-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#1
Sanam Dolati, Majid Ahmadi, Mohammad Khalili, Ali Akabar Taheraghdam, Homayoon Siahmansouri, Zohreh Babaloo, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Vahid Younesi, Mehdi Yousefi
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and Th17 cells play important roles in peripheral immunity. Immune responses are main elements in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). The contribution of Th17 cells in IS patients has not been proved, and whether the balance of Treg/Th17 cells is changed in IS patients remains unidentified. In the present study, we studied Th17 and Treg cell frequency, cytokine secretion, expression of transcription factors, and microRNAs related to Th17 and Treg cells differentiation, which is compared between IS patients and control group...
January 20, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352088/an-archaeal-fluoride-responsive-riboswitch-provides-an-inducible-expression-system-for-hyperthermophiles
#2
Michael Clayton Speed, Brett W Burkhart, Jonathan W Picking, Thomas J Santangelo
Robust genetic systems for the hyperthermophilic Thermococcales have facilitated overexpression of native genes, allowed for the addition of sequences encoding secretion signals, epitope, and affinity tags to coding regions, and permitted the introduction of sequences encoding new proteins in these fast growing fermentative heterotrophs. Tightly controlled and easily manipulated systems permitting regulated gene expression are however limited for these hosts. Here we describe an alternative method for regulatory control reliant on a cis-encoded functional riboswitch in the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis Despite the hyperthermophilic growth temperatures, the proposed structure of the riboswitch conforms to a fluoride-responsive riboswitch encoded in many bacteria, and similarly functions to regulate a component conserved fluoride export pathway...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351905/cancer-treatment-in-childhood-and-testicular-function-the-role-of-the-somatic-environment
#3
Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka, Rod T Mitchell
Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial stem cell niche involves many signaling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ stem cell niche in human and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood...
January 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350425/the-impact-of-preapheresis-white-blood-cell-count-on-autologous-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-collection-efficiency-and-hsc-infusion-side-effect-rate
#4
Araci M Sakashita, Andrea T Kondo, Ana Paula H Yokoyama, Sanny M C Lira, Carolina B Bub, Aline M Souza, Andrea N F Cipolletta, Kelen C Alvarez, Nelson Hamerschlak, Jose M Kutner, Carlos S Chiattone
BACKGROUND: Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34+ collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347949/effects-of-surgery-and-anesthetic-choice-on-immunosuppression-and-cancer-recurrence
#5
REVIEW
Ryungsa Kim
BACKGROUND: The relationship between surgery and anesthetic-induced immunosuppression and cancer recurrence remains unresolved. Surgery and anesthesia stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) to cause immunosuppression through several tumor-derived soluble factors. The potential impact of surgery and anesthesia on cancer recurrence was reviewed to provide guidance for cancer surgical treatment. METHODS: PubMed was searched up to December 31, 2016 using search terms such as, "anesthetic technique and cancer recurrence," "regional anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "local anesthesia and cancer recurrence," "anesthetic technique and immunosuppression," and "anesthetic technique and oncologic surgery...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345336/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells-and-tumor-microenvironment-a-helpful-or-a-dangerous-liason
#6
REVIEW
Elena Lo Presti, Roberto Di Mitri, Gabriele Pizzolato, Filippo Mocciaro, Francesco Dieli, Serena Meraviglia
γδ T cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that have been implicated in immunosurveillance against infections and tumors. γδ T cells are endowed with antitumor activities, and hence several γδ T cell-based small-scale clinical trials have been conducted either by in vivo activation by intravenous administration of aminobiphosphonates or by adoptive transfer of in vitro expanded γδ T cells. Although both these strategies have yielded promising results, there are a number of limitations associated with each of them which, if overcome may help to further improve efficacy...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344123/ex-vivo-model-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-using-mouse-lung-epithelial-cells
#7
Taku Sato, Mami Morita, Ryota Tanaka, Yui Inoue, Miyuki Nomura, Yoshimi Sakamoto, Koh Miura, Shigemi Ito, Ikuro Sato, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Jiro Abe, Satomi Takahashi, Masaaki Kawai, Masami Sato, Yoshitaka Hippo, Hiroshi Shima, Yoshinori Okada, Nobuhiro Tanuma
