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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922523/mature-b-cells-accelerate-wound-healing-after-acute-and-chronic-diabetic-skin-lesions
#1
Ruxandra F Sîrbulescu, Chloe K Boehm, Erin Soon, Moses Q Wilks, Iulian Ilieş, Hushan Yuan, Ben Maxner, Nicolas Chronos, Charalambos Kaittanis, Marc D Normandin, Georges El Fakhri, Dennis P Orgill, Ann E Sluder, Mark C Poznansky
Chronic wounds affect 12-15% of patients with diabetes and are associated with a drastic decrease in their quality of life. Here we demonstrate that purified mature naïve B220(+) /CD19(+) /IgM(+) /IgD(+) B cells improve healing of acute and diabetic murine wounds after a single topical application. B cell treatment significantly accelerated acute wound closure by 2-3 days in wild-type mice and 5-6 days in obese diabetic mice. The treatment led to full closure in 43% of chronic diabetic wounds, as compared to only 5% in saline-treated controls...
September 18, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916722/phosphoproteomics-reveals-that-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-phosphorylates-multiple-splicing-factors-and-is-associated-with-alternative-splicing
#2
Mansi Y Shinde, Simone Sidoli, Katarzyna Kulej, Michael J Mallory, Caleb M Radens, Amanda Reicherter, Rebecca L Myers, Yoseph Barash, Kristen W Lynch, Benjamin A Garcia, Peter S Klein
Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that regulates multiple signaling pathways. In vitro kinase assays and genetic and pharmacological manipulations of GSK-3 have identified more than 100 putative GSK-3 substrates in diverse cell types. Many more have been predicted on the basis of a recurrent GSK-3 consensus motif (pS/pTXXXS/T), but this prediction has not been tested by analyzing the GSK-3 phosphoproteome. Using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) and mass spectrometry (MS) techniques to analyze the repertoire of GSK-3-dependent phosphorylation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we found that ~2...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912528/extracellular-vesicles-derived-from-t-regulatory-cells-suppress-t-cell-proliferation-and-prolong-allograft-survival
#3
Sistiana Aiello, Federica Rocchetta, Lorena Longaretti, Silvia Faravelli, Marta Todeschini, Linda Cassis, Francesca Pezzuto, Susanna Tomasoni, Nadia Azzollini, Marilena Mister, Caterina Mele, Sara Conti, Matteo Breno, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Marina Noris, Ariela Benigni
We have previously shown that rat allogeneic DC, made immature by adenoviral gene transfer of the dominant negative form of IKK2, gave rise in-vitro to a unique population of CD4(+)CD25(-) regulatory T cells (dnIKK2-Treg). These cells inhibited Tcell response in-vitro, without needing cell-to-cell contact, and induced kidney allograft survival prolongation in-vivo. Deep insight into the mechanisms behind dnIKK2-Treg-induced suppression of Tcell proliferation remained elusive. Here we document that dnIKK2-Treg release extracellular vesicles (EV) riched in exosomes, fully accounting for the cell-contact independent immunosuppressive activity of parent cells...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910901/-clinical-research-on-immune-checkpoint-and-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
D Yu, X M Qi, X Zhao, Y Liu, K Xue, C S Jin, L J Wen
T cell immune checkpoint pathways contribute to tumor immune escape. Many studies have shown that immune checkpoint is demonstrably correlated with tumor grade or prognosis in several types of malignancies and immune checkpoint has become a new biological index for tumor detection and prognosis. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising tumor outcomes in clinical trials for some advanced solid tumors and it will become a new target for cancer immunotherapy. In this review we will explore the correlation between expressions of immune checkpoint-associated genes and proteins in immune microenviroment and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and specifically will discuss how this pathway can be manipulated with immune therapeutic drugs...
