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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944759/optimization-of-an-ultralow-dose-high-resolution-pediatric-pet-scanner-design-based-on-monolithic-scintillators-with-dual-sided-digital-sipm-readout-a-simulation-study
#1
Ekaterina Mikhaylova, Valerio Tabacchini, Giacomo Borghi, Pieter Mollet, Ester D'Hoe, Dennis R Schaart, Stefaan Vandenberghe
The goal of this simulation study is the performance evaluation and comparison of six potential designs for a time-of-flight PET scanner for pediatric patients of up to about 12 years of age. It is designed to have a high sensitivity and provide high-contrast and high-resolution images. The simulated pediatric PET is a full ring scanner, consisting of 32 × 32 mm<sup>2</sup> monolithic LYSO:Ce crystals coupled to digital silicon photomultiplier (dSiPM) arrays. The six considered designs differ in axial lengths (27...
September 25, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940551/type-1-diabetes-during-adolescence-international-comparison-between-germany-austria-and-sweden
#2
Lena Hanberger, Ulf Samuelsson, Reinhard W Holl, Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer, Karin Åkesson, Sabine Hofer
OBJECTIVES: By using pediatric diabetes quality registries in Austria, Germany, and Sweden treatment of type 1 diabetes and the outcome of care during the vulnerable adolescence period were compared. METHODS: Data in DPV, broadly used in Austria and Germany, and Swediabkids used in Sweden, from clinical visits in the year 2013 on 14 383 patients aged 11 to 16 years regarding hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin regimen, body mass index (BMI)-SD score (SDS), blood pressure, hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and smoking habits were analyzed...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939701/rapid-targeted-genomics-in-critically-ill-newborns
#3
Cleo C van Diemen, Wilhelmina S Kerstjens-Frederikse, Klasien A Bergman, Tom J de Koning, Birgit Sikkema-Raddatz, Joeri K van der Velde, Kristin M Abbott, Johanna C Herkert, Katharina Löhner, Patrick Rump, Martine T Meems-Veldhuis, Pieter B T Neerincx, Jan D H Jongbloed, Conny M van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Morris A Swertz, Richard J Sinke, Irene M van Langen, Cisca Wijmenga
BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic whole-genome sequencing has been explored in critically ill newborns, hoping to improve their clinical care and replace time-consuming and/or invasive diagnostic testing. A previous retrospective study in a research setting showed promising results with diagnoses in 57%, but patients were highly selected for known and likely Mendelian disorders. The aim of our prospective study was to assess the speed and yield of rapid targeted genomic diagnostics for clinical application...
September 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937023/pre-illness-diet-as-risk-factor-in-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-saudi-arabia
#4
Mohammad I El Mouzan, Mohammad A Al Mofarreh, Ahmad A Al Sarkhy, Asaad M Assiri, Yassin M Hamed
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Saudi Arabia but there's little knowledge about its risk factors. Our aim is to investigate the dietary risk factors of this disease in Saudi children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The children investigated for IBD were prospectively enrolled. Those with confirmed IBD were designated cases and the others were controls. The average food frequency intake at least 3 months before onset of illness was obtained by direct interview and recorded on a modified food frequency questionnaire...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#5
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933918/pharmacokinetics-of-a-new-amphetamine-extended-release-oral-suspension-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#6
Carolyn R Sikes, Russ L McMahen, Jeffrey G Stark, Dorothy Engelking
OBJECTIVE: An extended-release amphetamine (AMP) oral suspension has been developed to facilitate medication ingestion and dose titration. This study sought to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of this new formulation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This was an open-label, single-period, PK study in 29 pediatric participants with ADHD. Participants were stratified into age groups 1 (6-7 years), 2 (8-9 years), and 3 (10-12 years), and dosed with 15 mL extended-release AMP liquid suspension (equivalent to 30 mg mixed AMP salts) after an overnight fast...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929769/design-and-solidification-of-fast-releasing-clofazimine-nanoparticles-for-treatment-of-cryptosporidiosis
#7
Yingyue Zhang, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Eugene J Cho, Ellen L Dobrijevic, Hak-Kim Chan, Robert K Prud'homme
