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aortic endocarditis

Stina Jordal, Bård Reiakvam Kittang, Pirjo-Riitta Salminen, Geir Egil Eide, Øyvind Kommedal, Øystein Wendelbo, Rune Haaverstad, Haakon Sjursen
BACKGROUND: To investigate epidemiological trends of infective endocarditis (IE) in western Norway a retrospective study was performed. METHODS: Characteristics of 706 IE admissions from 1996 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015 were analysed and compared using the Chi-square test for categorical variables and the t-test for age. Survival was analysed by multiple Cox regression and reported by the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: Mean annual incidence rates increased from 4...
June 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Bobby Yanagawa, Amine Mazine, Derrick Y Tam, Peter Jüni, Deepak L Bhatt, Stephen Spindel, John D Puskas, Subodh Verma, Jan O Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Surgical management of aortic valve infective endocarditis (IE) with cryopreserved homograft has been associated with lower risk of recurrent IE, but there is equipoise with regard to the optimal prosthesis. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare outcomes between homograft and conventional prosthesis for aortic valve IE. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE database to September 2017 for studies comparing homograft versus conventional prosthesis...
June 15, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
Daniele De Viti, Francesco Santoro, Pasquale Raimondo, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Cataldo Memmola
We report a late clinical presentation of an aorto-right ventricular fistula (RVF) extending from the right sinus of Valsalva into the RV outflow tract with significant left-to-right shunt and severe pulmonary hypertension. A three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiogram and a chest-computed tomography scans were performed to better characterize the abnormality. Aorto- RVF can be either congenital or acquired, secondary to endocarditis, Valsalva aneurysm rupture, chest trauma, or aortic dissection.
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
Rodolfo Citro, Moreno Cecconi, Salvatore La Carrubba, Eduardo Bossone, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Stefano Nistri, Fabio Chirillo, Ilaria Dentamaro, Michele Bellino, Alfredo Posteraro, Mauro Giorgi, Licia Petrella, Ines Monte, Vincenzo Manuppelli, Antonio Mantero, Scipione Carerj, Frank Benedetto, Paolo Colonna
Background: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital heart disease, affecting 0.5%-2% of the general population. It is associated not only with notable valvular risk (aortic stenosis and/or regurgitation, endocarditis) but also with aortopathy with a wide spectrum of unpredictable clinical presentations, including aneurysmal dilation of the aortic root and/or ascending thoracic aorta, isthmic coarctation, aortic dissection, or wall rupture. Methods: The REgistro della Valvola Aortica Bicuspide della Società Italiana di ECocardiografia e CArdiovascular Imaging is a retrospective (from January 1, 2010)/prospective, multicenter, observational registry, expected to enroll 3000 patients with definitive diagnosis of BAV made by transthoracic and/or transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, or at surgery...
April 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Echography
Isabel Zegri-Reiriz, Arístides de Alarcón, Patricia Muñoz, Manuel Martínez Sellés, Victor González-Ramallo, Jose M Miro, Carles Falces, Claudia Gonzalez Rico, Xabier Kortajarena Urkola, José Antonio Lepe, Regino Rodriguez Alvarez, Jose Maria Reguera Iglesias, Enrique Navas, Fernando Dominguez, Pablo Garcia-Pavia
BACKGROUND: There is little information concerning infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Currently, IE antibiotic prophylaxis (IEAP) is not recommended for these conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the clinical and microbiological features of IE in patients with BAV and MVP and compare them with those of IE patients with and without IEAP indication, to determine the potential benefit of IEAP in these conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Giacomo Murana, Jacopo Alfonsi, Carlo Savini, Carlo Mariani, Giuditta Coppola, Valeria Lo Coco, Emanuele Pilato, Davide Pacini, Roberto Di Bartolomeo
OBJECTIVES: If mitral valve repair is not feasible, mitral valve replacement remains the only option. Based on our overall experience with the On-X mitral valve, the aim of this study was to investigate early and late outcomes after mitral valve replacement using this latest generation prosthesis. METHODS: From 1998 to 2016, 600 patients received an On-X prosthesis in the mitral position. Of them, we excluded all patients who had combined aortic procedures and retrospectively analysed 318 consecutive patients who had a mitral valve replacement...