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality, however, efficient methods to culture, expand and transform lung epithelial (LE) cells have not been established. In the present study, an efficient ex vivo method was applied to recapitulate lung carcinogenesis using mouse LE cells. A Matrigel-assisted three-dimensional culture was used to isolate and selectively expand LE cells from mouse lungs. Purified LE cells were passaged and expanded for at least 2 to 3 months while maintaining epidermal growth factor-dependence...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343640/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-reveals-insights-into-circuit-assembly-and-refinement
#8
Brian T Kalish, Lucas Cheadle, Sinisa Hrvatin, M Aurel Nagy, Samuel Rivera, Megan Crow, Jesse Gillis, Rory Kirchner, Michael E Greenberg
Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. However, much less is known about how such changes contribute to later stages of circuit assembly and refinement. In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343582/hiv-replication-and-latency-in-a-humanized-nsg-mouse-model-during-suppressive-oral-combinational-art
#9
Sangeetha Satheesan, Haitang Li, John C Burnett, Mayumi Takahashi, Shasha Li, Shiny Xiaqin Wu, Timothy W Synold, John J Rossi, Jiehua Zhou
Although current combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) is therapeutically effective in the majority of HIV patients, interruption of therapy can cause a rapid rebound in viremia, demonstrating the existence of a stable reservoir of latently infected cells. HIV latency is therefore considered a primary barrier to HIV eradication. Identifying, quantifying, and purging the HIV reservoir is crucial to effectively curing patients and relieving them from the lifelong requirement for therapy. Latently infected transformed cell models have been used to investigate HIV latency; however, they cannot accurately represent the quiescent cellular environment of primary latently infected cells in vivo...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341877/characterizing-the-effects-of-insertion-of-a-5-2%C3%A2-kb-region-of-a-vacv-genome-which-contains-known-immune-evasion-genes-on-mva-immunogenicity
#10
Melissa R Ryerson, Joanna L Shisler
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an attenuated Vaccinia virus (VACV) that is a popular vaccine vector candidate against many different pathogens. Its replication-restricted nature makes it a safe vaccine. However, higher doses or multiple boosts of MVA are necessary to elicit an immune response similar to wild-type VACV. Multiple strategies have been used to create modified MVA viruses that remain safe, but have increased immunogenicity. For example, one common strategy is to delete MVA immunomodulatory proteins in hopes of increasing the host immune response...
January 13, 2018: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339552/mechanisms-of-redox-metabolism-and-cancer-cell-survival-during-extracellular-matrix-detachment
#11
Mark A Hawk, Zachary T Schafer
Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339462/direct-manipulation-of-t-lymphocytes-by-proteins-of-gastrointestinal-bacterial-pathogens
#12
Robin L Cassady-Cain, Jayne C Hope, Mark P Stevens
Gastrointestinal bacterial infection represents a significant threat to human health, as well as a burden on food animal production and welfare. Although there is advanced knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis, including the development of immune responses to these pathogens, gaps in knowledge persist. It is well established that gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens produce a myriad of proteins that affect the development and effectiveness of innate immune responses. However, relatively few proteins that directly affect lymphocytes responsible for humoral or cell-mediated immunity and memory have been identified...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337961/how-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-set-the-stage-for-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Anna S Trigos, Richard B Pearson, Anthony T Papenfuss, David L Goode
Neoplastic growth and many of the hallmark properties of cancer are driven by the disruption of molecular networks established during the emergence of multicellularity. Regulatory pathways and molecules that evolved to impose regulatory constraints upon networks established in earlier unicellular organisms enabled greater communication and coordination between the diverse cell types required for multicellularity, but also created liabilities in the form of points of vulnerability in the network that when mutated or dysregulated facilitate the development of cancer...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333289/localized-single-cell-lysis-and-manipulation-using-optothermally-induced-bubbles
#14
Qihui Fan, Wenqi Hu, Aaron T Ohta
Localized single cells can be lysed precisely and selectively using microbubbles optothermally generated by microsecond laser pulses. The shear stress from the microstreaming surrounding laser-induced microbubbles and direct contact with the surface of expanding bubbles cause the rupture of targeted cell membranes. High-resolution single-cell lysis is demonstrated: cells adjacent to targeted cells are not lysed. It is also shown that only a portion of the cell membrane can be punctured using this method. Both suspension and adherent cell types can be lysed in this system, and cell manipulation can be integrated for cell-cell interaction studies...
