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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915024/extracellular-matrix-hydrogels-from-decellularized-tissues-structure-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Lindsey T Saldin, Madeline C Cramer, Sachin S Velankar, Lisa J White, Stephen F Badylak
: Extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffolds prepared from decellularized tissues have been used to facilitate constructive and functional tissue remodeling in a variety of clinical applications. The discovery that these ECM materials could be solubilized and subsequently manipulated to form hydrogels expanded their potential in vitro and in vivo utility; i.e. as culture substrates comparable to collagen or Matrigel, and as injectable materials that fill irregularly-shaped defects. The mechanisms by which ECM hydrogels direct cell behavior and influence remodeling outcomes are only partially understood, but likely include structural and biological signals retained from the native source tissue...
November 30, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913679/modelling-gtpase-dynamics-to-understand-rhoa-driven-cancer-cell-invasion
#2
REVIEW
Joseph H R Hetmanski, Jean-Marc Schwartz, Patrick T Caswell
Metastasis, initially driven by cells migrating and invading through the local environment, leads to most cancer-associated deaths. Cells can use a variety of modes to move in vitro, all of which depend on Rho GTPases at some level. While traditionally it was thought that Rac1 activity drives protrusive lamellipodia at the leading edge of a polarised cell while RhoA drives rear retraction, more recent work in 3D microenvironments has revealed a much more complicated picture of GTPase dynamics. In particular, RhoA activity can dominate the leading edge polymerisation of actin to form filopodial actin-spike protrusions that drive more invasive cell migration...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910914/in-vivo-stepwise-immunomodulation-using-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-a-platform-nanotechnology-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#3
Hee Dong Han, Yeongseon Byeon, Jong-Hwa Jang, Hat Nim Jeon, Ga Hee Kim, Min Gi Kim, Chan-Gi Pack, Tae Heung Kang, In Duk Jung, Yong Taik Lim, Young Joo Lee, Jeong-Won Lee, Byung Cheol Shin, Hyung Jun Ahn, Anil K Sood, Yeong-Min Park
Dentritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy faces challenges in both efficacy and practicality. However, DC-based vaccination requires multiple injections and elaborates ex vivo manipulation, which substantially limits their use. Therefore, we sought to develop a chitosan nanoparticle (CH-NP)-based platform for the next generation of vaccines to bypass the ex vivo manipulation and induce immune responses via active delivery of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (poly I:C) to target Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in endosomes...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910003/bone-marrow-t-cell-percentage-a-novel-prognostic-indicator-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Manar M Ismail, Nahla A B Abdulateef
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy for which overall disease-free survival is less than 50%. Manipulation of the immune system is an interesting and promising therapy for AML patients. We aimed to characterize the immune system of AML patients, highlighting the clinical relevance of total bone marrow (BM) lymphocytes and subpopulations. Sixty-six new AML cases diagnosed according to WHO criteria from King Abdullah Medical City, KSA, from October 2012 to February 2015. Analysis of BM lymphocytes and subpopulations was done by flowcytometry...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906827/cross-talk-between-t-and-b-cells-in-the-germinal-center-following-transplantation
#5
Jean Kwun, Miriam Manook, Eugenia Page, Christopher Burghuber, Jungjoo Hong, Stuart J Knechtle
Cross-talk between B and T cells in transplantation is increasingly recognized as being important in the alloimmune response. T cell activation of B cells occurs by a 3-stage pathway, culminating with costimulation signals. We review the distinct T cell subtypes required for B cell activation, and discuss the formation of the Germinal Center (GC) after transplantation, with particular reference to the repopulation of the GC following depletional induction, and the subsequent effect of immunosuppressive manipulation of T-B cell interactions...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902324/ebi2-expression-in-b-lymphocytes-is-controlled-by-the-epstein-barr-virus-transcription-factor-brrf1-na-during-viral-infection
#6
Caleb Cornaby, Jilian L Jafek, Cameron Birrell, Vera Mayhew, Lauren Syndergaard, Jeffrey Mella, Wesley Cheney, Brian D Poole
EBI2 is an important chemotactic receptor that is involved in proper B-cell T-cell interactions. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) has been shown to upregulate this gene upon infection of cell lines, but the timing and mechanism of this upregulation, as well as its importance to EBV infection, remain unknown. This work investigated EBV's manipulation of EBI2 expression of primary naïve B cells. EBV infection induces EBI2 expression resulting in elevated levels of EBI2 after 24 hours until 7 days post-infection, followed by a dramatic decline (p = 0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899804/casein-kinase-2-controls-the-survival-of-normal-thymic-and-leukemic-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-via-promotion-of-akt-signaling
#7
S T Ribeiro, M Tesio, J C Ribot, E Macintyre, J T Barata, B Silva-Santos
