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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045874/dynamic-scaling-analysis-of-molecular-motion-within-the-lat-grb2-sos-protein-network-on%C3%A2-membranes
#1
William Y C Huang, Han-Kuei Chiang, Jay T Groves
Biochemical signaling pathways often involve proteins with multiple, modular interaction domains. Signaling activates binding sites, such as by tyrosine phosphorylation, which enables protein recruitment and growth of networked protein assemblies. Although widely observed, the physical properties of the assemblies, as well as the mechanisms by which they function, remain largely unknown. Here we examine molecular mobility within LAT:Grb2:SOS assemblies on supported membranes by single-molecule tracking. Trajectory analysis reveals a discrete temporal transition to subdiffusive motion below a characteristic timescale, indicating that the LAT:Grb2:SOS assembly has the dynamical structure of a loosely entangled polymer...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045713/scportalen-human-and-mouse-single-cell-centric-database
#2
Imad Abugessaisa, Shuhei Noguchi, Michael Böttcher, Akira Hasegawa, Tsukasa Kouno, Sachi Kato, Yuhki Tada, Hiroki Ura, Kuniya Abe, Jay W Shin, Charles Plessy, Piero Carninci, Takeya Kasukawa
Published single-cell datasets are rich resources for investigators who want to address questions not originally asked by the creators of the datasets. The single-cell datasets might be obtained by different protocols and diverse analysis strategies. The main challenge in utilizing such single-cell data is how we can make the various large-scale datasets to be comparable and reusable in a different context. To challenge this issue, we developed the single-cell centric database 'SCPortalen' (http://single-cell...
October 17, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045502/long-term-toxicity-of-cisplatin-in-germ-cell-tumor-survivors
#3
M Chovanec, M Abu Zaid, N Hanna, N El-Kouri, L H Einhorn, C Albany
Context: Testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) are highly curable. A multidisciplinary approach, including cisplatin-based chemotherapy has resulted in cure in the majority of patients with GCT. Thus, the life expectancy of survivors will extend to many decades post diagnosis. Late treatment toxicities associated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy may impact their future health. Objective: To systematically evaluate evidence regarding the long-term toxicity of cisplatin in GCT survivors...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045427/more-or-less-on-the-influence-of-labelling-strategies-to-infer-cell-population-dynamics
#4
Michael Gabel, Roland R Regoes, Frederik Graw
The adoptive transfer of labelled cell populations has been an essential tool to determine and quantify cellular dynamics. The experimental methods to label and track cells over time range from fluorescent dyes over congenic markers towards single-cell labelling techniques, such as genetic barcodes. While these methods have been widely used to quantify cell differentiation and division dynamics, the extent to which the applied labelling strategy actually affects the quantification of the dynamics has not been determined so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045416/neonatal-immune-response-to-rhinovirus-a16-has-diminished-dendritic-cell-function-and-increased-b-cell-activation
#5
Amanda Barlow-Anacker, Yury Bochkov, James Gern, Christine M Seroogy
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus infections during infancy account for the majority of respiratory illness health care utilization and are an associated risk factor for subsequent development of allergic asthma. Neonatal type I interferon production is diminished compared to adults after stimulation with TLR agonists. However, broad profiling of immune cell responses to infectious rhinovirus has not been undertaken and we hypothesized that additional immune differences can be identified in neonates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045398/nonlatching-positive-feedback-enables-robust-bimodality-by-decoupling-expression-noise-from-the-mean
#6
Brandon S Razooky, Youfang Cao, Maike M K Hansen, Alan S Perelson, Michael L Simpson, Leor S Weinberger
Fundamental to biological decision-making is the ability to generate bimodal expression patterns where 2 alternate expression states simultaneously exist. Here, we use a combination of single-cell analysis and mathematical modeling to examine the sources of bimodality in the transcriptional program controlling HIV's fate decision between active replication and viral latency. We find that the HIV transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein manipulates the intrinsic toggling of HIV's promoter, the long terminal repeat (LTR), to generate bimodal ON-OFF expression and that transcriptional positive feedback from Tat shifts and expands the regime of LTR bimodality...
