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Functional electroencephalography

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#1
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143096/-neurofeedback-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-tinnitus-review-and-future-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
T Kleinjung, C Thüring, D Güntensperger, P Neff, M Meyer
Neurofeedback is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique employing real-time display of brain activity in terms of electroencephalography (EEG) signals to teach self-regulation of distinct patterns of brain activity or influence brain activity in a targeted manner. The benefit of this approach for control of symptoms in attention deficit disorders, hyperactivity, depression, and migraine has been proven. Studies in recent years have also repeatedly shown this treatment to improve tinnitus symptoms, although it has not become established as routine therapy...
November 15, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142213/exploring-the-alpha-desynchronization-hypothesis-in-resting-state-networks-with-intracranial-electroencephalography-and-wiring-cost-estimates
#3
Jaime Gómez-Ramírez, Shelagh Freedman, Diego Mateos, José Luis Pérez Velázquez, Taufik Valiante
This paper addresses a fundamental question, are eyes closed and eyes open resting states equivalent baseline conditions, or do they have consistently different electrophysiological signatures? We compare the functional connectivity patterns in an eyes closed resting state with an eyes open resting state to investigate the alpha desynchronization hypothesis. The change in functional connectivity from eyes closed to eyes open, is here, for the first time, studied with intracranial recordings. We perform network connectivity analysis in iEEG and we find that phase-based connectivity is sensitive to the transition from eyes closed to eyes open only in interhemispheral and frontal electrodes...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138310/sparsity-enables-estimation-of-both-subcortical-and-cortical-activity-from-meg-and-eeg
#4
Pavitra Krishnaswamy, Gabriel Obregon-Henao, Jyrki Ahveninen, Sheraz Khan, Behtash Babadi, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Matti S Hämäläinen, Patrick L Purdon
Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134751/cortical-hemispheric-asymmetries-are-present-at-young-ages-and-further-develop-into-adolescence
#5
Hiroshi Yamazaki, Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Melissa Jane Polonenko, Salima Jiwani, Daniel D E Wong, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Specialization of the auditory cortices for pure tone listening may develop with age. In adults, the right hemisphere dominates when listening to pure tones and music; we thus hypothesized that (a) asymmetric function between auditory cortices increases with age and (b) this development is specific to tonal rather than broadband/non-tonal stimuli. Cortical responses to tone-bursts and broadband click-trains were recorded by multichannel electroencephalography in young children (5.1 ± 0.8 years old) and adolescents (15...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134143/eeg-sensorimotor-rhythms-variation-and-functional-connectivity-measures-during-motor-imagery-linear-relations-and-classification-approaches
#6
Carlos A Stefano Filho, Romis Attux, Gabriela Castellano
Hands motor imagery (MI) has been reported to alter synchronization patterns amongst neurons, yielding variations in the mu and beta bands' power spectral density (PSD) of the electroencephalography (EEG) signal. These alterations have been used in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), in an attempt to assign distinct MI tasks to commands of such a system. Recent studies have highlighted that information may be missing if knowledge about brain functional connectivity is not considered. In this work, we modeled the brain as a graph in which each EEG electrode represents a node...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130824/longitudinal-structural-and-functional-differences-between-proportional-and-poor-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#7
Adrian G Guggisberg, Pierre Nicolo, Leonardo G Cohen, Armin Schnider, Ethan R Buch
BACKGROUND: Evolution of motor function during the first months after stroke is stereotypically bifurcated, consisting of either recovery to about 70% of maximum possible improvement ("proportional recovery, PROP") or in little to no improvement ("poor recovery, POOR"). There is currently no evidence that any rehabilitation treatment will prevent POOR and favor PROP. OBJECTIVE: To perform a longitudinal and multimodal assessment of functional and structural changes in brain organization associated with PROP...
