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pediatrics fast

Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
André Bohomol Velhote, Elena Bohomol, Manoel Carlos Prieto Velhote
Objective: To identify pediatric caregivers' reactions in outpatient surgery settings. Methods: A quantitative descriptive/exploratory survey-based study involving application of a semi-structured questionnaire to 62 caregivers in two hospitals. Results: Most caregivers (88.7%) were mothers who submitted to preoperative fasting with their children. Nervousness, anxiety and concern were the most common feelings reported by caregivers on the day of the surgery...
July 2016: Einstein
Jody K Takemoto, Tracie L Miller, Jiajia Wang, Denise L Jacobson, Mitchell E Geffner, Russell B Van Dyke, Mariana Gerschenson
OBJECTIVE: To identify relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and mitochondrial respiration in perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth. DESIGN: Case-control study METHODS:: Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in pHIV youth in Tanner stages 2-5, 25 youth with IR (IR+) and 50 without IR (IR-) who were enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). IR was defined as a Homeostatic Model of Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) value ≥4.0. A novel, high-throughput oximetry method was used to evaluate cellular respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Marko Šimunović, Joško Božić, Lukrecija Milić, Ivana Unić, Veselin Škrabić
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Muhammad Irfan, Sumeira Rabel, Quratulain Bukhtar, Muhammad Imran Qadir, Farhat Jabeen, Ahmed Khan
Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs). These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Mathew Clark, Esma Birisci, Jordan E Anderson, Christina M Anliker, Micheal A Bryant, Craig Downs, Abdallah Dalabih
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines adopted by the American Academy of Pediatrics calls for prolonged fasting times before performing pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA). PSA is increasingly provided to children outside of the operating theater by sedation trained pediatric providers and does not require airway manipulation. We investigated the safety of a shorter fasting time compared to a longer and guideline compliant fasting time. We tried to identify the association between fasting time and sedation-related complications...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Thomas Naert, Robin Colpaert, Tom Van Nieuwenhuysen, Dionysia Dimitrakopoulou, Jannick Leoen, Jurgen Haustraete, Annekatrien Boel, Wouter Steyaert, Trees Lepez, Dieter Deforce, Andy Willaert, David Creytens, Kris Vleminckx
Retinoblastoma is a pediatric eye tumor in which bi-allelic inactivation of the Retinoblastoma 1 (RB1) gene is the initiating genetic lesion. Although recently curative rates of retinoblastoma have increased, there are at this time no molecular targeted therapies available. This is, in part, due to the lack of highly penetrant and rapid retinoblastoma animal models that facilitate rapid identification of targets that allow therapeutic intervention. Different mouse models are available, all based on genetic deactivation of both Rb1 and Retinoblastoma-like 1 (Rbl1), and each showing different kinetics of retinoblastoma development...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Preeti Sule, Ronak Tilvawala, Parnia Behinaein, Grant K Walkup, Jeffrey D Cirillo
Although tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide and diagnostic methods have been in place for more than 100 years, diagnosis remains a challenge. The main problems with diagnosis relate to the time needed to obtain a definitive result, difficulty in obtaining sputum, the primary clinical material used, and the ability of the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to cause disease in nearly any tissue within the body. In order to decrease incidence of TB, discovery of a novel interventions will be required, since current technologies have only been able to control numbers of infections, not reduce them...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Shanshan Bao, Jonathan I Tamir, Jeffrey L Young, Umar Tariq, Martin Uecker, Peng Lai, Weitian Chen, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To develop and clinically evaluate a pediatric knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on volumetric fast spin-echo (3DFSE) and compare its diagnostic performance, image quality, and imaging time to that of a conventional 2D protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3DFSE sequence was modified and combined with a compressed sensing-based reconstruction resolving multiple image contrasts, a technique termed T2 Shuffling (T2 Sh). With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, 28 consecutive children referred for 3T knee MRI prospectively underwent a standard clinical knee protocol followed by T2 Sh...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Fast ripples (FR, 250-500Hz) are proposed biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone on the basis of several retrospective reports linking postoperative seizure freedom to their complete resection. There are no clinical trials or prospective reports validating the use of FR as characterized by electrocorticography (ECoG), to guide the scope of epilepsy surgery, and to inform prognosis thereafter. We set out to prospectively evaluate the utility of FR resection to predict postoperative epilepsy outcomes, and examine the feasibility of "live" intraoperative FR ascertainment...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Hakan Aylanç, Filiz Tütüncüler, Necdet Süt
BACKGROUND: This study was to determine whether pituitary dysfunction occurs after head trauma in children or not and which axis is affected more; to define the association of pituitary dysfunction with the severity of head trauma and duration time after the diagnosis of head trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 24 children who were diagnosed with head trauma were evaluated regarding pituitary dysfunction. In all cases, after 12 h fasting, serum cortisol, fT3, fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin-like growth factor-1, serum sodium, urine density, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, in female cases E2, in male cases, TT levels were determined...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Ulrik Lausten-Thomsen, Michael Christiansen, Paula Louise Hedley, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Theresa Stjernholm, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are biologically active, low-molecular weight peptides, which play a major role in metabolic homeostasis in humans. Leptin has gained increasing attention in pediatrics as a biomarker for various metabolic pathologies. Yet, its usefulness is hampered by the relative lack of reference values from pediatric settings. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate serum concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), and free leptin index (FLI) in healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-18 years and subsequently to establish reference intervals across sex and age groups...