October 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044059/pathology-and-immunohistochemistry-of-capsular-bag-in-spontaneously-late-dislocated-capsular-bag-intraocular-lens-complex
#7
Harsha Bhattacharjee, Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Dipankar Das, Manpreet Singh, Piruthivi Sukumar, Diva Kant Misra
PURPOSE: Our study aims to evaluate the morphology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry of the spontaneously late dislocated capsular bag-intraocular lens (CB-IOL) complex. Various etiologies and possible pathogenesis of the event are also discussed. METHODS: This was a tertiary-care setting and retrospective observational case series. The surgically explanted intact specimens of spontaneously late dislocated CB-IOL complex were studied. The demographics, duration of pseudophakia, IOL design/material, and specimen measurements were noted...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043951/verrucosispora-endophytica-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-root-of-wild-orchid-grosourdya-appendiculata-blume-rchb-f
#8
Wipaporn Ngaemthao, Tawanmol Pujchakarn, Suwanee Chunhametha, Chanwit Suriyachadkun
A novel endophytic filamentous bacterium strain A-T 7972(T), was isolated from wild orchid Grosourdya appendiculata (Blume) Rchb.f. collected in Thailand. The bacterium developed single non-motile spores with warty surface on substrate mycelia. The taxonomic position was described using a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 7972(T) belonged to the genus Verrucosispora and shared the highest sequence similarity with V. lutea YIM 013(T) (98.71 %) and V...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043671/dancing-with-the-stars-using-image-analysis-to-study-the-choreography-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-its-partners-and-of-movement-within-its-tubules
#9
Lawrence R Griffing
In this chapter, approaches to the image analysis of the choreography of the plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) labeled with fluorescent fusion proteins ("stars," if you wish) are presented. The approaches include the analyses of those parts of the ER that are attached through membrane contact sites to moving or nonmoving partners (other "stars"). Image analysis is also used to understand the nature of the tubular polygonal network, the hallmark of this organelle, and how the polygons change over time due to tubule sliding or motion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043636/analysis-of-de-novo-telomere-addition-by-southern-blot
#10
Diego Bonetti, Maria Pia Longhese
Telomere length is maintained in most eukaryotes by the action of a specialized enzyme, the telomerase. However, the complexity of mechanisms regulating telomeric DNA length as well as the heterogeneity in length of each telomere in a population of cells has made it very difficult to understand how telomerase is regulated in vivo. Here, we describe a method developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor the addition of telomeric sequences to a single newly generated telomere in vivo. The primary strain consists of a HO endonuclease cleavage site that is placed directly adjacent to an 81-base-pair stretch of telomeric DNA inserted into the ADH4 locus of chromosome VII...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043623/single-molecule-analysis-of-resection-tracks
#11
Pablo Huertas, Andrés Cruz-García
Homologous recombination is initiated by the so-called DNA end resection, the 5'-3' nucleolytic degradation of a single strand of the DNA at each side of the break. The presence of resected DNA is an obligatory step for homologous recombination. Moreover, the amount of resected DNA modulates the prevalence of different recombination pathways. In different model organisms, there are several published ways to visualize and measure with more or less detail the amount of DNA resected. In human cells, however, technical constraints hampered the study of resection at high resolution...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043615/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-mutagenesis-using-a-highly-sensitive-single-stranded-dna-reporter-system-in-budding-yeast
#12
Kin Chan
Mutations are permanent alterations to the coding content of DNA. They are starting material for the Darwinian evolution of species by natural selection, which has yielded an amazing diversity of life on Earth. Mutations can also be the fundamental basis of serious human maladies, most notably cancers. In this chapter, I describe a highly sensitive reporter system for the molecular genetic analysis of mutagenesis, featuring controlled generation of long stretches of single-stranded DNA in budding yeast cells...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043340/cfa-13-a-bifunctional-perfluorinated-metal-organic-framework-featuring-active-cu-i-and-cu-ii-sites
#13
J Fritzsche, D Denysenko, M Grzywa, D Volkmer
The synthesis and crystal structure of the mixed-valent perfluorinated metal-organic framework (Me2NH2)[CFA-13] (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-13), (Me2NH2)[CuCu(tfpc)4] (H2-tfpc = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid) is described. The copper-containing MOF crystallizes in the monoclinic crystal system within the space group P21/n (no. 14) and the unit cell parameters are as follows: a = 22.3887(19), b = 13.6888(8), c = 21.1804(13) Å, β = 90.495(3)°, V = 6491.0(8) Å(3). (Me2NH2)[CFA-13] features a porous 3-D structure constructed from two types of secondary building units (SBUs)...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043005/impact-of-supplementation-with-a-food-derived-microbial-community-on-obesity-associated-inflammation-and-gut-microbiota-composition
#14