September 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910203/the-t-box-transcription-factor-tbx2-regulates-cell-proliferation-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#5
Jing Wang, Yin Liu, Zhongyuan Su, Li Pan, Fan Lu, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
PURPOSE: Vertebrate eye development and function critically depend on the regulation of proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. Hence, a thorough analysis of the molecular parameters controlling RPE cell proliferation is crucial for our understanding of the physiology of this cell type both in health and in disease. The T-box transcription factor TBX2 is an important cell cycle regulator in development and oncogenesis, but its specific role in RPE cell proliferation is far from clear...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910194/chikungunya-virus-induced-arthritis-role-of-host-and-viral-factors-in-the-pathogenesis
#6
Sarika Amdekar, Deepti Parashar, Kalichamy Alagarasu
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a member of Alphavirus genus, is responsible for chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by the presence of fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia. Reemergence of CHIKV has become a significant public health concern in Asian and African countries and is newly emerging in the Middle East, Pacific, American, and European countries. Cytokines, innate (monocytes, natural killer cells) and adaptive immune response (role of B cells and T cells i.e. CD4(+) and CD8(+)), and/or viral factors contribute to CHIKV-induced arthritis...
September 14, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906525/stereolithographic-printing-of-ionically-crosslinked-alginate-hydrogels-for-degradable-biomaterials-and-microfluidics
#7
Thomas M Valentin, Susan E Leggett, Po-Yen Chen, Jaskiranjeet K Sodhi, Lauren H Stephens, Hayley D McClintock, Jea Yun Sim, Ian Y Wong
3D printed biomaterials with spatial and temporal functionality could enable interfacial manipulation of fluid flows and motile cells. However, such dynamic biomaterials are challenging to implement since they must be responsive to multiple, biocompatible stimuli. Here, we show stereolithographic printing of hydrogels using noncovalent (ionic) crosslinking, which enables reversible patterning with controlled degradation. We demonstrate this approach using sodium alginate, photoacid generators and various combinations of divalent cation salts, which can be used to tune the hydrogel degradation kinetics, pattern fidelity, and mechanical properties...
September 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900328/immune-checkpoint-blockers-and-ovarian-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Chinmoy K Bose
Although the idea, called "cancer immunotherapy," is very appealing and has previously been shown to work in several mouse models of cancer, it has in general been very difficult to translate cancer immunotherapy approaches to humans. Because of this frustration, by the 1990s, many scientists and biotechnology companies had given up on the idea of cancer immunotherapy. After few years, first detection T-cell suppression of effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) molecule was established. Antibody (Ab) to CTLA4 could increase T-cell starting a completely new age of tumor immunology...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898717/targeting-dendritic-cells-through-gold-nanoparticles-a-review-on-the-cellular-uptake-and-subsequent-immunological-properties
#9
REVIEW
Suhana Ahmad, Anes Ateqah Zamry, Hern-Tze Tina Tan, Kah Keng Wong, JitKang Lim, Rohimah Mohamud
Gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been proposed as a highly potential tool in immunotherapies due to its advantageous properties including customizable size and shapes, surface functionality and biocompatibility. Dendritic cells (DCs), the sentinels of immune response, have been of interest to be manipulated by using gold NPs for targeted delivery of immunotherapeutic agent. Researches done especially in human DCs showed a variation of gold NPs effects on cellular uptake and internalization, DC maturation and subsequent T cells priming as well as cytotoxicity...
