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pre-renal azotemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574358/perforated-meckel-s-diverticulum
#1
Rahul Gupta
A 56-year-old male presented to the hospital with complaint of abdominal pain. On clinical evaluation, the patient had features suggestive of perforation peritonitis. Blood indices revealed leukocytosis, hemoconcentration, and pre-renal azotemia. Relevant CT scan images delineating the pathology have been uploaded. Surgical intervention with small-bowel resection was performed for perforated Meckel's diverticulitis. Post-operative course was uneventful.
August 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25810216/clinical-characteristics-of-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-with-urinary-crystals
#2
Akihiko Shirasu, Akira Ashida, Hideki Matsumura, Hyogo Nakakura, Hiroshi Tamai
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. In addition, some patients with acute obstructive uropathy due to ammonium acid urate stones, developing approximately 6-7 days after the onset of rotavirus gastroenteritis, have been reported, mainly in Japan. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for stone formation has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated the clinical characteristics of these patients, and analyzed the pathophysiology underlying the formation of urinary stones...
October 2015: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25264696/acute-kidney-injury-during-pregnancy
#3
REVIEW
James W Van Hook
Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared...
December 2014: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24996668/adjudication-of-etiology-of-acute-kidney-injury-experience-from-the-tribe-aki-multi-center-study
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jay L Koyner, Amit X Garg, Heather Thiessen-Philbrook, Steven G Coca, Lloyd G Cantley, Aldo Peixoto, Cary S Passik, Kwangik Hong, Chirag R Parikh
BACKGROUND: Adjudication of patient outcomes is a common practice in medical research and clinical trials. However minimal data exists on the adjudication process in the setting of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as well as the ability to judge different etiologies (e.g. Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN), Pre-renal Azotemia (PRA)). METHODS: We enrolled 475 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery at four sites of the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in AKI (TRIBE-AKI) study...
July 4, 2014: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24821152/azotemia-protects-the-brain-from-osmotic-demyelination-on-rapid-correction-of-hyponatremia
#5
Murtaza F Dhrolia, Syed F Akhtar, Ejaz Ahmed, Anwar Naqvi, Adeeb Rizvi
Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a dreadful, irreversible and well-recognized clinical entity that classically occurs after rapid correction of hyponatremia. However, it has been observed that when hyponatremia is rapidly corrected in azotemic patients by hemodialysis (HD), patients do not necessarily develop ODS. We studied the effect of inadvertent rapid correction of hyponatremia with HD in patients with azotemia. Fifty-two azotemic patients, who underwent HD at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, having pre-HD serum sodium level <125 mEq/L and post-HD serum sodium levels that increased by ≥12 mEq/L from their pre-dialysis level, were studied...
May 2014: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24548231/technical-and-clinical-outcomes-of-ureteral-stenting-in-cats-with-benign-ureteral-obstruction-69-cases-2006-2010
#6
Allyson C Berent, Chick W Weisse, Kimberly Todd, Demetrius H Bagley
OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the technical, short-term, and long-term outcomes in cats with benign ureteral obstructions treated by means of double-pigtail ureteral stent placement. DESIGN--Retrospective case series. ANIMALS--69 cats (79 ureters). PROCEDURES--The diagnosis of benign ureteral obstruction was made via abdominal ultrasonography, radiography, and ureteropyelography. Ureteral stent placement was attempted endoscopically, surgically, or both, with fluoroscopic guidance. The medical records were reviewed for pre-, intra-, and postoperative data; complications; and outcome...
March 1, 2014: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23770456/measurement-of-cystatin-c-in-human-urine-by-particle-enhanced-turbidimetric-immunoassay-on-an-automated-biochemistry-analyzer
#7
Konstantinos Makris, Efthimia Nikolaki, Konstantinos Nanopoulos, Konstantinos M Pirgakis, Chrisostomos K Maltezos
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C (CysC), is produced by all the nucleated cells of the human body, is freely filtered by the kidney glomerulus and reabsorbed by the tubules. It is widely accepted that no tubular secretion of CysC occurs. Raised urinary levels are believed to indicate tubular damage. METHODS: We report here the validation of a quantitative assay to measure urinary cystatin C (uCysC) using a commercial CysC kit based on a latex particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA), on an automated biochemistry analyzer...
