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stewart acid-basic

David Stewart, Dmytro Antypov, Matthew S Dyer, Michael J Pitcher, Alexandros P Katsoulidis, Philip A Chater, Frédéric Blanc, Matthew J Rosseinsky
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are network polymers with long-range positional order whose properties can be tuned using the isoreticular chemistry approach. Making COFs from strong bonds is challenging because irreversible rapid formation of the network produces amorphous materials with locked-in disorder. Reversibility in bond formation is essential to generate ordered networks, as it allows the error-checking that permits the network to crystallise, and so candidate network-forming chemistries such as amide that are irreversible under conventional low temperature bond-forming conditions have been underexplored...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
W Muir
Intravenous fluid therapy can alter plasma acid-base balance. The Stewart approach to acid-base balance is uniquely suited to identify and quantify the effects of the cationic and anionic constituents of crystalloid solutions on plasma pH. The plasma strong ion difference (SID) and weak acid concentrations are similar to those of the administered fluid, more so at higher administration rates and with larger volumes. A crystalloid's in vivo effects on plasma pH are described by 3 general rules: SID > [HCO3-] increases plasma pH (alkalosis); SID < [HCO3-] decreases plasma pH (alkalosis); and SID = [HCO3-] yields no change in plasma pH...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Patricia Rueda, Elizabeth Harley, Yao Lu, Gregory D Stewart, Stewart Fabb, Natalie Diepenhorst, Béatrice Cremers, Marie-Hélène Rouillon, Isabelle Wehrle, Anne Geant, Gwladys Lamarche, Katie Leach, William N Charman, Arthur Christopoulos, Roger J Summers, Patrick M Sexton, Christopher J Langmead
Phenotyping of Gprc6a KO mice has shown that this promiscuous class C G protein coupled receptor is variously involved in regulation of metabolism, inflammation and endocrine function. Such effects are described as mediated by extracellular calcium, L-amino acids, the bone-derived peptide osteocalcin (OCN) and the male hormone testosterone, introducing the concept of a bone-energy-metabolism-reproduction functional crosstalk mediated by GPRC6A. However, whilst the calcium and L-amino acid-sensing properties of GPRC6A are well established, verification of activity of osteocalcin at both human and mouse GPRC6A in vitro has proven somewhat elusive...
2016: PloS One
Fabio D Masevicius, Arnaldo Dubin
The Stewart approach-the application of basic physical-chemical principles of aqueous solutions to blood-is an appealing method for analyzing acid-base disorders. These principles mainly dictate that pH is determined by three independent variables, which change primarily and independently of one other. In blood plasma in vivo these variables are: (1) the PCO2; (2) the strong ion difference (SID)-the difference between the sums of all the strong (i.e., fully dissociated, chemically nonreacting) cations and all the strong anions; and (3) the nonvolatile weak acids (Atot)...
February 4, 2015: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Sheldon Magder, Ali Emami
The late Peter Stewart developed an approach to the analysis of acid-base disturbances in biological systems based on basic physical-chemical principles. His key argument was that the traditional carbon dioxide/bicarbonate analysis with just the use of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation does not account for the important role in the regulation of H(+) concentration played by strong ions, weak acids and water itself. Acceptance of his analysis has been limited because it requires a complicated set of calculations to account for all the variables and it does not provide simple clinical guidance...
January 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Robert C Vaughan, Carolyn Houser, Kathryn M Hastie, C Cheng Kao, Glen R Nemerow
UNLABELLED: The structure of adenovirus outer capsid was revealed recently at 3- to 4-Å resolution (V. Reddy, S. Natchiar, P. Stewart, and G. Nemerow, Science 329:1071-1075, 2010,; however, precise details on the function and biochemical and structural features for the inner core still are lacking. Protein V is one the most important components of the adenovirus core, as it links the outer capsid via association with protein VI with the inner DNA core...