September 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891122/nerve-speci%C3%AF-c-xenogeneic-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-promotes-recovery-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#10
Travis A Prest, Eric Yeager, Samuel T LoPresti, Emilija Zygelyte, Matthew J Martin, Longying Dong, Alexis Gibson, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Bryan N Brown, Jonathan Cheetham
Peripheral nerve possesses the inherent ability to regrow and recover following injury. However, nerve regeneration is often slow and incomplete due to limitations associated with the local microenvironment during the repair process. Manipulation of the local microenvironment at the site of nerve repair, therefore, represents a significant opportunity for improvement in downstream outcomes. Macrophages and Schwann cells play a key role in the orchestration of early events after peripheral nerve injury. We describe the production, characterization, and use of an injectable, peripheral nerve-specific extracellular matrix-based hydrogel (PNSECM) for promoting modulation of the local macrophage and Schwann cell responses at the site of nerve repair in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887564/inhibition-of-y1-receptor-signaling-improves-islet-transplant-outcome
#11
Kim Loh, Yan-Chuan Shi, Stacey Walters, Mohammed Bensellam, Kailun Lee, Katsuya Dezaki, Masanori Nakata, Chi Kin Ip, Jeng Yie Chan, Esteban N Gurzov, Helen E Thomas, Michaela Waibel, James Cantley, Thomas W Kay, Toshihiko Yada, D Ross Laybutt, Shane T Grey, Herbert Herzog
Failure to secrete sufficient quantities of insulin is a pathological feature of type-1 and type-2 diabetes, and also reduces the success of islet cell transplantation. Here we demonstrate that Y1 receptor signaling inhibits insulin release in β-cells, and show that this can be pharmacologically exploited to boost insulin secretion. Transplanting islets with Y1 receptor deficiency accelerates the normalization of hyperglycemia in chemically induced diabetic recipient mice, which can also be achieved by short-term pharmacological blockade of Y1 receptors in transplanted mouse and human islets...
September 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887436/when-escherichia-coli-doesn-t-fit-the-mold-a-pertussis-like-toxin-with-altered-specificity
#12
Chen Chen, Joseph T Barbieri
Bacterial toxins introduce protein modifications such as ADP-ribosylation to manipulate host cell signaling and physiology. Several general mechanisms for toxin function have been established, but the extent to which previously uncharacterized toxins utilize these mechanisms is unknown. A study of an Escherichia coli pertussis-like toxin demonstrates that this protein acts on a known toxin substrate but displays distinct and dual chemoselectivity, suggesting this E. coli pertussis-like toxin may serve as a unique tool to study G-protein signaling in eukaryotic cells...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887411/age-related-pacemaker-deterioration-is-due-to-impaired-intracellular-and-membrane-mechanisms-insights-from-numerical-modeling
#13
Joachim Behar, Yael Yaniv
Age-related deterioration of pacemaker function has been documented in mammals, including humans. In aged isolated sinoatrial node tissues and cells, reduction in the spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate was associated with deterioration of intracellular and membrane mechanisms; however, their relative contribution to age-associated deficient pacemaker function is not known. Interestingly, pharmacological interventions that increase posttranslation modification signaling activities can restore the basal and maximal AP firing rate, but the identities of the protein targets responsible for AP firing rate restoration are not known...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883081/haploidentical-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-adult-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-position-statement-from-the-acute-leukemia-working-party-of-the-european-society-for-blood-and-marrow-transplantation
#14
Catherine J Lee, Bipin N Savani, Mohamad Mohty, Myriam Labopin, Annalisa Ruggeri, Christoph Schmid, Frédéric Baron, Jordi Esteve, Norbert C Gorin, Sebastian Giebel, Fabio Ciceri, Arnon Nagler
Allogeneic blood or marrow hematopoietic cell transplantation continues to be the most potent anti-leukemic treatment for adult patients with standard or high-risk, or chemo-refractory acute myeloid leukemia. Until recently, this procedure was generally limited to those recipients who had an available matched-sibling donor or matched-unrelated donor. Technical advances in graft cell processing and manipulation, control of bidirectional T cell alloreactivity, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and other supportive measures in haploidentical transplantation now enables nearly all patients with acute myeloid leukemia to benefit from the graft-versus-leukemia effect with substantial reduction in procedure-related mortality...