August 2013: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23656404/epidemiology-and-clinicopathologic-outcome-of-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-in-nigeria-a-single-cenetr-study
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Wasiu Adekunle Olowu, Olufemi Adefehinti, Theophilus Adesola Aladekomo
INTRODUCTION: Due to dearth of data, chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcome in African children has been dismal owing to poor understanding of its etiology, manifestations and management. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 154 CKD children and adolescents who were managed at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex between 2000 and 2009 to evaluate the epidemiology and clinicopathologic outcome of pediatric CKD in Nigeria. RESULTS: Overall mean incidence was 11 (6-20) per million children population (pmcp)/year while prevalence averaged 48 (8-101) pmcp...
May 2013: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23164415/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-pregnant-patient
#9
REVIEW
Rosemary Nwoko, Darko Plecas, Vesna D Garovic
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is costly and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. An understanding of the renal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy is essential for proper evaluation, diagnosis, and management of AKI. As in the general population, AKI can occur from prerenal, intrinsic, and post-renal causes. Major causes of pre-renal azotemia include hyperemesis gravidarum and uterine hemorrhage in the setting of placental abruption. Intrinsic etiologies include infections from acute pyelonephritis and septic abortion, bilateral cortical necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis...
December 2012: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23154110/-kidney-involvement-in-sarcoidosis
#10
REVIEW
T Stehlé, J-J Boffa, P Lang, D Desvaux, D Sahali, V Audard
Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by the presence of non-necrotizing epithelioid and giant cell granulomas. Various renal manifestations have been reported in patients with sarcoidosis. Disorders of bone and mineral metabolism related to the overexpression of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D1α-hydroxylase by alveolar and granuloma macrophages are frequently associated with sarcoidosis. Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are a major cause of renal injury predisposing to pre renal azotemia, acute tubular necrosis, nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis...
September 2013: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23123669/acute-peritoneal-dialysis-in-neonates-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-hypernatremic-dehydration
#11
Nurdan Yildiz, Müferet Erguven, Metin Yildiz, Tutku Ozdogan, Pinar Turhan
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) and clinical outcomes in neonates with acute kidney injury (AKI) and hypernatremic dehydration. ♢ METHODS: The medical records of 15 neonates with AKI and hypernatremic dehydration who were treated with acute PD were reviewed. The diagnoses were AKI with hypernatremic dehydration with or without sepsis in 13 patients and AKI with hypernatremia and congenital nephropathy in 2 patients...
May 2013: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22791939/kidneys-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Marek Hartleb, Krzysztof Gutkowski
Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL, occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state, reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development, natriuresis, urine osmolality, response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion, and rarely on renal biopsy...
June 28, 2012: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22521351/urinary-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-as-biomarker-in-the-differential-diagnosis-of-impairment-of-kidney-function-in-cirrhosis
#13
Claudia Fagundes, Marie-Noëlle Pépin, Mónica Guevara, Rogelio Barreto, Gregori Casals, Elsa Solà, Gustavo Pereira, Ezequiel Rodríguez, Elisabet Garcia, Verónica Prado, Esteban Poch, Wladimiro Jiménez, Javier Fernández, Vicente Arroyo, Pere Ginès
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Impairment of kidney function is common in cirrhosis but differential diagnosis remains a challenge. We aimed at assessing the usefulness of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a biomarker of tubular damage, in the differential diagnosis of impairment of kidney function in cirrhosis. METHODS: Two-hundred and forty-one patients with cirrhosis, 72 without ascites, 85 with ascites, and 84 with impaired kidney function, were studied...
August 2012: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22385933/a-new-look-at-renal-dysfunction-in-the-cirrhotic-patient
#14
COMMENT
Claire Francoz, François Durand
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a pre-renal azotemia-like acute renal failure occurring in patients with end-stage cirrhosis. HRS results from arteriolar vasodilatation, arteriolar underfilling, and intense renal vasoconstriction. By definition, it is not responsive to volume expansion, and the prognosis is especially poor even with the use of terlipressin or albumin dialysis or both. It may be difficult, on the basis of the current criteria, to clearly differentiate HRS from other causes of acute renal failure in cirrhosis...