August 2014: Journal of Virology
Xiaoping Du, Wei Li, Xinsheng Gao, Matthew B West, W Mark Saltzman, Christopher J Cheng, Charles Stewart, Jie Zheng, Weihua Cheng, Richard D Kopke
The Notch pathway is a cell signaling pathway determining initial specification and subsequent cell fate in the inner ear. Previous studies have suggested that new hair cells (HCs) can be regenerated in the inner ear by manipulating the Notch pathway. In the present study, delivery of siRNA to Hes1 and Hes5 using a transfection reagent or siRNA to Hes1 encapsulated within poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles increased HC numbers in non-toxin treated organotypic cultures of cochleae and maculae of postnatal day 3 mouse pups...
October 2013: Hearing Research
David B Stewart, John P Hegarty
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are associated with the development of Clostridium difficile infection in humans. Though it is assumed that PPIs mediate this effect through gastric acid suppression, there has been little investigation into whether PPIs, or ambient pH, might directly affect the expression of C. difficile toxin genes. In the present study, C. difficile ribotypes 001, 027 and 078 obtained from human subjects were grown under anaerobic conditions prepared at pHs of 5, 7.3 and 9. Matched trios were exposed to 100 µM and 200 µM of omeprazole along with PPI untreated controls...
October 2013: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Desheng Pei, William Luther, Wenchao Wang, Barry H Paw, Rodney A Stewart, Rani E George
Heterozygous germline mutations and deletions in PHOX2B, a key regulator of autonomic neuron development, predispose to neuroblastoma, a tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. To gain insight into the oncogenic mechanisms engaged by these changes, we used zebrafish models to study the functional consequences of aberrant PHOX2B expression in the cells of the developing sympathetic nervous system. Allelic deficiency, modeled by phox2b morpholino knockdown, led to a decrease in the terminal differentiation markers th and dbh in sympathetic ganglion cells...
June 2013: PLoS Genetics
Ewa Nowicka, Jan P Hofmann, Stewart F Parker, Meenakshisundaram Sankar, Giacomo M Lari, Simon A Kondrat, David W Knight, Donald Bethell, Bert M Weckhuysen, Graham J Hutchings
In the solvent free oxidation of benzyl alcohol, using supported gold-palladium nanoalloys, toluene is often one of major by-products and it is formed by the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol. Gold-palladium catalysts on acidic supports promote both the disproportionation of benzyl alcohol and oxidative dehydrogenation to form benzaldehyde. Basic supports completely switch off disproportionation and the gold-palladium nanoparticles catalyse the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction exclusively. In an attempt to provide further details on the course of these reactions, we have utilized in situ ATR-IR, in situ DRIFT and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopic methods, and in this article we present the results of these in situ spectroscopic studies...
August 7, 2013: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Deetjen, M Lichtwarck-Aschoff
The first part of this overview on diagnostic tools for acid-base disorders focuses on basic knowledge for distinguishing between respiratory and metabolic causes of a particular disturbance. Rather than taking sides in the great transatlantic or traditional-modern debate on the best theoretical model for understanding acid-base physiology, this article tries to extract what is most relevant for everyday clinical practice from the three schools involved in these keen debates: the Copenhagen, the Boston and the Stewart schools...
November 2012: Der Anaesthesist
Himanshu Mishra, Shinichi Enami, Robert J Nielsen, Logan A Stewart, Michael R Hoffmann, William A Goddard, Agustín J Colussi
Differences in the extent of protonation of functional groups lying on either side of water-hydrophobe interfaces are deemed essential to enzymatic catalysis, molecular recognition, bioenergetic transduction, and atmospheric aerosol-gas exchanges. The sign and range of such differences, however, remain conjectural. Herein we report experiments showing that gaseous carboxylic acids RCOOH(g) begin to deprotonate on the surface of water significantly more acidic than that supporting the dissociation of dissolved acids RCOOH(aq)...
November 13, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Andrei V Malkov, Angus J P Stewart-Liddon, Grant D McGeoch, Pedro Ramírez-López, Pavel Kočovský
A new family of Lewis basic 2-pyridyl oxazolines have been developed, which can act as efficient organocatalysts for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral aromatic ketones and ketimines with trichlorosilane, a readily available and inexpensive reagent. 1-Isoquinolyl oxazoline, derived from mandelic acid, was identified as the most efficient catalyst of the series, capable of delivering high enantioselectivities in the reduction of both ketones (up to 94% ee) and ketimines (up to 89% ee).