The thymus is the major site for normal and leukemic T-cell development. The dissection of the molecular determinants of T-cell survival and differentiation is paramount for the manipulation of healthy or transformed T cells in cancer (immuno)therapy. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) is a serine-threonine protein kinase whose anti-apoptotic functions have been described in various hematological and solid tumors. Here we disclose an unanticipated role of CK2 in healthy human thymocytes that is selective to the γδ T-cell lineage...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895646/manufacturing-natural-killer-cells-as-medicinal-products
#8
REVIEW
Christian Chabannon, Bechara Mfarrej, Sophie Guia, Sophie Ugolini, Raynier Devillier, Didier Blaise, Eric Vivier, Boris Calmels
Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells (ILC) with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of human leukocyte antigen presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887865/overcoming-the-bottleneck-of-platelet-lysate-supply-in-large-scale-clinical-expansion-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-a-comparison-of-fresh-versus-three-types-of-platelet-lysates-from-outdated-buffy-coat-derived-platelet-concentrates
#9
Peter V Glovinski, Mikkel Herly, Anders B Mathiasen, Jesper D Svalgaard, Rehannah Borup, Maj-Lis M Talman, Jens J Elberg, Stig-Frederik T Kølle, Krzysztof T Drzewiecki, Anne Fischer-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Platelet lysates (PL) represent a promising replacement for xenogenic growth supplement for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) expansions. However, fresh platelets from human blood donors are not clinically feasible for large-scale cell expansion based on their limited supply. Therefore, we tested PLs prepared via three methods from outdated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) to establish an efficient and feasible expansion of ASCs for clinical use. METHODS: PLs were prepared by the freeze-thaw method from freshly drawn platelets or from outdated buffy coat-derived PCs stored in the platelet additive solution, InterSol...
November 22, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887569/immune-modulation-of-cd4-cd25-regulatory-t-cells-by-zoledronic-acid
#10
Hsien Liu, Shih-Han Wang, Shin-Cheh Chen, Ching-Ying Chen, Jo-Lin Lo, Tsun-Mei Lin
BACKGROUND: CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress tumor immunity by inhibiting immune cells. Manipulation of Treg cells represents a new strategy for cancer treatment. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, inhibits the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) on osteoblasts to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. In a mouse model of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, administration of ZA suppressed Treg-cell activity and activated inflammatory Th17 cells...
November 25, 2016: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886171/transduction-of-group-i-mglur-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-by-%C3%AE-arrestin2-signalling
#11
Andrew G Eng, Daniel A Kelver, Tristan P Hedrick, Geoffrey T Swanson
Conventional signalling by the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 and mGluR5, occurs through G-protein coupling, but evidence suggests they might also utilize other, non-canonical effector pathways. Here we test whether group I mGluRs require β-arrestin signalling during specific forms of plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses. We find that genetic ablation of β-arrestin2, but not β-arrestin1, results in deficits in plasticity mediated by mGlu1 receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons and by mGlu5 receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882863/porphyromonas-gingivalis-suppresses-adaptive-immunity-in-periodontitis-atherosclerosis-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ingar Olsen, Martin A Taubman, Sim K Singhrao
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen in chronic periodontitis, has been found to associate with remote body organ inflammatory pathologies, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although P. gingivalis has a plethora of virulence factors, much of its pathogenicity is surprisingly related to the overall immunosuppression of the host. This review focuses on P. gingivalis aiding suppression of the host's adaptive immune system involving manipulation of cellular immunological responses, specifically T cells and B cells in periodontitis and related conditions...
2016: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880796/foxn1-cre-expression-in-the-male-germline
#13
Jianjun Shi, Irina Getun, Bivian Torres, Howard T Petrie
Foxn1 (forkhead box N1), also known as the nude gene or winged-helix nude (Whn), is a forkhead transcription factor thought to be restricted to keratinocytes in the skin and thymus. Consistent with this tissue distribution, spontaneous or targeted mutation of Foxn1 results in the absence of both hair and a thymus. Genetic manipulation of the Foxn1 locus thus represents a powerful tool for tissue specific gene control in the skin and thymus, and tools such as Cre recombinase under control of the Foxn1 locus are widely used for this purpose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875974/nanoparticle-systems-modulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Avia Wilkerson, Julian Kim, Alex Y Huang, Mei Zhang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are preferentially expanded in cancer. They arise from myeloid progenitor cells that do not differentiate into mature dendritic cells (DCs), granulocytes, or macrophages, and are rather thought to play a pivotal role in immune escape and cancer progression. MDSCs are characterized by the ability to suppress T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity, inhibit natural killer T (NKT) cell activation, and induce the differentiation and expansion of regulatory T cells (Treg)...