September 7, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880920/the-staphylococcus-aureus-superantigen-selx-is-a-bifunctional-toxin-that-inhibits-neutrophil-function
#15
Stephen W Tuffs, David B A James, Jovanka Bestebroer, Amy C Richards, Mariya I Goncheva, Marie O'Shea, Bryan A Wee, Keun Seok Seo, Patrick M Schlievert, Andreas Lengeling, Jos A van Strijp, Victor J Torres, J Ross Fitzgerald
Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) cause Vβ-dependent T-cell proliferation leading to immune dysregulation associated with the pathogenesis of life-threatening infections such as toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing pneumonia. Previously, we demonstrated that staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) from Staphylococcus aureus is a classical superantigen that exhibits T-cell activation in a Vβ-specific manner, and contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia. Here, we discovered that SElX can also bind to neutrophils from human and other mammalian species and disrupt IgG-mediated phagocytosis...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879523/regulatory-t-cells-molecular-and-cellular-basis-for-immunoregulation
#16
Yosuke Togashi, Hiroyoshi Nishikawa
CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a highly immune-suppressive subset of CD4(+) T cells, characterized by expression of the master regulatory transcription factor FOXP3. Tregs are proven to play central roles in the maintenance of self-tolerance in healthy individuals. Tregs are involved in maintaining immune homeostasis: they protect hosts from developing autoimmune diseases and allergy, whereas in malignancies, they promote tumor progression by suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Elucidating factors influencing Treg homeostasis and function have important implications for understanding disease pathogenesis and identifying therapeutic opportunities...
September 7, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878086/metsv-a-novel-archaeal-lytic-virus-targeting-methanosarcina-strains
#17
Katrin Weidenbach, Lisa Nickel, Horst Neve, Omer S Alkhnbashi, Sven Künzel, Anne Kupczok, Thorsten Bauersachs, Liam Cassidy, Andreas Tholey, Rolf Backofen, Ruth A Schmitz
A novel archaeal lytic virus targeting species of the genus Methanosarcina was isolated using Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 as host. Due to its spherical morphology the virus was designated Methanosarcinaspherical virus (MetSV). Molecular analysis demonstrated that MetSV contains double stranded linear DNA with a genome size of 10,567 bp containing 22 open reading frames (ORFs) all oriented in the same direction. Functions were predicted for some of these ORFs, i. e. like DNA polymerase, ATPase, DNA-binding protein, as well as envelope (structural) protein...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877700/testosterone-inhibits-the-growth-of-prostate-cancer-xenografts-in-nude-mice
#18
Weitao Song, Vikram Soni, Samit Soni, Mohit Khera
BACKGROUND: Traditional beliefs of androgen's stimulating effects on the growth of prostate cancer (PCa) have been challenged in recent years. Our previous in vitro study indicated that physiological normal levels of androgens inhibited the proliferation of PCa cells. In this in vivo study, the ability of testosterone (T) to inhibit PCa growth was assessed by testing the tumor incidence rate and tumor growth rate of PCa xenografts on nude mice. METHODS: Different serum testosterone levels were manipulated in male nude/nude athymic mice by orchiectomy or inserting different dosages of T pellets subcutaneously...
September 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877578/syphacia-obvelata-a-new-hope-to-induction-of-intestinal-immunological-tolerance-in-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Niloofar Taghipour, Nariman Mosaffa, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohamad Mohsen Homayoni, Esmaeil Mortaz, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Mohammad Reza Zali
The ability of nematodes to manipulate the immune system of their host towards a Th2 and T regulatory responses has been proposed to suppress the inflammatory response. Clinical trials have proposed a useful effect of helminth infections on improvement of inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of Syphacia obvelata infection to induce intestinal tolerance in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were infected through the cagemates with self-infected BALB/c mice. Four weeks post-infection, expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-10 were assessed in the supernatant of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) culture...
August 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877307/a-reconfigurable-multiplanar-in-vitro-simulator-for-real-time-absolute-motion-with-external-and-musculotendon-forces
#20
Joshua T Green, Rena F Hale, Jerome Hausselle, Roger V Gonzalez
Advancements in computational musculoskeletal biomechanics are constrained by a lack of experimental measurement under real-time physiological loading conditions. This paper presents the design, configuration, capabilities, accuracy, and repeatability of The University of Texas at El Paso Joint Load Simulator (UTJLS) by testing four cadaver knee specimens with 47 real-time tests including heel and toe squat maneuvers with and without musculotendon forces. The UTJLS is a musculoskeletal simulator consisting of two robotic manipulators and eight musculotendon actuators...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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