Marianna Roselli, Chiara Devirgiliis, Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Alberto Finamore, Rita Rami, Giuditta Perozzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex pathology associated with dysbiosis, metabolic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation promoted by immune cells, infiltrating and populating the adipose tissue. Probiotic supplementation was suggested to be capable of counteracting obesity-associated immune and microbial alterations, based on its proven immunomodulatory activity and positive effect on gut microbial balance. Traditional fermented foods represent a natural source of live microbes, including environmental strains with probiotic features, which could transiently colonise the gut...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042650/handheld-photoacoustic-microscopy-probe
#15
Kyungjin Park, Jin Young Kim, Changho Lee, Seungwan Jeon, Geunbae Lim, Chulhong Kim
Optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) is a non-invasive, label-free method of in vivo imaging with microscopic resolution and high optical contrast. Based on intrinsic contrasts, OR-PAM has expanded to include in vivo vessel imaging, flow cytometry, physiological parameter analysis, and single-cell characterization. However, since conventional OR-PAM systems have a fixed tabletop configuration, a large system size, and slow imaging speed, their use in preclinical and clinical studies remains limited...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042259/widespread-optogenetic-expression-in-macaque-cortex-obtained-with-mr-guided-convection-enhanced-delivery-ced-of-aav-vector-to-the-thalamus
#16
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Nan Tian, Viktor Kharazia, Lluis Samaranch, Adrian Kells, John Bringas, Jiwei He, Krystof Bankiewicz, Philip N Sabes
BACKGROUND: In non-human primate (NHP) optogenetics, infecting large cortical areas with viral vectors is often a difficult and time-consuming task. Previous work has shown that parenchymal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the thalamus by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can lead to large-scale transduction via axonal transport in distal areas including cortex. We used this approach to obtain widespread cortical expression of light-sensitive ion channels. NEW METHOD: AAV vectors co-expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) genes were infused into thalamus of three rhesus macaques under MR-guided CED...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041973/the-establishment-and-application-of-preimplantation-genetic-haplotyping-in-embryo-diagnosis-for-reciprocal-and-robertsonian-translocation-carriers
#17
Shuo Zhang, Caixia Lei, Junping Wu, Jing Zhou, Haiyan Sun, Jing Fu, Yijuan Sun, Xiaoxi Sun, Daru Lu, Yueping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is now widely used to select embryos free of chromosomal copy number variations (CNV) from chromosome balanced translocation carriers. However, it remains a difficulty to distinguish in embryos between balanced and structurally normal chromosomes efficiently. METHODS: For this purpose, genome wide preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) analysis was utilized based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray...
October 17, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041560/single-photon-cesium-rydberg-excitation-spectroscopy-using-318-6-nm-uv-laser-and-room-temperature-vapor-cell
#18
Jieying Wang, Jiandong Bai, Jun He, Junmin Wang
We demonstrate a single-photon Rydberg excitation spectroscopy of cesium (Cs) atoms in a room-temperature vapor cell. Cs atoms are excited directly from 6S1/2 ground state to nP3/2 (n = 70 - 100) Rydberg states with a 318.6 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser, and Rydberg excitation spectra are obtained by transmission enhancement of a probe beam resonant to Cs 6S1/2, F = 4 - 6P3/2, F' = 5 transition as partial population on F = 4 ground state are transferred to Rydberg state. Analysis reveals that the observed spectra are velocity-selective spectroscopy of Rydberg state, from which the amplitude and linewidth influenced by lasers' Rabi frequency have been investigated...
September 18, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040675/fluctuation-localization-imaging-based-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-flifish-for-accurate-detection-and-counting-of-rna-copies-in-single-cells
#19
Yi Cui, Dehong Hu, Lye Meng Markillie, William B Chrisler, Matthew J Gaffrey, Charles Ansong, Lori Sussel, Galya Orr
Quantitative gene expression analysis in intact single cells can be achieved using single molecule-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). This approach relies on fluorescence intensity to distinguish between true signals, emitted from an RNA copy hybridized with multiple oligonucleotide probes, and background noise. Thus, the precision in smFISH is often compromised by partial or nonspecific probe binding and tissue autofluorescence, especially when only a small number of probes can be fitted to the target transcript...
October 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040583/taste-receptor-polymorphisms-and-male-infertility
#20
M Gentiluomo, L Crifasi, A Luddi, D Locci, R Barale, P Piomboni, D Campa
STUDY QUESTION: Are polymorphisms of taste receptor genes associated with male infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study has showed the associations between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptors genes (TASR) and male infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Recent studies showed the expression of taste receptors in the testis and in spermatozoa, suggesting their possible role in infertility. The vast genetic variability in taste genes results in a large degree of diversity in various human phenotypes...
October 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
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