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Hiv and manitoba

C A Basham, B Elias, A Fanning, C Cook, P Orr
BACKGROUND: Performance measurement assists tuberculosis (TB) programmes in understanding areas of strength and weakness, and planning for improvements. Canada currently does not have a national comprehensive system for the measurement and analysis of TB programme performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of a Canadian provincial TB programme using measures and targets based on those published by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control for 2015...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
J Wheeler, S Chan, P R Harrigan, M Becker, K Kasper, Y Keynan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Roberta L Woodgate, Melanie Zurba, Pauline Tennent, Carla Cochrane, Mike Payne, Javier Mignone
Indigenous peoples (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) are currently overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada and are infected at a younger age than those who are not Indigenous. This article presents our findings on the stigma and discrimination (as well as related themes such as disclosure) experienced by Indigenous people who contracted HIV in their youth and live in urban and non-urban settings in Manitoba, Canada. The findings were derived from a qualitative study that sought to understand the experiences and needs of Indigenous people living with HIV (including AIDS)...
October 14, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
James Blain Johnston, Joss N Reimer, John L Wylie, Jared Bullard
OBJECTIVES: HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) has been available in Manitoba since 2008. This study evaluated the effectiveness of POCT at identifying individuals with previously unknown HIV status, its effects on clinical outcomes and the characteristics of the populations reached. METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted for individuals who received HIV POCT from 2011 to 2014. Time to linkage to care and viral load suppression were compared between individuals who tested positive for HIV using POCT and controls identified as positive through standard screening...
October 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Mona Loutfy, Alexandra de Pokomandy, V Logan Kennedy, Allison Carter, Nadia O'Brien, Karène Proulx-Boucher, Erin Ding, Johanna Lewis, Valerie Nicholson, Kerrigan Beaver, Saara Greene, Wangari Tharao, Anita Benoit, Danièle Dubuc, Jamie Thomas-Pavanel, Paul Sereda, Shahab Jabbari, Jayson H Shurgold, Guillaume Colley, Robert S Hogg, Angela Kaida
Globally, women are at increased vulnerability to HIV due to biological, social, structural, and political reasons. Women living with HIV also experience unique issues related to their medical and social healthcare, which makes a clinical care model specific to their needs worthy of exploration. Furthermore, there is a dearth of research specific to women living with HIV. Research for this population has often been narrowly focused on pregnancy-related issues without considering their complex structural inequalities, social roles, and healthcare and biological needs...
2017: PloS One
Majid Darraj, Leigh A Shafer, Shanna Chan, Ken Kasper, Yoav Keynan
HIV-1 infection is characterized by loss of CD4T cells, leading to immunodeficiency. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in suppression of the viral load and increased CD4 counts. Both viral and host factors determine CD4 cell responses to ART with approximately 15-30% of individuals having suboptimal increase of CD4T cell count, most commonly due to lack of compliance to ART. A smaller fraction of patients will have immune reconstitution failure and suboptimal CD4 increase despite suppression of HIV replication, and these individuals are at risk for adverse health outcomes...
March 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Roberta L Woodgate, Melanie Zurba, Pauline Tennent, Carla Cochrane, Mike Payne, Javier Mignone
BACKGROUND: Indigenous young people are currently highly overrepresented in the HIV epidemic in Canada, especially in the Prairie Provinces, such as Manitoba. Understanding HIV-vulnerability in Indigenous peoples must begin with understanding that social determinants are intersectional and linked to the historical legacy of European colonization. In this paper findings that detail the influence of the intersectional social determinants on Indigenous people who become infected with HIV in their youth are presented...
July 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
S van Gaalen, Michael Duff, Luisa F Arroyave, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Ken Kasper, Y Keynan
Lung infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, even in the current antiretroviral therapy era. Pneumonia is the most common cause of admission in HIV-positive individuals in our centre as reported in a previously published study. The objective of this retrospective observational study was to further characterize these admissions, with respect to index of disease severity at presentation, organisms identified, and investigations pursued including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)...
February 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Chris Kaposy, Nicole R Greenspan, Zack Marshall, Jill Allison, Shelley Marshall, Cynthia Kitson
BACKGROUND: This is a study involving three HIV clinics in the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, and Manitoba. We sought to identify ethical issues involving health care providers and clinic clients in these settings, and to gain an understanding of how different ethical issues are managed by these groups. METHODS: We used an institutional ethnographic method to investigate ethical issues in HIV clinics. Our researcher conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews, compiled participant observation notes, and studied health records in order to document ethical issues in the clinics, and to understand how health care providers and clinic clients manage and resolve these issues...
February 6, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
Quinlan Richert, Adriana Trajtman, Luisa Arroyave, Julia Toews, Marissa Becker, Ken Kasper, Paul McLaren, Zulma Rueda, Yoav Keynan
INTRODUCTION: Despite the life-prolonging effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), persons with HIV are still prone to higher rates of non-AIDS related morbidity (such as heart, kidney, and liver disease) than the general public. This is likely due to chronic immune activation and inflammation that persists in HIV-positive persons despite virological suppression. What remains undetermined, however, is whether a link exists between chronic inflammation/immune activation and suboptimal immune recovery on HAART...