April 2017: Micromachines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330458/architecture-of-a-mammalian-glomerular-domain-revealed-by-novel-volume-electroporation-using-nanoengineered-microelectrodes
#15
D Schwarz, M Kollo, C Bosch, C Feinauer, I Whiteley, T W Margrie, T Cutforth, A T Schaefer
Dense microcircuit reconstruction techniques have begun to provide ultrafine insight into the architecture of small-scale networks. However, identifying the totality of cells belonging to such neuronal modules, the "inputs" and "outputs," remains a major challenge. Here, we present the development of nanoengineered electroporation microelectrodes (NEMs) for comprehensive manipulation of a substantial volume of neuronal tissue. Combining finite element modeling and focused ion beam milling, NEMs permit substantially higher stimulation intensities compared to conventional glass capillaries, allowing for larger volumes configurable to the geometry of the target circuit...
January 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329556/cancer-immunotherapy-beyond-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#16
REVIEW
Julian A Marin-Acevedo, Aixa E Soyano, Bhagirathbhai Dholaria, Keith L Knutson, Yanyan Lou
Malignant cells have the capacity to rapidly grow exponentially and spread in part by suppressing, evading, and exploiting the host immune system. Immunotherapy is a form of oncologic treatment directed towards enhancing the host immune system against cancer. In recent years, manipulation of immune checkpoints or pathways has emerged as an important and effective form of immunotherapy. Agents that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are the most widely studied and recognized...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328194/subwavelength-wave-manipulation-in-a-thin-surface-wave-bandgap-crystal
#17
Zhen Gao, Zhuoyuan Wang, Baile Zhang
It has been recently reported that the unit cell of wire media metamaterials can be tailored locally to shape the flow of electromagnetic waves at deep-subwavelength scales [Nat. Phys.9, 55 (2013)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys2480]. However, such bulk structures have a thickness of at least the order of wavelength, thus hindering their applications in the on-chip compact plasmonic integrated circuits. Here, based upon a Sievenpiper "mushroom" array [IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.47, 2059 (1999)IETMAB0018-948010...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324304/injectable-polypeptide-hydrogel-for-dual-delivery-of-antigen-and-tlr3-agonist-to-modulate-dendritic-cells-in%C3%A2-vivo-and-enhance-potent-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-response-against-melanoma
#18
Huijuan Song, Pingsheng Huang, Jinfeng Niu, Gaona Shi, Chuangnian Zhang, Deling Kong, Weiwei Wang
Transplantation of immune cells manipulated in vitro to dictate immune responses in the body is promising in cancer immunotherapy. However, this approach suffers from low cell survival after administration, insufficient cell homing to lymph nodes, and off-target. Here we demonstrate an injectable and self-assembled poly(l-valine) hydrogel as the delivery carrier of cargoes including antigen and immunopotentiator for DCs modulation. Our results indicate the vaccine formulation composed of tumor cell lysates (TCL), TLR3 agonist, poly(I:C) and polypeptide hydrogel can robustly recruit, activate and mature DCs in vitro and in vivo by sustained release of TCL and poly(I:C)...
January 3, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323662/crispr-cas9-based-genome-wide-screening-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#19
Saima M Sidik, Diego Huet, Sebastian Lourido
Apicomplexan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, cause extensive morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock, highlighting the need for a deeper understanding of their molecular biology. Although techniques for the generation of targeted gene disruptions have long been available for apicomplexans, such methods are not readily scalable to the entire genome. We recently used CRISPR-Cas9 to disrupt all nuclear protein-coding genes in T. gondii using a pooled format. The method relies on transfection of a guide RNA library into parasites constitutively expressing Cas9...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321601/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-modification-and-gene-knock-out-in-the-human-infective-parasite-trichomonas-vaginalis
#20
Brian D Janssen, Yi-Pei Chen, Brenda M Molgora, Shuqi E Wang, Augusto Simoes-Barbosa, Patricia J Johnson
The sexually-transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis infects ~1/4 billion people worldwide. Despite its prevalence and myriad adverse outcomes of infection, the mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Genetic manipulation of this single-celled eukaryote has been hindered by challenges presented by its complex, repetitive genome and inefficient methods for introducing DNA (i.e. transfection) into the parasite. Here, we have developed methods to increase transfection efficiency using nucleofection, with the goal of efficiently introducing multiple DNA elements into a single T...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
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