November 22, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874952/nox1-promotes-colon-cancer-cell-metastasis-via-activation-of-the-adam17-pathway
#15
H-P Wang, X Wang, L-F Gong, W-J Chen, Z Hao, S-W Feng, Y-B Wu, T Ye, Y-K Cai
OBJECTIVE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by endogenous metabolic enzymes are involved in a variety of pathology processes, including cancer. In particular, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1), a member of Nox enzyme family, is highly expressed in the colon tissue and has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological states of colon cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Nox1 in the regulation of colon cancer progression remains largely unknown...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873323/inflammation-enhances-the-vaccination-potential-of-cd40-activated-b-cells-in-mice
#16
Mélissa Mathieu, Livia Odagiu, Léa Gaudot, Jean-François Daudelin, Heather J Melichar, Réjean Lapointe, Nathalie Labrecque
Vaccination with antigen-pulsed CD40-activated B (CD40-B) cells can efficiently lead to the in vivo differentiation of naive CD8(+) T cells into fully functional effectors. In contrast to bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) vaccination, CD40-B cell priming does not allow for memory CD8(+) T-cell generation but the reason for this deficiency is unknown. Here, we show that compared to BMDCs, murine CD40-B cells induce lower expression of several genes regulated by T-cell receptor signalling, co-stimulation and inflammation (signals 1 to 3) in mouse T cells...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871922/linking-canonical-microcircuits-and-neuronal-activity-dynamic-causal-modelling-of-laminar-recordings
#17
D A Pinotsis, J P Geerts, L Pinto, T H B FitzGerald, V Litvak, R Auksztulewicz, K J Friston
Neural models describe brain activity at different scales, ranging from single cells to whole brain networks. Here, we attempt to reconcile models operating at the microscopic (compartmental) and mesoscopic (neural mass) scales to analyse data from microelectrode recordings of intralaminar neural activity. Although these two classes of models operate at different scales, it is relatively straightforward to create neural mass models of ensemble activity that are equipped with priors obtained after fitting data generated by detailed microscopic models...
November 18, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864297/expression-of-biologically-active-murine-interleukin-18-il-18-in-lactococcus-lactis
#18
Sadegh Feizollahzadeh, Hossein Khanahmad, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Alireza Andalib, Mohammad Hossein Sanei, Abbas Rezaei
Food grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis is increasingly used for heterologous protein expression in therapeutic and industrial applications. The ability of L. lactis to secrete biologically active cytokines may be used for the generation of therapeutic cytokines. Interleukin (IL)-18 enhances the immune response, especially on mucosal surfaces, emphasizing its therapeutic potential. However, it is produced as an inactive precursor and has to be enzymatically cleaved for maturation. We genetically manipulated L...
November 17, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864016/generation-of-antigen-specific-cytotoxic-t-lymphocytes-with-activated-b-cells
#19
Sun Ok Yun, Hee Young Shin, Chang-Yuil Kang, Hyoung Jin Kang
BACKGROUND AIMS: Dendritic cells are well known as the most potent antigen-presenting cells. Nonetheless, their use in immunotherapy has been limited by the time-consuming and laborious steps involved in their generation in vitro. Therefore, much attention has been placed on alternative antigen-presenting cells that are relatively more convenient to manipulate. METHODS: In this study, the efficacy of B cells as antigen-presenting cells, compared with dendritic cells, in the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against cytomegalovirus-specific antigens was evaluated...
November 15, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859042/hla-g-promotes-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-mdsc-accumulation-and-suppressive-activity-during-human-pregnancy-through-engagement-of-the-receptor-ilt4
#20
Natascha Köstlin, Anna-Lena Ostermeir, Bärbel Spring, Julian Schwarz, Alexander Marmé, Christina B Walter, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Establishing and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance is essential for a successful pregnancy; failure of immunological adaptation to pregnancy leads to severe complications such as abortion or preterm delivery. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are innate immune cells that suppress T-cell responses, expand during pregnancy and thus may play a role in tolerance induction. Human leucocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecule with immune-modulatory properties, which is expressed during pregnancy...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
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