Clofazimine, a lipophilic (log P = 7.66) riminophenazine antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a good safety record, was recently identified as a lead hit for cryptosporidiosis through a high-throughput phenotypic screen. Cryptosporidiosis requires fast-acting treatment as it leads to severe symptoms which, if untreated, result in morbidity for infants and small children. Consequently, a fast-releasing oral formulation of clofazimine in a water-dispersible form for pediatric administration is highly desirable...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912855/effect-of-transoral-endoscopic-adenoidectomy-on-peripheral-blood-t-lymphocyte-subsets-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-hypopnea-syndrome-and-its-treatment-strategy
#8
Na Yang, Yaofeng Ji, Yin Liu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy on peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its treatment strategy. Ninety-eight pediatric patients with adenoidal hypertrophy associated with OSAHS admitted to the Department of Otolaryngology, Xuzhou Children's Hospital were selected. After admission, patients received perfected 24 h polysomnogram monitoring, routine blood examination, fasting blood biochemistry examination, T-lymphocyte subset count, 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and nasopharyngeal computed tomography...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904932/a-comparative-study-on-the-results-of-estimating-children-s-weights-based-on-arm-circumference-height-and-body-habitus-against-estimated-weight-broselow-on-2-24-months-children-in-isfahan
#9
Mohammad Nasr-Esfahani, Sirous Nemati, Babak Masoumi, Azam Eshaghiandorche, Ali Akbar Jangjoo
BACKGROUND: Resuscitation of children in different treatment wards is a challenge. Given that the pediatric drug dosing is based on weight and weighing is not practical in emergency situations, it is critical to employ a fast, easy, and reliable technique. Hence, this study attempted to evaluate the real weight children against Broselow estimation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 1500 children of 2-24 months referred to Isfahan urban and rural health centers in 2015...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#10
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879316/survey-of-the-sevoflurane-sedation-status-in-one-provincial-dental-clinic-center-for-the-disabled
#11
Chang-Hyun Park, Seungoh Kim
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane sedation in pediatric and disabled patients has the advantage of faster induction and recovery compared to general anesthesia, as well as minimum influence on the respiratory and cardiovascular functions, and airway protective reflexes. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of sevoflurane sedation used in dental treatment at one provincial dental clinic center for the disabled. METHODS: We investigated patients' gender, age, reasons for undergoing sedation, medication history prior to treatment, duration of anesthesia, treatment length, type of treatment, and yearly patterns, for 387 cases of dental treatment performed using sevoflurane sedation from January 2013 to October 2016...
December 2016: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871374/clinical-outcomes-and-radiosurgical-considerations-for-pediatric-arteriovenous-malformation-influence-of-clinical-features-on-obliteration-rate
#12
Chang Kyu Park, Seok Keun Choi, Sung Ho Lee, Man Kyu Choi, Young Jin Lim
PURPOSE: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an established treatment modality for brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), but there have been few published studies examining the relationship between clinical features of AVM and successful obliteration with GKRS in pediatric patients. In the current study, we investigate the outcomes of GKRS for pediatric patients with brain AVM and analyze the variables that influence obliteration. METHODS: We analyzed 68 pediatric patients (≤ 18 years) with a mean follow-up period of 61...
September 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864733/approach-to-hypertriglyceridemia-in-the-pediatric-population
#13
Badhma Valaiyapathi, Bhuvana Sunil, Ambika P Ashraf
Hypertriglyceridemia is increasingly identified in children and adolescents, owing to improved screening and higher prevalence of childhood obesity. Hypertriglyceridemia can result from either increased triglyceride (TG) production or reduced TG clearance. The etiologic origin can be primary (genetic) or secondary, but it is often multifactorial. Management is challenging because of the interplay of genetic and secondary causes and lack of evidence-based guidelines. Lifestyle changes and dietary interventions are most important, especially in hypertriglyceridemia associated with obesity...
