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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635963/single-molecule-analysis-of-steroid-receptor-and-cofactor-action-in-living-cells
#1
Ville Paakinaho, Diego M Presman, David A Ball, Thomas A Johnson, R Louis Schiltz, Peter Levitt, Davide Mazza, Tatsuya Morisaki, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon L Hager
Population-based assays have been employed extensively to investigate the interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with chromatin and are often interpreted in terms of static and sequential binding. However, fluorescence microscopy techniques reveal a more dynamic binding behaviour of TFs in live cells. Here we analyse the strengths and limitations of in vivo single-molecule tracking and performed a comprehensive analysis on the intranuclear dwell times of four steroid receptors and a number of known cofactors...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634471/a-chitin-binding-protein-purified-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds-presents-anticandidal-activity-by-increasing-cell-membrane-permeability-and-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#2
João X S Neto, Mirella L Pereira, Jose T A Oliveira, Lady C B Rocha-Bezerra, Tiago D P Lopes, Helen P S Costa, Daniele O B Sousa, Bruno A M Rocha, Thalles B Grangeiro, José E C Freire, Ana Cristina O Monteiro-Moreira, Marina D P Lobo, Raimunda S N Brilhante, Ilka M Vasconcelos
Candida species are opportunistic pathogens that infect immunocompromised and/or immunosuppressed patients, particularly in hospital facilities, that besides representing a significant threat to health increase the risk of mortality. Apart from echinocandins and triazoles, which are well tolerated, most of the antifungal drugs used for candidiasis treatment can cause side effects and lead to the development of resistant strains. A promising alternative to the conventional treatments is the use of plant proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633993/microfluidics-as-a-strategic-player-to-decipher-single-cell-omics
#3
REVIEW
Ouriel Caen, Heng Lu, Philippe Nizard, Valerie Taly
Most cell studies are performed at a population level, relying on the assumption of a normal distribution of the function and fate of a cell among a population. However, technologies allowing single-cell analysis (SCA) have recently arisen and have led to increasing evidence of cell population heterogeneity and its importance. Tremendous amounts of new data could now be uncovered to redefine our understanding of cell omics. Microfluidics has emerged as a major technological player in this new era and is gradually increasing in use among biology laboratories, mainly due to the single-cell high-throughput handling solutions it offers...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633525/use-of-dimethyl-pimelimidate-with-microfluidic-system-for-nucleic-acids-extraction-without-electricity
#4
Choong Eun Jin, Tae Yoon Lee, Bonhan Koo, Kyung-Chul Choi, Suhwan Chang, Se Yoon Park, Ji Yeun Kim, Sung-Han Kim, Yong Shin
The isolation of nucleic acids in the lab on a chip is crucial to achieve the maximal effectiveness of point-of-care testing for detection in clinical applications. Here, we report on the use of a simple and versatile single-channel microfluidic platform that combines dimethyl pimelimidate (DMP) for nucleic acids (both RNA and DNA) extraction without electricity using thin films system. The system is based on the adaption of DMP into non-chaotropic-based nucleic acids and the capture of reagents into a low-cost thin film platform for use as a microfluidic total analysis system, which can be utilized for sample processing in clinical diagnostics...