June 12, 2018: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Htoo Kyaw, Felix Raju, Atif Z Shaikh, Aung Naing Lin, Aye T Lin, Joseph Abboud, Sarath Reddy
Infective endocarditis (IE) secondary to Staphylococcus lugdunensis has been increasingly recognized since 1988. IE-related thromboembolism represents an associated complication of the disease and carries a dismal prognosis. However, the incidence of cerebrovascular accident secondary to S. lugdunensis IE is relatively uncommon and its treatment has not been clearly elucidated yet. We performed an extensive literature search using Pubmed, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify the articles using the following keywords: 'Staphylococcus lugdunensis', 'infective endocarditis', 'stroke', and 'cerebrovascular accident...
April 12, 2018: Curēus
Christina Petridou, Lenka Strakova, Ruan Simpson
Introduction: Campylobacter is a common pathogen of the gastrointestinal tract, but invasive disease is rare. Campylobacter fetus can play a role in osteomyelitis, meningitis and joint infection and has a prediliction for the vascular endothelium, causing mycotic aneurysms, thrombophlebitis and endocarditis. Here we present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by C. fetus and a review of the literature. Case presentation: An 85-year-old woman with a tissue aortic valve replacement and atrial fibrillation was admitted to hospital with tonic-clonic seizures, right-sided hemiparesis, facial droop and hemianopia...
May 2018: JMM Case Reports
Athina Chasapi, Adam Hobbs, Theodore Velissaris, Benoy N Shah
A 77 year old male underwent elective bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement (23mm Carpentier-Edwards Perimount MagnaEase) for severe aortic stenosis. His pre-discharge transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) was normal. He presented 9 days after surgery with dyspnoea and fever. He was in sinus rhythm. Blood cultures were taken and he was commenced on empirical antibiotics for possible infective endocarditis (subsequently all negative). Repeat TTE showed a well-seated prosthesis without regurgitation but elevated gradients (peak / mean gradients 49 / 22 mmHg respectively)...
June 12, 2018: Echo Research and Practice
Rahul Mittal, Vasanti M Jhaveri, Sae-In Samantha Kay, Patricia Blackwelder, Kunal Patel
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases such as endocarditis are the second most common cause of death worldwide. Infective endocarditis (IE) is the most serious and fatal infection of the heart associated with significant mortality and morbidity. The interaction of pathogens with human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of IE. OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with IE. However, it is not known whether P...
June 10, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Soichiro Kitamura
BACKGROUND: Pediatric coronary artery bypass surgery (PCABS) for congenital heart disease has become increasingly important in infants and children undergoing modern cardiac surgery, because of its life-saving potential in unsuccessful coronary transfer surgery. This review summarizes the current surgical role of PCABS for treating congenital heart diseases. METHODS: Databases, mainly PUBMED, were searched for relevant publications regarding coronary bypass surgery in the pediatric population, from 1970 (commencement) to March 2018...
June 5, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
John Paul Iguidbashian, Jai D Parekh, Shweta Kukrety, Venkata Giri Andukuri
A 66-year-old woman presented with 2 days of fever and severe diarrhoea. She has a history of ulcerative colitis (UC), well controlled with medication. She also has a history of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infective endocarditis following aortic valve replacement and pulmonary embolism. She had complained of passing stool with traces of blood about 30 times per day. Stool testing for Clostridium difficile, routine culture and microscopy was done. She was started on ceftriaxone. CT scan revealed thick-walled colon consistent with UC flare...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Liza Mariam Thomas, Niaz Ahmed Shaikh, Ranjana Pradeep
A 43-year-old woman with no known cardiovascular risk factors was admitted with a second episode of ischaemic stroke. She was not a known case of connective tissue disease like systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). During the current episode, she was found to have markedly deranged coagulation parameters and laboratory evidence of microangiopathic haemolysis, but no evidence of sepsis or active bleeding. Further investigation revealed multiple organ infarcts. A diagnosis of probable catastrophic APS was made and she improved dramatically with a combination of plasmapheresis, corticosteroids and therapeutic anticoagulation...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Naina McCann, Mohamad Fahed Barakat, Frank Schafer
We present the case of a 49-year-old man with a bicuspid aortic valve who presented to the emergency department with limb weakness and a fever. Blood tests revealed a fulminant septic process with Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteraemia, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal abscess and discitis causing spinal cord compression, in addition to multiple cerebral septic emboli, pleural effusions and ascites. A transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) performed post decompression of his spinal collection showed native aortic valve endocarditis with an associated large aortic root abscess...
