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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859470/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases-and-risk-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#1
J S Ahn, D H Sinn, Y W Min, S N Hong, H S Kim, S-H Jung, S Gu, P-L Rhee, S W Paik, H J Son, G-Y Gwak
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with colorectal neoplasia. Yet, NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. AIM: To investigate the risk of colorectal neoplasia according to the presence and severity of NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 26 540 asymptomatic adults who underwent same day first-time colonoscopy and abdominal ultrasonography as a health check-up programme were analysed...
November 18, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563018/the-role-of-common-pharmaceutical-agents-on-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Sunil Amin, Paolo Boffetta, Aimee L Lucas
Survival from pancreatic cancer remains poor. Conventional treatment has resulted in only marginal improvements in survival compared with survival in the previous several decades. Thus, considerable interest has emerged regarding the potential use of common pharmaceutical agents as chemopreventative and chemotherapeutic options. Aspirin, metformin, statins, β-blockers, and bisphosphonates have biologically plausible mechanisms to inhibit pancreatic neoplasia, whereas dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitors may promote it...
September 15, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189658/factors-predicting-adverse-events-associated-with-therapeutic-colonoscopy-for-colorectal-neoplasia-a-retrospective-nationwide-study-in-japan
#3
Ryota Niikura, Hideo Yasunaga, Atsuo Yamada, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few large studies have evaluated the adverse events associated with therapeutic colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia, including bleeding and bowel perforation. Our aim was to investigate factors associated with these events, using a Japanese national inpatient database. METHODS: We extracted data from the nationwide Japan Diagnosis Procedure Combination database for patients who underwent therapeutic colonoscopy for colorectal neoplasia between 2013 and 2014...
May 14, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26957558/microrna-mir21-mir-21-and-ptgs2-expression-in-colorectal-cancer-and-patient-survival
#4
Kosuke Mima, Reiko Nishihara, Juhong Yang, Ruoxu Dou, Yohei Masugi, Yan Shi, Annacarolina da Silva, Yin Cao, Mingyang Song, Jonathan Nowak, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, Teppei Morikawa, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Hideo Baba, Edward L Giovannucci, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Zhi Rong Qian, Shuji Ogino
PURPOSE: Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase-2; a target of aspirin) produces inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and contributes to colorectal neoplasia development. PTGS2-driven inflammatory responses can induce tumor expression of microRNA MIR21 (miR-21) that can increase local PGE2 level by downregulating PGE2-metabolizing enzymes. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of tumor MIR21 expression level in colorectal carcinoma might depend on inflammatory tumor microenvironment and be stronger in tumors expressing high-level PTGS2...
August 1, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26739617/predictors-of-advanced-colorectal-neoplasia-at-initial-and-surveillance-colonoscopy-after-positive-screening-immunochemical-faecal-occult-blood-test
#5
Edoardo Botteri, Cristiano Crosta, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Darina Tamayo, Angelica Maria Sonzogni, Giuseppe De Roberto, Annalisa de Leone, Albert Lowenfels, Patrick Maisonneuve
BACKGROUND: Characteristics such as gender and lifestyle are not taken in account in colorectal cancer screening and surveillance recommendations. AIMS: To identify factors associated with advanced neoplasia at initial and surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS: In this observational study, 750 individuals with positive faecal occult blood test, aged 50-74 years, underwent a first screening colonoscopy in 2007-2009. We collected anthropometric data as well as data on physical activity, smoking and drinking habits, fruit and vegetable consumption and low-dose aspirin use through a questionnaire...
March 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697360/tissue-specific-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-epithelium-and-stroma-of-normal-colon-in-healthy-individuals-in-an-aspirin-intervention-trial
#6
Sushma S Thomas, Karen W Makar, Lin Li, Yingye Zheng, Peiying Yang, Lisa Levy, Rebecca Y Rudolph, Paul D Lampe, Min Yan, Sanford D Markowitz, Jeannette Bigler, Johanna W Lampe, John D Potter
Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels...
December 2015: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686322/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#7
Chris Wakeman, Jacqueline Keenan, Jimmy Eteuati, Paul Hollington, Tim Eglinton, Frank Frizelle
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a common and often fatal malignancy. Currently, the modifications that alter disease outcome include early symptom recognition, population screening as well as improved surgical and adjuvant treatments. Preventative strategies have been limited with little evidence that lifestyle changes significantly alter risk. There is however a growing awareness of a potential role for chemoprevention in some patient groups. This study aimed to review the literature associated with chemoprevention in colorectal cancer...
December 21, 2015: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26584600/risk-of-advanced-adenomas-in-siblings-of-individuals-with-advanced-adenomas-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
MULTICENTER STUDY
Siew C Ng, James Y W Lau, Francis K L Chan, Bing Yee Suen, Yee Kit Tse, Aric J Hui, En Ling Leung-Ki, Jessica Y L Ching, Anthony W H Chan, Martin C S Wong, Simon S M Ng, Ka Fai To, Justin C Y Wu, Joseph J Y Sung
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of colorectal neoplasms among siblings of patients with advanced adenomas is not clear. We determined the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the siblings of patients with advanced adenomas and compared it with that of siblings of individuals without these lesions. METHODS: In a blinded, cross-sectional study, colonoscopies were performed (from 2010 through 2014), at 2 hospitals in Hong Kong on 200 asymptomatic siblings of patients with advanced adenomas (exposed; mean age, 58...