June 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633292/ahp2-ahp3-and-ahp5-act-downstream-of-cki1-in-arabidopsis-female-gametophyte-development
#5
Zhenning Liu, Li Yuan, Xiaoya Song, Xiaolin Yu, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs) are key elements of the two-component signaling system, which act as a shuttle to transfer phosphorylation signals from histidine kinases (HKs) to response regulators (RRs). CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1), a key regulator of central cell specification in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte, activates the cytokinin signaling pathway through the Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs). There are five HP genes in Arabidopsis, AHP1-AHP5, but it remains unknown which AHP genes act downstream of CKI1 in Arabidopsis female gametophyte development...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632847/pattern-recognition-analysis-of-age-related-retinal-ganglion-cell-signatures-in-the-human-eye
#6
Nayuta Yoshioka, Barbara Zangerl, Lisa Nivison-Smith, Sieu K Khuu, Bryan W Jones, Rebecca L Pfeiffer, Robert E Marc, Michael Kalloniatis
Purpose: To characterize macular ganglion cell layer (GCL) changes with age and provide a framework to assess changes in ocular disease. This study used data clustering to analyze macular GCL patterns from optical coherence tomography (OCT) in a large cohort of subjects without ocular disease. Methods: Single eyes of 201 patients evaluated at the Centre for Eye Health (Sydney, Australia) were retrospectively enrolled (age range, 20-85); 8 × 8 grid locations obtained from Spectralis OCT macular scans were analyzed with unsupervised classification into statistically separable classes sharing common GCL thickness and change with age...
June 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632754/permissive-hypercapnia-for-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-immunocompromised-children-a-single-center-experience
#7
Hans Fuchs, Nicola Rossmann, Manuel B Schmid, Manfred Hoenig, Ulrich Thome, Benjamin Mayer, Daniel Klotz, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Controlled hypoventilation while accepting hypercapnia has been advocated to reduce ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of the study was to analyze outcomes of a cohort of immunocompromised children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ventilated with a strategy of stepwise increasing PCO2 targets up to 140 mm Hg. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of outcomes of a cohort of children with oncologic disease or after stem cell transplantation and severe respiratory failure in comparison with a historical control cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632189/phenolic-glycosides-from-capsella-bursa-pastoris-l-medik-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activity
#8
Joon Min Cha, Won Se Suh, Tae Hyun Lee, Lalita Subedi, Sun Yeou Kim, Kang Ro Lee
A new sesquilignan glycoside 1, together with seven known phenolic glycosides 2-8 were isolated from the aerial parts of Capsella bursa-pastoris. The chemical structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data (¹H- and (13)C-NMR, ¹H-¹H correlation spectroscopy (¹H-¹H COSY), heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC), and nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY)) and HR-FABMS analysis. The anti-inflammatory effects of 1-8 were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine microglia BV-2 cells...
June 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631925/anticancer-activity-of-polyoxometalate-bisphosphonate-complexes-synthesis-characterization-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-results
#9
Amandine Boulmier, Xinxin Feng, Olivier Oms, Pierre Mialane, Eric Rivière, Christopher J Shin, Jiaqi Yao, Tadahiko Kubo, Taisuke Furuta, Eric Oldfield, Anne Dolbecq
We synthesized a series of polyoxometalate-bisphosphonate complexes containing Mo(VI)O6 octahedra, zoledronate, or an N-alkyl (n-C6 or n-C8) zoledronate analogue, and in two cases, Mn as a heterometal. Mo6L2 (L = Zol, ZolC6, ZolC8) and Mo4L2Mn (L = Zol, ZolC8) were characterized by using single-crystal X-ray crystallography and/or IR spectroscopy, elemental and energy dispersive X-ray analysis and (31)P NMR. We found promising activity against human nonsmall cell lung cancer (NCI-H460) cells with IC50 values for growth inhibition of ∼5 μM per bisphosphonate ligand...
June 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631775/-innovations-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer-analysis-of-the-therapeutic-development-from-platinum-to-immunotherapy
#10
Gesuino Angius, Pierangela Sepe, Anselmo Papa, Silverio Tomao, Federica Tomao
Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women. The therapeutic approach provides for an appropriate integration between surgery and chemotherapy. Surgery is an important step for diagnosis, staging and therapy, aiming at the complete cytoreduction of all macroscopic visible disease. At the moment, adjuvant and first-line chemotherapy has as a standard the carboplatin-paclitaxel combination. Further, the addition of bevacizumab in the advanced stage (IIIB-IV) is strongly recommended. Despite the initial effectiveness, however, 70-80% of patients develop relapsed disease within the first two years and require subsequent treatment lines that have palliative, rather than curative purposes and that seek to reach a chronic state for the disease...
