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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811169/tissue-engineered-extracellular-matrices-ecms-in-urology-evolution-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
N F Davis, E M Cunnane, F J O'Brien, J J Mulvihill, M T Walsh
Autologous gastrointestinal tissue has remained the gold-standard reconstructive biomaterial in urology for >100 years. Mucus-secreting epithelium is associated with lifelong metabolic and neuromechanical complications when implanted into the urinary tract. Therefore, the availability of biocompatible tissue-engineered biomaterials such as extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds may provide an attractive alternative for urologists. ECMs are decellularised, biodegradable membranes that have shown promise for repairing defective urinary tract segments in vitro and in vivo by inducing a host-derived tissue remodelling response after implantation...
August 12, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805203/corrigendum-photothermally-triggered-actuation-of-hybrid-materials-as-a-new-platform-for-in-vitro-cell-manipulation
#2
Amy Sutton, Tanya Shirman, Jaakko V I Timonen, Grant T England, Philseok Kim, Mathias Kolle, Thomas Ferrante, Lauren D Zarzar, Elizabeth Strong, Joanna Aizenberg
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14700.
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803361/toxoplasma-gondii-and-neospora-caninum-induce-different-host-cell-responses-at-proteome-wide-phosphorylation-events-a-step-forward-for-uncovering-the-biological-differences-between-these-closely-related-parasites
#3
Mariwan M M Al-Bajalan, Dong Xia, Stuart Armstrong, Nadine Randle, Jonathan M Wastling
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related intracellular protozoan parasites and tissue cyst-forming Coccidia of the phylum Apicomplexa. There are remarkable similarities between the morphology, genomes and transcriptomes of both parasites. Toxoplasma is zoonotic, with a wide host range and is mainly transmitted horizontally between its definitive host, the cat, and its intermediate hosts. Neospora causes disease within a narrow host range and with reduced virulence potential to the hosts. The dog is the definitive host of Neospora and its epidemiology in cattle mainly depends on vertical transmission...
August 12, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800954/a-tim-3-oligonucleotide-aptamer-enhances-t-cell-functions-and-potentiates-tumor-immunity-in-mice
#4
Tal Gefen, Iris Castro, Darija Muharemagic, Yvonne Puplampu-Dove, Shradha Patel, Eli Gilboa
T cell immunoglobulin-3 (TIM-3) is a negative regulator of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreting CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cytotoxic cells. Recent studies have highlighted the role of TIM-3 as an important mediator of CD8(+) T cell exhaustion in the setting of chronic viral infections and cancer. In murine tumor models, antibody blockade of TIM-3 with anti-TIM-3 antibodies as monotherapy has no or minimal antitumor activity, suggesting that TIM-3 signaling exerts an accessory or amplifying effect in keeping immune responses in check...
August 8, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800155/epigenetic-analysis-of-sv40-minichromosomes
#5
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is one of the best-characterized members of the polyomavirus family of small DNA tumor viruses. It has a small genome of 5243 bp and utilizes cellular proteins for its molecular biology, with the exception of the T-antigen protein, which is coded by the virus and is involved in regulating transcription and directing replication. Importantly, SV40 exists as chromatin in both the virus particle and intracellular minichromosomes. These facts, combined with high yields of virus and minichromosomes following infection and ease of manipulation, have made SV40 an extremely useful model to study all aspects of eukaryotic molecular biology...
August 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799202/immune-tolerance-induced-by%C3%A2-platelet-targeted-factor-viii-gene-therapy-in-hemophilia-a-mice-is-cd4%C3%A2-t-cell-mediated
#6
Y Chen, X Luo, J A Schroeder, J Chen, C K Baumgartner, J Hu, Q Shi
BACKGROUND: Immune responses are a major concern in gene therapy. Our previous studies demonstrated that platelet-targeted FVIII (2bF8) gene therapy together with in vivo drug-selection of transduced cells can rescue the bleeding diathesis and induce immune tolerance in FVIII(null) mice. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether non-selectable 2bF8 lentiviral vector (LV) for the induction of platelet-FVIII expression is sufficient to induce immune tolerance and how immune tolerance is induced after 2bF8LV gene therapy...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797028/characterisation-of-the-cancer-associated-glucocorticoid-system-key-role-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2
#7
Nicola Cirillo, David J Morgan, Maria Carmela Pedicillo, Antonio Celentano, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Michael J McCullough, Stephen S Prime
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that production of cortisol not only takes place in several non-adrenal peripheral tissues such as epithelial cells but, also, the local inter-conversion between cortisone and cortisol is regulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs). However, little is known about the activity of this non-adrenal glucocorticoid system in cancers. METHODS: The presence of a functioning glucocorticoid system was assessed in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma and further, in 16 epithelial cell lines from 8 different tissue types using ELISA, western blotting and immunofluorescence...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794279/nasopharyngeal-infection-by-streptococcus-pyogenes-requires-superantigen-responsive-v%C3%AE-specific-t-cells
#8
Joseph J Zeppa, Katherine J Kasper, Ivor Mohorovic, Delfina M Mazzuca, S M Mansour Haeryfar, John K McCormick
The globally prominent pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes potent immunomodulatory proteins known as superantigens (SAgs), which engage lateral surfaces of major histocompatibility class II molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR) β-chain variable domains (Vβs). These interactions result in the activation of numerous Vβ-specific T cells, which is the defining activity of a SAg. Although streptococcal SAgs are known virulence factors in scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome, mechanisms by how SAgs contribute to the life cycle of S...