November 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129160/visual-but-not-motor-processes-predict-simple-visuomotor-reaction-time-of-badminton-players
#8
Thorben Hülsdünker, Heiko K Strüder, Andreas Mierau
The athlete's brain exhibits significant functional adaptations that facilitate visuomotor reaction performance. However, it is currently unclear if the same neurophysiological processes that differentiate athletes from non-athletes also determine performance within a homogeneous group of athletes. This information can provide valuable help for athletes and coaches aiming to optimize existing training regimes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the neurophysiological correlates of visuomotor reaction performance in a group of skilled athletes...
November 12, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127656/altered-oscillatory-brain-dynamics-of-emotional-processing-in-young-binge-drinkers
#9
Siyuan Huang, Lee A Holcomb, Stephen M Cruz, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic drinking, also termed binge drinking, is commonly practiced by young adults. It is accompanied by a range of cognitive, affective, and social problems, but the neural dynamics underlying changes in emotional functions is poorly understood. To investigate the behavioral and brain indices of affective processing as a function of binge drinking, young, healthy participants (23.3 ± 3.3 years) were assigned to two groups (n = 32 each) based on their drinking habits. Binge drinking (BD) participants reported drinking heavily with at least five binge episodes in the last 6 months, whereas light drinkers (LD) reported no more than one binge episode in the last 6 months...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124791/impact-of-different-intensities-of-intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-on-the-cortical-properties-during-tms-eeg-and-working-memory-performance
#10
Sung Wook Chung, Nigel C Rogasch, Kate E Hoy, Caley M Sullivan, Robin F H Cash, Paul B Fitzgerald
Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique capable of increasing cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. Due to the rapid induction of modulatory effects, prefrontal application of iTBS is gaining popularity as a therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders such as depression. In an attempt to increase efficacy, higher than conventional intensities are currently being applied. The assumption that this increases neuromodulatory may be mechanistically false for iTBS...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124726/the-relation-between-cortisol-and-functional-connectivity-in-people-with-and-without-stress-sensitive-epilepsy
#11
Jonas M den Heijer, Willem M Otte, Eric van Diessen, Jolien S van Campen, E Lorraine Hompe, Floor E Jansen, Marian Joels, Kees P J Braun, Josemir W Sander, Maeike Zijlmans
OBJECTIVE: The most common reported seizure-precipitant is stress. We recently showed a biologic basis for stress sensitivity of seizures: cortisol levels in people with stress-sensitive epilepsy correlated with focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on electroencephalography (EEG). Here we aimed to determine whether the effect of cortisol on the epileptic brain is global or focal, and whether cortisol affects all brains or just those of stress-sensitive people. Because epilepsy is associated with changes in functional brain connectivity, we studied the relationship between cortisol and changes in global and focal (node-centered) functional connectivity measures for individuals with stress-sensitive and non-stress-sensitive epilepsy...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124547/online-reduction-of-artifacts-in-eeg-of-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-using-reference-layer-adaptive-filtering-rlaf
#12
David Steyrl, Gunther Krausz, Karl Koschutnig, Günter Edlinger, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow us to study the active human brain from two perspectives concurrently. Signal processing based artifact reduction techniques are mandatory for this, however, to obtain reasonable EEG quality in simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Current artifact reduction techniques like average artifact subtraction (AAS), typically become less effective when artifact reduction has to be performed on-the-fly. We thus present and evaluate a new technique to improve EEG quality online...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121108/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-multimodal-eeg-fnirs-signals-in-the-loss-and-recovery-of-consciousness-under-sedation-using-midazolam-and-propofol
#13
Seul-Ki Yeom, Dong-Ok Won, Seong In Chi, Kwang-Suk Seo, Hyun Jeong Kim, Klaus-Robert Müller, Seong-Whan Lee
On sedation motivated by the clinical needs for safety and reliability, recent studies have attempted to identify brain-specific signatures for tracking patient transition into and out of consciousness, but the differences in neurophysiological effects between 1) the sedative types and 2) the presence/absence of surgical stimulations still remain unclear. Here we used multimodal electroencephalography-functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG-fNIRS) measurements to observe electrical and hemodynamic responses during sedation simultaneously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119311/cortical-processing-of-level-cues-for-spatial-hearing-is-impaired-in-children-with-prelingual-deafness-despite-early-bilateral-access-to-sound
#14
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
Bilateral cochlear implantation aims to restore binaural hearing, important for spatial hearing, to children who are deaf. Improvements over unilateral implant use are attributed largely to the detection of interaural level differences (ILDs) but emerging evidence of impaired sound localization and binaural fusion suggest that these binaural cues are abnormally coded by the auditory system. We used multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical responses to ILDs in two groups: 13 children who received early bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously, known to protect the developing auditory cortices from unilaterally driven reorganization, and 15 age matched peers with normal hearing...