November 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Jehan Ahmed Sayed, Mohamed Amir F Riad, Mohamed Omar M Ali
BACKGROUND: Strabismus surgery is perhaps a pediatric surgical procedure that has the strongest evidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) risk. This randomized controlled blind study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy of dexamethasone and intraoperative superhydration vs their monotherapy on the incidence and severity of PONV and on pain intensity after pediatric strabismus surgery. METHODS: A total of 120 children aged 6 to 12 years undergoing strabismus surgery were randomized to equally 3 groups to receive 0...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Kh Rezaee, E Azizi, J Haddadnia
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a severe disorder of the central nervous system that predisposes the person to recurrent seizures. Fifty million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy; after Alzheimer's and stroke, it is the third widespread nervous disorder. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, an algorithm to detect the onset of epileptic seizures based on the analysis of brain electrical signals (EEG) has been proposed. 844 hours of EEG were recorded form 23 pediatric patients consecutively with 163 occurrences of seizures...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
Bartosz Polis, Jacek Krawczyk, Lech Polis, Emilia Nowosławska
PURPOSE: The aim of the article is to present the new extrapedicular percutaneous technique for posttraumatic vertebral column fracture. METHODS: A 15-year-old boy needed a surgical Th8 posttraumatic vertebral body (VB) compressive fracture reduction due to insufficient conservative treatment and consistent severe clinical symptoms. After 6 months of external Jevett long-roll brace stabilization, progressive sagittal balance disturbance of thoracic kyphosis was measured and persistent clinical symptoms were observed...
September 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Maria Rosaria Juli
The eating disorders are a group of situations which are very complex that include abnormal feeding patterns, too much worry about the physical aspect, no real perception of the body image and a strong link between all these factors and the levels of self-esteem (Fairburn & Harrison 2003, Sigel 2008, American Academy of Pediatrics 2010, Dalle Grave 2011). From the '50s of the previous century we had a continuous increase of the Eating Disorders (Dalle Grave 2011). Indeed, in the National Program of the Prevention is stated that: "The spread of the eating disorders is very fast and relevant; there is no other disease with the same propagation and that looks like a real social epidemic" (The Ministry of Health 2010)...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Annika Mutanen, Mikko P Pakarinen
AIM: Glukagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) and -2 (GLP-2), produced by intestinal L-cells, are key hormones regulating intestinal transit, secretion, absorption, and mucosal growth. We evaluated naïve fasting serum GLP-1 and GLP-2 levels in pediatric intestinal failure (IF). METHODS: Fifty-five IF patients with median age 4.2 (IQR 1.3-12) years and 47 matched healthy controls underwent measurement of fasting serum GLP-1 and GLP-2. RESULTS: Serum GLP-2 [19...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Lemi Mosissa, Abebaw Kebede, Tedla Mindaye, Muluwork Getahun, Sisay Tulu, Kassu Desta
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Rong Yang, Vishakha Sabharwal, Obiajulu S Okonkwo, Nadya Shlykova, Rong Tong, Lily Yun Lin, Weiping Wang, Shutao Guo, John J Rosowski, Stephen I Pelton, Daniel S Kohane
Otitis media is the most common reason U.S. children receive antibiotics. The requisite 7- to 10-day course of oral antibiotics can be challenging to deliver in children, entails potential systemic toxicity, and encourages selection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. We developed a drug delivery system that, when applied once to the tympanic membrane through the external auditory canal, delivers an entire course of antimicrobial therapy to the middle ear. A pentablock copolymer poloxamer 407-polybutylphosphoester (P407-PBP) was designed to flow easily during application and then to form a mechanically strong hydrogel on the tympanic membrane...
September 14, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
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