August 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793266/the-epithelial-circumferential-actin-belt-regulates-yap-taz-through-nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-of-merlin
#9
Kana T Furukawa, Kazunari Yamashita, Natsuki Sakurai, Shigeo Ohno
Circumferential actin belts underlying the adherens junctions of columnar epithelial cell monolayers control intercellular surface tension and cell shape to maintain tissue integrity. Yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog TAZ are proliferation-activating transcriptional coactivators that shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Previous studies suggest the importance of stress fibers in the actin cytoskeleton for regulation of YAP nuclear localization; however, the role of the circumferential actin belt on YAP localization remains unclarified...
August 8, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783662/suppression-by-human-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-requires-foxp3-tip60-interactions
#10
Khalid Bin Dhuban, Eva d'Hennezel, Yasuhiro Nagai, Yan Xiao, Steven Shao, Roman Istomine, Fernando Alvarez, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Hans Ochs, Bruce Mazer, Bin Li, Chiyoko Sekine, Alan Berezov, Wayne Hancock, Troy R Torgerson, Mark I Greene, Ciriaco A Piccirillo
CD4(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are critical mediators of immune tolerance, and their deficiency owing to FOXP3 mutations in immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX) patients results in severe autoimmunity. Different FOXP3 mutations result in a wide range of disease severity, reflecting the relative importance of the affected residues in the integrity of the FOXP3 protein and its various molecular interactions. We characterized the cellular and molecular impact of the most common IPEX mutation, p...
June 16, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775251/niche-specific-gene-expression-in-a-parasitic-nematode-increased-expression-of-immunomodulators-in-teladorsagia-circumcincta-larvae-derived-from-host-mucosa
#11
Tom N McNeilly, David Frew, Stewart T G Burgess, Harry Wright, David J Bartley, Yvonne Bartley, Alasdair J Nisbet
Metazoan parasites have to survive in many different niches in order to complete their life-cycles. In the absence of reliable methods to manipulate parasite genomes and/or proteomes, identification of the molecules critical for parasite survival within these niches has largely depended on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of different developmental stages of the parasite; however, changes may reflect differences associated with transition between developmental stages rather than specific adaptations to a particular niche...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768867/mechanism-of-interferon-stimulated-gene-induction-in-hiv-1-infected-macrophages
#12
Najla Nasr, Abdullateef A Alshehri, Thomas K Wright, Maryam Shahid, Bonnie M Heiner, Andrew N Harman, Rachel A Botting, Karla J Helbig, Michael R Beard, Kazuo Suzuki, Anthony D Kelleher, Paul Hertzog, Anthony L Cunningham
Viruses manipulate the complex interferon and interferon stimulated gene (ISG) system in different ways. We have previously shown that HIV inhibits type I and III interferons in its key target cells but directly stimulates a subset of >20 ISGs in macrophages and dendritic cells many of which are antiviral. Here we examined the mechanism of induction of ISGs and showed this occurred in two phases. The first phase was transient (0-24hpi) induced mainly by extracellular vesicles, and one of its component proteins HSP90α, contained within the HIV inoculum...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768727/manipulating-glucose-metabolism-during-different-stages-of-viral-pathogenesis-can-have-either-detrimental-or-beneficial-effects
#13
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Dallas Donohoe, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Barry T Rouse
This report deals with physiological changes and their implication following ocular infection with HSV. This infection usually results in a blinding inflammatory reaction in the cornea, orchestrated mainly by proinflammatory CD4 T cells and constrained in severity by regulatory T cells. In the present report, we make the unexpected finding that blood glucose levels change significantly during the course of infection. Whereas levels remained normal during the early phase of infection when the virus was actively replicating in the cornea, they increased around 2-fold during the time when inflammatory responses to the virus was occurring...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768483/live-cell-calcium-imaging-of-adherent-and-non-adherent-gl261-cells-reveals-phenotype-dependent-differences-in-drug-responses
#14
Averey D Strong, Richard L Daniels
BACKGROUND: The tumor-derived GL261 cell line is used as a model for studying glioblastoma and other high-grade gliomas, and can be cultured adherently or as free-floating aggregates known as neurospheres. These different culture conditions give rise to distinct phenotypes, with increased tumorigenicity displayed by neurosphere-cultured cells. An important technique for understanding GL261 pathobiology is live cell fluorescent imaging of intracellular calcium. However, live cell imaging of GL261 neurospheres presents a technical challenge, as experimental manipulations where drugs are added to the extracellular media cause the cells to move during analysis...