November 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111409/mulan-evaluation-and-ensemble-statistical-inference-for-functional-connectivity
#15
Huifang E Wang, Karl J Friston, Christian G Bénar, Marmaduke M Woodman, Patrick Chauvel, Viktor Jirsa, Christophe Bernard
Many analysis methods exist to extract graphs of functional connectivity from neuronal networks. Confidence in the results is limited because, (i) different methods give different results, (ii) parameter setting directly influences the final result, and (iii) systematic evaluation of the results is not always performed. Here, we introduce MULAN (MULtiple method ANalysis), which assumes an ensemble based approach combining multiple analysis methods and fuzzy logic to extract graphs with the most probable structure...
October 27, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#16
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106684/frontal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-in-childhood-and-adolescence-predictors-of-long-term-seizure-freedom-overall-cognitive-and-adaptive-functioning
#17
Georgia Ramantani, Navah Ester Kadish, Hans Mayer, Constantin Anastasopoulos, Kathrin Wagner, Gitta Reuner, Karl Strobl, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Gert Wiegand, Armin Brandt, Rudolf Korinthenberg, Irina Mader, Vera van Velthoven, Josef Zentner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Thomas Bast
BACKGROUND: Although frontal lobe resections account for one-third of intralobar resections in pediatric epilepsy surgery, there is a dearth of information regarding long-term seizure freedom, overall cognitive and adaptive functioning. OBJECTIVE: To identify outcome predictors and define the appropriate timing for surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 75 consecutive patients aged 10.0 ± 4.9 yr at surgery that had an 8...
July 5, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105073/methodological-standards-and-interpretation-of-video-electroencephalography-in-adult-control-rodents-a%C3%A2-task1-wg1-report-of-the-aes-ilae-translational-task%C3%A2-force-of-the-ilae
#18
Shilpa D Kadam, Raimondo D'Ambrosio, Venceslas Duveau, Corinne Roucard, Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Akio Ikeda, Marco de Curtis, Aristea S Galanopoulou, Kevin M Kelly
In vivo electrophysiological recordings are widely used in neuroscience research, and video-electroencephalography (vEEG) has become a mainstay of preclinical neuroscience research, including studies of epilepsy and cognition. Studies utilizing vEEG typically involve comparison of measurements obtained from different experimental groups, or from the same experimental group at different times, in which one set of measurements serves as "control" and the others as "test" of the variables of interest. Thus, controls provide mainly a reference measurement for the experimental test...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100212/an-event-related-potential-investigation-of-the-acute-effects-of-aerobic-and-coordinative-exercise-on-inhibitory-control-in-children-with-adhd
#19
Sebastian Ludyga, Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Peter Weber, Mark Brotzmann, Fahimeh Habibifar, Uwe Pühse
The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task. Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition...
October 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096552/exploring-differences-between-left-and-right-hand-motor-imagery-via-spatio-temporal-eeg-microstate
#20
Weifeng Liu, Xiaoming Liu, Ruomeng Dai, Xiaoying Tang
EEG-based motor imagery is very useful in brain-computer interface. How to identify the imaging movement is still being researched. Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates reflect the spatial configuration of quasi-stable electrical potential topographies. Different microstates represent different brain functions. In this paper, microstate method was used to process the EEG-based motor imagery to obtain microstate. The single-trial EEG microstate sequences differences between two motor imagery tasks - imagination of left and right hand movement were investigated...
November 3, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
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