September 2017: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859138/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-patterns-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-the-exhaled-breath-of-children-a-case-control-study-using-ion-molecule-reaction-mass-spectrometry
#14
Lorenzo Monasta, Chiara Pierobon, Andrea Princivalle, Stefano Martelossi, Annalisa Marcuzzi, Francesco Pasini, Luigi Perbellini
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) profoundly affect quality of life and have been gradually increasing in incidence, prevalence and severity in many areas of the world, and in children in particular. Patients with suspected IBD require careful history and clinical examination, while definitive diagnosis relies on endoscopic and histological findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the alveolar air of pediatric patients with IBD presents a specific volatile organic compounds' (VOCs) pattern when compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857990/andy-gump-fracture-of-the-mandible-in-a-pediatric-patient
#15
Gabriel Mulinari-Santos, Valthierre Nunes Lima, Xiomara Mónica Johanna Palacio-Muñoz, André Hergesel de Oliva, Gustavo Antonio Correa Momesso, Tárik Ocon Braga Polo, Francisley Ávila Souza, Idelmo Rangel Garcia-Júnior, Leonardo Perez Faverani
The mandibular fractures in pediatric patients are rare, and they can need a fast and safe treatment. We present a case of a pediatric patient with "Andy Gump" fracture, resulting in a retrognathic mandible, distress to breathe, and functional discomfort to the patient caused by a cycling accident. The treatment was successful with the fast release of airway path and use of titanium plates to fix the fracture.
August 28, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828486/risk-factors-for-adverse-events-in-emergency-department-procedural-sedation-for-children
#16
Maala Bhatt, David W Johnson, Jason Chan, Monica Taljaard, Nick Barrowman, Ken J Farion, Samina Ali, Suzanne Beno, Andrew Dixon, C Michelle McTimoney, Alexander Sasha Dubrovsky, Nadia Sourial, Mark G Roback
Importance: Procedural sedation for children undergoing painful procedures is standard practice in emergency departments worldwide. Previous studies of emergency department sedation are limited by their single-center design and are underpowered to identify risk factors for serious adverse events (SAEs), thereby limiting their influence on sedation practice and patient outcomes. Objective: To examine the incidence and risk factors associated with sedation-related SAEs...
August 21, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814248/pediatric-abdominal-trauma
#17
Tim Lynch
Abdominal trauma is present in approximately 25% of pediatric patients with major trauma and is the most common cause of unrecognized fatal injury in children. Pediatric abdominal trauma is typically blunt in nature with the spleen being the most common organ injured. Non-operative management is employed in over 95% of patients. Penetrating injuries are less common but often require operative management. Knowledge of specific mechanisms of injury aids the clinician in the diagnosis of specific injuries. Computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard in the identification of intra-abdominal injury...
August 14, 2017: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801804/a-comparison-of-the-characteristics-and-precision-of-needle-driving-for-right-handed-pediatric-surgeons-between-right-and-left-driving-using-a-model-of-infant-laparoscopic-diaphragmatic-hernia-repair
#18
Takamasa Ikee, Shun Onishi, Motoi Mukai, Takafumi Kawano, Koshiro Sugita, Tomoe Moriguchi, Koji Yamada, Waka Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Seiro Machigashira, Kazuhiko Nakame, Tatsuru Kaji, Satoshi Ieiri
PURPOSE: We compared the characteristics and precision of right and left needle driving for right-handed pediatric surgeons using a laparoscopic diaphragmatic repair model. METHODS: Eighteen right-handed pediatric surgeons performed three needle driving maneuvers using both hands. We evaluated the required time and conducted an image analysis. The total path length, velocity, and acceleration of the needle driving were also evaluated. RESULTS: Obtained results show the findings for the required time (s, Rt 310...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800051/alternative-tests-versus-measurement-of-fasting-plasma-glucose-and-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-for-diagnosis-of-pediatric-type-2-pre-diabetes-a-systematic-review-protocol
#19
Dagmar Tučková, Miloslav Klugar, Tomasz Lasota, Jakub Lasák, Jared M Campbell, Zachary Munn
The gold standard for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes is the measurement of fasting plasma glucose and the oral glucose tolerance test. The objective of this systematic review is to identify all alternative tests currently in use for the diagnosis of type 2 pre-diabetes mellitus in children and establish their accuracy relative to this gold standard.
August 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794661/focused-assessment-with-sonography-for-trauma-current-perspectives
#20
REVIEW
Sorravit Savatmongkorngul, Sirote Wongwaisayawan, Rathachai Kaewlai
Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a part of resuscitation of trauma patients recommended by international panel consensus. The purpose of FAST is to identify free fluid, which necessarily means blood in acute trauma patients. In this article, the authors focused on various aspects of FAST in the emergency department, prehospital care, pediatric setting, training and general pearls/pitfalls. Detailed techniques and interpretation of FAST are beyond the scope of this article.
2017: Open Access Emergency Medicine: OAEM
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