August 2, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761327/expression-and-role-of-interleukin-9-in-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease
#15
Zhixi Peng, Shaoqiu Jiang, Mingxing Wu, Xiyuan Zhou, Qian Wang
PURPOSE: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can lead to blindness. This study was designed to investigate whether interleukin (IL)-9 plays a role in the development of VKH disease. METHODS: IL-9, IL-17, and interferon (IFN)-γ levels, present in the supernatants of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4+T cells, were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-9 mRNA expression in PBMCs was measured with real-time quantitative PCR...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757138/early-life-antibiotic-exposure-causes-intestinal-dysbiosis-and-exacerbates-skin-and-lung-pathology-in-experimental-systemic-sclerosis
#16
Heena Mehta, Philippe-Olivier Goulet, Shunya Mashiko, Jade Desjardins, Gemma Pérez, Martial Koenig, Jean-Luc Senécal, Marco Constante, Manuela M Santos, Marika Sarfati
Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) display altered intestinal microbiota. However, the influence of intestinal dysbiosis on development of experimental SSc remains unknown. Topoisomerase I peptide-loaded dendritic cells (TOPOIA DCs) immunization induces SSc-like disease, with progressive skin and lung fibrosis. Breeders were given streptomycin and pups continued to receive antibiotic (ATB) until endpoint (lifelongATB). Alternately, ATB was withdrawn (earlyATB) or initiated (adultATB) during adulthood. TOPOIA DCs (no ATB) immunization induced pronounced skin fibrosis, with increased matrix (Col1a1), pro-fibrotic (Il13, Tweakr) and vascular function (Serpine1) gene expression...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755520/genetic-variation-in-irf4-expression-modulates-growth-characteristics-tyrosinase-expression-and-interferon-gamma-response-in-melanocytic-cells
#17
Yash Chhabra, Hilary X L Yong, Mitchell E Fane, Arish Soogrim, Wen Lim, Dayana Nur Mahiuddin, Reuben S Q Kim, Melinda Ashcroft, Scott A Beatson, Stephen A Ainger, Darren J Smit, Kasturee Jagirdar, Graeme J Walker, Richard A Sturm, Aaron G Smith
A SNP within intron4 of the Interferon Regulatory Factor4 (IRF4) gene, rs12203592*C/T has been independently associated with pigmentation and age-specific effects on nevus count in European-derived populations. We have characterised the cis-regulatory activity of this intronic region and using human foreskin-derived melanoblast strains we have explored the correlation between IRF4 rs12203592 homozygous C/C and T/T genotypes with TYR enzyme activity, supporting its association with pigmentation traits. Further, higher IRF4 protein levels directed by the rs12203592*C allele were associated with increased basal proliferation but decreased cell viability following UVR, an etiological factor in melanoma development...
July 29, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750664/harvesting-multipotent-progenitor-cells-from-a-small-sample-of-tonsillar-biopsy-for-clinical-applications
#18
Raju Khatri, Michal Arad, Timothy Ortlip, Benjamin A Portney, W Alex Meltzer, Silviu Diaconu, Lorna E Silipino, Ying Wang, David M Kaetzel, Rodney J Taylor, Michal Zalzman
BACKGROUND: Human adult stem cells hold the potential for the cure of numerous conditions and degenerative diseases. They possess major advantages over pluripotent stem cells as they can be derived from donors at any age, and therefore pose no ethical concerns or risk of teratoma tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, they have a natural ability to differentiate and secrete factors that promote tissue healing without genetic manipulation. However, at present, clinical applications of adult stem cells are limited by a shortage of a reliable, standardized, and easily accessible tissue source which does not rely on specimens discarded from unrelated surgical procedures...
July 27, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750639/epithelial-requirement-for-in-vitro-proliferation-and-xenograft-growth-and-metastasis-of-mda-mb-468-human-breast-cancer-cells-oncogenic-rather-than-tumor-suppressive-role-of-e-cadherin
#19
H J Hugo, N P A D Gunasinghe, B G Hollier, T Tanaka, T Blick, A Toh, P Hill, C Gilles, M Waltham, E W Thompson
BACKGROUND: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with downregulated E-cadherin and frequently with decreased proliferation. Proliferation may be restored in secondary metastases by mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We tested whether E-cadherin maintains epithelial proliferation in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, facilitating metastatic colonization in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. METHODS: EMT/MET markers were assessed in xenograft tumors by immunohistochemistry...
July 27, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745480/controllable-photovoltaic-effect-of-microarray-derived-from-epitaxial-tetragonal-bifeo3-films
#20
Zengxing Lu, Peilian Li, Jian-Guo Wan, Zhifeng Huang, Guo Tian, Danfeng Pan, Zhen Fan, Xingsen Gao, Jun-Ming Liu
Recently, the ferroelectric photovoltaic (FePV) effect has attracted great interest due to its potential in developing optoelectronic devices such as solar cell and electric-optical sensors. It is important for actual applications to realize a controllable photovoltaic process in ferroelectric-based materials. In this work, we prepared well-ordered microarrays based on epitaxially tetragonal BiFeO3 (T-BFO) films by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The polarization-dependent photocurrent image was directly observed by a conductive atomic force microscope under ultraviolet illumination...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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