June 2017: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631205/chemical-tongues-and-noses-based-upon-conjugated-polymers
#11
REVIEW
Jan Freudenberg, Felix Hinkel, Daniel Jänsch, Uwe H F Bunz
We report the uses of conjugated polymers in multisensory applications and in chemical and optoelectronic tongues. We look at the potential of single polymers to discriminate multiple analytes and into small libraries of conjugated polymers that represent sensors. These small libraries combine several barely selective, promiscuous sensor elements and react with the analytes in a fairly non-selective fashion by change of color, emission wavelength, or emission intensity. In such optoelectronic noses and tongues, response of a single element is not specific or particularly useful at all, but the response pattern after the combination of several sensor elements is often specific for an analyte and allows discrimination and identification without any problem...
August 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631058/expression-and-characterization-of-glucose-oxidase-from-aspergillus-niger-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#12
Fatemeh Khadivi Derakshan, Farshad Darvishi, Mehrouz Dezfulian, Catherine Madzak
Glucose oxidase (GOX) is currently used in clinical, pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries. The aim of this study was expression and characterization of Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. For the first time, the GOX gene of A. niger was successfully expressed in Y. lipolytica using a mono-integrative vector containing strong hybrid promoter and secretion signal. The highest total glucose oxidase activity was 370 U/L after 7 days of cultivation. An innovative method was used to cell wall disruption in current study, and it could be recommended to use for efficiently cell wall disruption of Y...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630905/mechanical-deformation-induces-depolarization-of-neutrophils
#13
Andrew E Ekpenyong, Nicole Toepfner, Christine Fiddler, Maik Herbig, Wenhong Li, Gheorghe Cojoc, Charlotte Summers, Jochen Guck, Edwin R Chilvers
The transition of neutrophils from a resting state to a primed state is an essential requirement for their function as competent immune cells. This transition can be caused not only by chemical signals but also by mechanical perturbation. After cessation of either, these cells gradually revert to a quiescent state over 40 to 120 min. We use two biophysical tools, an optical stretcher and a novel microcirculation mimetic, to effect physiologically relevant mechanical deformations of single nonadherent human neutrophils...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630288/intact-pirna-pathway-prevents-l1-mobilization-in-male-meiosis
#14
Simon J Newkirk, Suman Lee, Fiorella C Grandi, Valeriya Gaysinskaya, James M Rosser, Nicole Vanden Berg, Cathryn A Hogarth, Maria C N Marchetto, Alysson R Muotri, Michael D Griswold, Ping Ye, Alex Bortvin, Fred H Gage, Jef D Boeke, Wenfeng An
The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for retrotransposon silencing. In piRNA-deficient mice, L1-overexpressing male germ cells exhibit excessive DNA damage and meiotic defects. It remains unknown whether L1 expression simply highlights piRNA deficiency or actually drives the germ-cell demise. Specifically, the sheer abundance of genomic L1 copies prevents reliable quantification of new insertions. Here, we developed a codon-optimized L1 transgene that is controlled by an endogenous mouse L1 promoter...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630177/integrated-genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-identifies-a-noncoding-mutation-in-the-genome-replication-factor-donson-as-the-cause-of-microcephaly-micromelia-syndrome
#15
Gilad D Evrony, Dwight R Cordero, Jun Shen, Jennifer N Partlow, Timothy W Yu, Rachel E Rodin, R Sean Hill, Michael E Coulter, Anh-Thu N Lam, Divya Jayaraman, Dianne Gerrelli, Diana G Diaz, Chloe Santos, Victoria Morrison, Antonella Galli, Ulrich Tschulena, Stefan Wiemann, M Jocelyne Martel, Betty Spooner, Steven C Ryu, Princess C Elhosary, Jillian M Richardson, Danielle Tierney, Christopher A Robinson, Rajni Chibbar, Dana Diudea, Rebecca Folkerth, Sheldon Wiebe, A James Barkovich, Ganeshwaran H Mochida, James Irvine, Edmond G Lemire, Patricia Blakley, Christopher A Walsh
While next-generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of human disease genes, progress has been largely limited to the "low hanging fruit" of mutations with obvious exonic coding or canonical splice site impact. In contrast, the lack of high-throughput, unbiased approaches for functional assessment of most noncoding variants has bottlenecked gene discovery. We report the integration of transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), which surveys all mRNAs to reveal functional impacts of variants at the transcription level, into the gene discovery framework for a unique human disease, microcephaly-micromelia syndrome (MMS)...