2012: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22207331/the-fallacy-of-the-bun-creatinine-ratio-in-critically-ill-patients
#15
Jean-Sebastien Rachoin, Ralph Daher, Charles Moussallem, Barry Milcarek, Krystal Hunter, Christa Schorr, Mariam Abboud, Patricia Henry, Lawrence S Weisberg
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with a high mortality rate. Pre-renal azotemia, suggested by a high blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine (BUN:Cr) ratio (BCR), has traditionally been associated with a better prognosis than other forms of AKI. Whether this pertains to critically ill patients is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of two cohorts of critically ill patients admitted to a single center: a derivation cohort, in which AKI was diagnosed, and a larger validation cohort...
June 2012: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22185968/clinical-characteristics-of-obstructive-uropathy-associated-with-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-in-japan
#16
Akira Ashida, Mikiya Fujieda, Kazuhide Ohta, Hyogo Nakakura, Hideki Matsumura, Taku Morita, Takashi Igarashi, Hiroshi Tamai
AIMS: Rotavirus gastroenteritis is severe and often results in dehydration and pre-renal azotemia. However, we have encountered four children with acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis, and several similar cases have been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the epidemiology and clinical features of acute obstructive uropathy associated with acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in Japanese children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We sent questionnaires to all members of the Japanese Society for Nephrology and all authors who had published case reports of this disease in Japan, inquiring about patient age at diagnosis, sex, the type of stones, laboratory data and other factors...
January 2012: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21999856/spectrum-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-cairo
#17
Amin R Soliman
INTRODUCTION: Data concerning the spectrum of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Egypt are scarce. The study aims to describe the spectrum of AKI in a tertiary hospital in Cairo. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the data of all cases of AKI who were treated at Dar El Shefa Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2006 to January 2007. RESULTS: There were 51 cases of AKI during the study period (29 males and 22 females). Their age ranged from 19 to 81 years with a mean of 48 years...
May 2011: Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20954990/toward-the-optimal-clinical-use-of-the-fraction-excretion-of-solutes-in-oliguric-azotemia
#18
REVIEW
Charles J Diskin, Thomas J Stokes, Linda M Dansby, Lautrec Radcliff, Thomas B Carter
While the fractional excretion of solutes have long been considered excellent research tools to investigate tubular physiology, their clinical use has become common over the last 40 years in the diagnoses of many disorders; however, none have reached the clinical utility of the fractional excretion of sodium in the ability to distinguish pre-renal azotemia from acute tubular necrosis. Nevertheless, there are many drugs and medical conditions that interfere with that utility and recently other solutes, including urea, uric acid and lithium, have been recently investigated to improve the diagnostic ability in clinical situations where the fractional excretion of sodium is known to be unreliable...
2010: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20942931/urine-interleukin-6-is-an-early-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Paula Dennen, Christopher Altmann, Jonathan Kaufman, Christina L Klein, Ana Andres-Hernando, Nilesh H Ahuja, Charles L Edelstein, Melissa A Cadnapaphornchai, Angela Keniston, Sarah Faubel
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that increases early in the serum of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to determine whether urine IL-6 is an early biomarker of AKI and determine the source of urine IL-6. Numerous proteins, including cytokines, are filtered by the glomerulus and then endocytosed and metabolized by the proximal tubule. Since proximal tubule injury is a hallmark of AKI, we hypothesized that urine IL-6 would increase in AKI due to impaired proximal tubule metabolism of filtered IL-6...
2010: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20586571/colchicine-poisoning-the-dark-side-of-an-ancient-drug
#20
REVIEW
Yaron Finkelstein, Steven E Aks, Janine R Hutson, David N Juurlink, Patricia Nguyen, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Uri Pollak, Gideon Koren, Yedidia Bentur
INTRODUCTION: Colchicine is used mainly for the treatment and prevention of gout and for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). It has a narrow therapeutic index, with no clear-cut distinction between nontoxic, toxic, and lethal doses, causing substantial confusion among clinicians. Although colchicine poisoning is sometimes intentional, unintentional toxicity is common and often associated with a poor outcome. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching OVID MEDLINE between 1966 and January 2010...
June 2010: Clinical Toxicology
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