July 7, 2012: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Kevin W Stewart, Anthony R J Phillips, Lynda Whiting, Mia Jüllig, Martin J Middleditch, Garth J S Cooper
We describe a new, simple, robust and efficient method based on direct-tissue matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry that enables consistent semi-quantitation of peptide hormones in isolated pancreatic islets from normal and diabetic rodents. Prominent signals were measured that corresponded to all the main peptide hormones present in islet-endocrine cells: (α-cells) glucagon, glicentin-related polypeptide/GRPP; (β-cells) insulin I, insulin II, C-peptide I, C-peptide II, amylin; (δ-cells) somatostatin-14; and (PP-cells), and pancreatic polypeptide...
November 30, 2011: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Nicholas N Ashton, Daniel S Taggart, Russell J Stewart
Caddisflys (order Trichoptera) construct elaborate protective shelters and food harvesting nets with underwater adhesive silk. The silk fiber resembles a nanostructured tape composed of thousands of nanofibrils (∼ 120 nm) oriented with the major axis of the fiber, which in turn are composed of spherical subunits. Weaker lateral interactions between nanofibrils allow the fiber to conform to surface topography and increase contact area. Highly phosphorylated (pSX)(4) motifs in H-fibroin blocks of positively charged basic residues are conserved across all three suborders of Trichoptera...
June 2012: Biopolymers
Naoko Tanaka, Birthe Meineke, Stewart Shuman
RtcB enzymes are novel RNA ligases that join 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. The phylogenetic distribution of RtcB points to its candidacy as a tRNA splicing/repair enzyme. Here we show that Escherichia coli RtcB is competent and sufficient for tRNA splicing in vivo by virtue of its ability to complement growth of yeast cells that lack the endogenous "healing/sealing-type" tRNA ligase Trl1. RtcB also protects yeast trl1Δ cells against a fungal ribotoxin that incises the anticodon loop of cellular tRNAs...
September 2, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Abigail M Fox, Danguole Ciziene, Stephen H McLaughlin, Murray Stewart
The toroid-shaped nuclear protein export factor CRM1 is constructed from 21 tandem HEAT repeats, each of which contains an inner (B) and outer (A) α-helix joined by loops. Proteins targeted for export have a nuclear export signal (NES) that binds between the A-helices of HEAT repeats 11 and 12 on the outer surface of CRM1. RanGTP binding increases the affinity of CRM1 for NESs. In the absence of RanGTP, the CRM1 C-terminal helix, together with the HEAT repeat 9 loop, modulates its affinity for NESs. Here we show that there is an electrostatic interaction between acidic residues at the extreme distal tip of the C-terminal helix and basic residues on the HEAT repeat 12 B-helix that lies on the inner surface of CRM1 beneath the NES binding site...
August 19, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ryo Hayashi, Kan Tanoue, Stewart R Durell, Deb K Chatterjee, Lisa M Miller Jenkins, Daniel H Appella, Ettore Appella
PPM1D (PP2Cδ or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers...
May 31, 2011: Biochemistry
Eve-Marie Josse, Yinbo Gan, Jordi Bou-Torrent, Kelly L Stewart, Alison D Gilday, Christopher E Jeffree, Fabián E Vaistij, Jaime F Martínez-García, Ferenc Nagy, Ian A Graham, Karen J Halliday
The period following seedling emergence is a particularly vulnerable stage in the plant life cycle. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) subgroup of basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors has a pivotal role in regulating growth during this early phase, integrating environmental and hormonal signals. We previously showed that SPATULA (SPT), a PIF homolog, regulates seed dormancy. In this article, we establish that unlike PIFs, which mainly promote hypocotyl elongation, SPT is a potent regulator of cotyledon expansion...
April 2011: Plant Cell
Shyamal C Das, Ian Larson, David A V Morton, Peter J Stewart
This Letter reports a technique of measuring polar surface energy distributions of lactose using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The significance of this study is that the total surface energy distributions can now be characterized by combining the already known dispersive surface energy distribution with polar surface energy distribution determined in this study. The polar surface energy was calculated from the specific free energies for surface interactions with a monopolar basic probe, ethyl acetate, and a monopolar acidic probe, dichloromethane...
January 18, 2011: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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