June 19, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630044/single-molecule-fret-analysis-discloses-the-dynamics-of-the-dna-topoisomerase-ii-top2-interaction-in-the-presence-of-top2-targeting-agents
#16
Wan-Chen Huang, Chun-Ying Lee, Tao-Shih Hsieh
Topoisomerases play crucial roles in DNA replication, transcription, and recombination. For instance, topoisomerase II (Top2) is critically important for resolving DNA tangles during cell division, and as such, it is a broad anticancer drug target. Top2 regulates DNA topology by transiently breaking one double stranded DNA molecule (cleavage), allowing a second double strand to pass through the opened DNA gate (opening), and then closing the gate by rejoining the broken ends. Drugs that modulate Top2 catalysis may therefore affect enzymatic activity at several different steps...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629864/structure-function-relationships-in-human-d-aspartate-oxidase-characterisation-of-variants-corresponding-to-known-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms
#17
Masumi Katane, Ryo Kanazawa, Risa Kobayashi, Megumi Oishi, Kazuki Nakayama, Yasuaki Saitoh, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Masae Sekine, Hiroshi Homma
D-Aspartate oxidase (DDO) is a degradative enzyme that is stereospecific for the acidic amino acid D-aspartate, an endogenous agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Dysregulation of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the onset of various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and in chronic pain. Thus, appropriate regulation of the amount of D-aspartate is believed to be important for maintaining proper neural activity in the nervous system. Herein, the effects of the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R216Q and S308N on several properties of human DDO were examined...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629847/evidence-for-m2-muscarinic-receptor-modulation-of-axon-terminals-and-dendrites-in-the-rodent-basolateral-amygdala-an-ultrastructural-and-electrophysiological-analysis
#18
Ana Fajardo-Serrano, Lei Liu, David D Mott, Alexander J McDonald
The basolateral amygdala receives a very dense cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is important for memory consolidation. Although behavioral studies have shown that both M1 and M2 muscarinic receptors are critical for these mnemonic functions, there have been very few neuroanatomical and electrophysiological investigations of the localization and function of different types of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of M2 muscarinic receptors (M2Rs) in the anterior basolateral nucleus (BLa) of the mouse, including the localization of M2Rs in parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive interneurons, using double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628901/characterisation-of-artefacts-and-drop-in-events-using-str-validator-and-single-cell-analysis
#19
Oskar Hansson, Peter Gill
There is a need to understand the occurrence of drop-in and their peak height distributions to further improve existing models to interpret complex DNA results. The necessary data is usually very time-consuming to collect. Here we present a practical approach for simultaneous characterisation of reproducible artefacts and drop-in contamination from negative controls. As an alternative to the traditional approach we demonstrate the use of the DEPArray system as a source of single molecules for amplification to infer the peak height distribution of drop-in events...
April 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628219/application-of-swath-proteomics-to-mouse-biology
#20
Yibo Wu, Evan G Williams, Ruedi Aebersold
The quantitative measurement of the proteome has been shown to yield new insights into physiology and cell biology that cannot be determined from the genome and transcriptome because the quantitative relationship between transcriptome and proteome is complex. MS-based proteomics techniques, such as SWATH-MS, have recently advanced to the point at which they may be reliably applied by biologists who are not specialists in mass spectrometry. Here we provide standard protocols for preparation of tissue samples for input into the SWATH-MS analytical pipeline...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
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