March 2017: Cytokine
Souradet Y Shaw, Laurie Ireland, Leigh M McClarty, Carla Loeppky, Nancy Yu, John L Wylie, Jared Bullard, Paul Van Caeseele, Yoav Keynan, Ken Kasper, James F Blanchard, Marissa L Becker
Understanding patterns of serological testing for hepatitis B & C, and syphilis among HIV-positive individuals, prior to HIV diagnosis, can inform HIV diagnosis, engagement and prevention strategies. This was a population-based, retrospective analysis of prior serological testing among HIV-positive individuals in Manitoba, Canada. HIV cases were age-, sex- and region-matched to HIV-negative controls at a 1:5 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine previous serological tests and HIV status...
January 2017: AIDS Care
Y Keynan, Z V Rueda, K Bresler, M Becker, K Kasper
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles influence the rate of CD4 decline among HIV-infected individuals. We investigated the association between HLA B35 and HLA B51 and the rate of CD4 decline and/or opportunistic infections, among 294 HIV-positive individuals from Manitoba, Canada. All individuals presenting with a CD4 count >200 cells μL(-1) , who had at least two CD4 counts, and no evidence of co-infection were included. Individuals bearing HLA B35 or HLA B51 were compared to controls. A multivariate model demonstrated that HLA B35 allele was associated with a hazard ratio of 2...
October 2015: International Journal of Immunogenetics
Adam Erickson, Marissa Becker, Souradet Shaw, Ken Kasper, Yoav Keynan
The high prevalence of substance use among HIV-infected individuals creates numerous challenges to patient care. This study was undertaken in order to understand the impact of substance use on care outcomes for HIV-infected individuals in Manitoba. Clinical records of 564 HIV-infected individuals in care at Health Sciences Centre in Winnipeg, Manitoba were reviewed. Clinical data were extracted from patient charts for substance users (illicit substance users, alcohol abusers and chronic users of opioids or benzodiazepines) and non-users...
2015: AIDS Care
Yoav Keynan, Marissa Becker, Zulma Rueda, Kim Bresler, Ken Kasper
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with variable rates of disease progression, influenced by the quality of CD8 T-lymphocyte response, which is determined by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) I alleles. Some individuals progress slowly and maintain viral control, while at the opposite end of the spectrum some individuals endure a faster progression with rapid CD4 decline. We sought to determine the role of HLA-B allele frequency on rapid HIV disease progression...
July 2015: Infectious Diseases
Suellen Hopfer, Xianming Tan, John L Wylie
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether a meaningful set of latent risk profiles could be identified in an inner-city population through individual and network characteristics of substance use, sexual behaviors, and mental health status. METHODS: Data came from 600 participants in Social Network Study III, conducted in 2009 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify risk profiles and, with covariates, to identify predictors of class. RESULTS: A 4-class model of risk profiles fit the data best: (1) solitary users reported polydrug use at the individual level, but low probabilities of substance use or concurrent sexual partners with network members; (2) social-all-substance users reported polydrug use at the individual and network levels; (3) social-noninjection drug users reported less likelihood of injection drug and solvent use; (4) low-risk users reported low probabilities across substances...
May 2014: American Journal of Public Health
Souradet Y Shaw, Ann M Jolly, John L Wylie
OBJECTIVE: We previously identified a high prevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) amongst solvent-using injection drug users (S-IDU) relative to other injection drug users within the same locality. Here we incorporated social network variables to better characterize some of the behavioural characteristics that may be putting this specific subgroup of IDU at elevated disease risk. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of at-risk populations was carried out in Winnipeg, Canada in 2009...
2014: PloS One
Marissa L Becker, Laura H Thompson, Carla Pindera, Natalie Bridger, Carmen Lopez, Yoav Keynan, Jared Bullard, Paul Van Caseele, Ken Kasper
BACKGROUND: Approximately 26% of Canadians living with HIV are unaware of their status. Point-of-care (POC) HIV tests have been introduced to simplify and expand HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of POC testing in an emergency department (ED) setting in Winnipeg, Manitoba. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of unselected adults presenting to the ED at the Health Sciences Centre Hospital (Winnipeg, Manitoba) was performed...
2013: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Allen Kraut, Randy Fransoo, Kendiss Olafson, Clare D Ramsey, Marina Yogendran, Allan Garland
BACKGROUND: Prior studies of patients leaving hospital against medical advice (AMA) have been limited by not being population-based or assessing only one type of patient. METHODS: We used administrative data at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy to evaluate all adult residents of Manitoba, Canada discharged alive from acute care hospitals between April 1, 1990 and February 28, 2009. We identified the rate of leaving AMA, and used multivariable logistic regression to identify socio-demographic and diagnostic variables associated with leaving AMA...
2013: BMC Health Services Research
Marissa L Becker, Ken Kasper, Carla Pindera, Mary Cheang, Debbie Rodger, Stephen Sanche, Stuart Skinner, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: The numbers and demographics of HIV-positive patients in care between 2003 and 2007 in the prairie provinces were examined. METHODS: Estimates of HIV-positive patients presenting to care between 2003 and 2007 were obtained from four clinic registries in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Detailed data were collected from clinical records of new patients in 2007. RESULTS: By the end of December 2007, 2263 HIV-positive persons were in care in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta...
2012: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
Liz Creal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2013: Journal of Social Work in End-of-life & Palliative Care
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