June 4, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Prerna Sharma, Mohamed Yassin
Introduction: Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen which can cause invasive infection in immunocompromised adults. Listeria has been known to cause infections during pregnancy and in older adults. Listeria endocarditis is a rare condition. A case of listeria-related intracardiac device infection is reported below. Case Report: A 74-year-old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease, congestive cardiac failure, permanent atrial fibrillation status after nodal ablation, and placement of a biventricular pacemaker presented to the hospital with complaints of generalized fatigue...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
Faisal Owdah Alatawi, Reda A Abuelatta, Ahmed B AlAhmedi, Ibraheem H Alharbi, Saleh S Alghamdi, Amal A Sakrana, Osama A Alamodi, Hesham A Naeim
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been recognized as a valid alternative to surgery for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) in high-risk surgical patients. OBJECTIVE: Determine first-year clinical outcomes for TAVI at Madinah Cardiac Center (MMC) in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Retrospective, analytical cross-sectional. SETTING: Tertiary cardiac care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent TAVI for severe AS between February 2013 and December 2016 were included...
May 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Sarah P Georgiadou, Efstratios Manoulakas, Konstantinos P Makaritsis, George N Dalekos
Austrian syndrome is a rare medical condition characterised by the triad of pneumonia, meningitis and endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Native aortic valve insufficiency is the most common cause of cardiac failure in these patients, requiring valve replacement. We report a 52-year-old chronic alcoholic man who presented with fever, neck rigidity and loss of c onsciousness. Lumbar puncture revealed central nervous system infection while chest X-ray showed pneumonia. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures revealed S...
May 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Jelle Fleerakkers, Marc Schepens, Willem Ranschaert, Paul Verrelst, Eric Graulus
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to analyse the haemodynamic and clinical results after implantation of the Freedom SOLO stentless aortic valve replacement by assessing the immediate postoperative results regarding mortality, discharge echocardiographic gradients and reoperation rates and by evaluating these results in the medium term. METHODS: This study was designed as a single-centre retrospective observational trial. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected retrospectively from 625 patients undergoing an aortic valve replacement using the Freedom Solo stentless valve (LivaNova, London, UK) at the Sint-Jan Hospital, Bruges, between May 2009 and May 2017...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
James E Scriven, Antonia Scobie, Neville Q Verlander, Angela Houston, Tim Collyns, Vjeran Cajic, Onn Min Kon, Tamara Mitchell, Omar Rahama, Amy Robinson, Shirmila Withama, Peter Wilson, David Maxwell, Daniel Agranoff, Eleri Davies, Meirion Llewelyn, Shiu-Shing Soo, Amandip Sahota, Mike Cooper, Michael Hunter, Jennifer Tomlins, Simon Tiberi, Simon Kendall, Martin Dedicoat, Eliza Alexander, Teresa Fenech, Maria Zambon, Theresa Lamagni, E Grace Smith, Meera Chand
OBJECTIVES: Mycobacterium chimaera infection following cardiac surgery, due to contaminated cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units, has been reported worldwide. However, the spectrum of clinical disease remains poorly understood. To address this, we report the clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of the first 30 UK cases. METHODS: Case note review was performed for cases identified retrospectively through outbreak investigations and prospectively through on-going surveillance...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Ilhwan Yeo, Luke K Kim, Sun O Park, S Chiu Wong
BACKGROUND: While the utilization of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for patients with severe aortic stenosis has been increasing, in-hospital infective endocarditis (IE) following TAVR has not been well-described. AIM: To identify in-hospital IE following TAVR. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified all patients who underwent TAVR between 2012 and 2014. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of in-hospital IE after TAVR...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
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