March 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557879/aspirin-in-the-21st-century-common-mechanisms-of-disease-and-their-modulation-by-aspirin-a-report-from-the-2015-scientific-conference-of-the-international-aspirin-foundation-28-august-london-uk
#9
Tom Smith, Pippa Hutchison, Karsten Schrör, Joan Clària, Angel Lanas, Paola Patrignani, Andrew T Chan, Farhat Din, Ruth Langley, Peter Elwood, Andrew Freedman, Ron Eccles
Professor Peter Rothwell of Oxford University chaired the annual Scientific Conference of the International Aspirin Foundation in London on 28 August 2015. It took the form of four sessions. Aspirin has more than one action in its effects on disease. Its acetylation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in platelets leads to the blockade of pro-inflammatory chemicals and generation of anti-inflammatory mediators and increase in nitrous oxide (NO) production, which helps to preserve arterial endothelium. But platelets are not its only target...
2015: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26503631/spectral-biomarkers-for-chemoprevention-of-colonic-neoplasia-a-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-trial-with-aspirin
#10
Hemant K Roy, Vladimir Turzhitsky, Ramesh Wali, Andrew J Radosevich, Borko Jovanovic, Gary Della'Zanna, Asad Umar, David T Rubin, Michael J Goldberg, Laura Bianchi, Mart De La Cruz, Andrej Bogojevic, Irene B Helenowski, Luz Rodriguez, Robert Chatterton, Silvia Skripkauskas, Katherine Page, Christopher R Weber, Xiaoke Huang, Ellen Richmond, Raymond C Bergan, Vadim Backman
OBJECTIVE: A major impediment to translating chemoprevention to clinical practice has been lack of intermediate biomarkers. We previously reported that rectal interrogation with low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) detected microarchitectural manifestations of field carcinogenesis. We now wanted to ascertain if reversion of two LEBS markers spectral slope (SPEC) and fractal dimension (FRAC) could serve as a marker for chemopreventive efficacy. DESIGN: We conducted a multicentre, prospective, randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled, clinical trial in subjects with a history of colonic neoplasia who manifested altered SPEC/FRAC in histologically normal colonic mucosa...
October 26, 2015: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26369679/new-insights-into-the-mechanism-of-action-of-aspirin-in-the-prevention-of-colorectal-neoplasia
#11
REVIEW
Luigia Di Francesco, Luilli Antonio López Contreras, Angela Sacco, Paola Patrignani
The results of clinical studies have shown that the chronic administration of aspirin, even at the lowdoses (75-100 mg daily) recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, is associated with a reduction of cancer incidence and mortality, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). The mechanism of action of aspirin as an antineoplastic agent remains controversial. However, data of clinical pharmacology and several features of the chemopreventive effect of aspirin, emerged from clinical trials, suggest that the antiplatelet effect of aspirin plays a central role in its anticancer effects...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25927723/tissue-specific-patterns-of-gene-expression-in-the-epithelium-and-stroma-of-normal-colon-in-healthy-individuals-in-an-aspirin-intervention-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sushma S Thomas, Karen W Makar, Lin Li, Yingye Zheng, Peiying Yang, Lisa Levy, Rebecca Yvonne Rudolph, Paul D Lampe, Min Yan, Sanford D Markowitz, Jeannette Bigler, Johanna W Lampe, John D Potter
BACKGROUND: Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. METHODS: In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2...
March 24, 2015: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25820865/assessing-individual-risk-for-high-risk-colorectal-adenoma-at-first-time-screening-colonoscopy
#13
Yin Cao, Bernard A Rosner, Jing Ma, Rulla M Tamimi, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Kana Wu, Edward L Giovannucci
Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions...
October 1, 2015: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25503930/sulindac-reversal-of-15-pgdh-mediated-resistance-to-colon-tumor-chemoprevention-with-nsaids
#14
Stephen P Fink, Dawn M Dawson, Yongyou Zhang, Adam Kresak, Earl G Lawrence, Peiying Yang, Yanwen Chen, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Joseph E Willis, Levy Kopelovich, Sanford D Markowitz
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent colorectal cancer by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes that synthesize tumor-promoting prostaglandins. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a tumor suppressor that degrades tumor-promoting prostaglandins. Murine knockout of 15-PGDH increases susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumors. It also renders these mice resistant to celecoxib, a selective inhibitor of inducible COX-2 during colon neoplasia. Similarly, humans with low colonic 15-PGDH are also resistant to colon adenoma prevention with celecoxib...
February 2015: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25501125/molecular-pathways-aspirin-and-wnt-signaling-a-molecularly-targeted-approach-to-cancer-prevention-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Manish K Gala, Andrew T Chan
The anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin have resulted in its widespread use as an analgesic, antipyretic, and cardioprotective agent. Beyond these applications, multiple observational studies and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated a chemopreventative role for aspirin, particularly in the development of colorectal neoplasia. Given the critical importance of Wnt dysregulation in colorectal carcinogenesis, the interplay between aspirin and canonical Wnt signaling has become a focus of investigation...
April 1, 2015: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25293827/factors-associated-with-false-positive-and-false-negative-fecal-immunochemical-test-results-for-colorectal-cancer-screening
#16
Martin C S Wong, Jessica Y L Ching, Victor C W Chan, Thomas Y T Lam, Arthur K C Luk, Simon S M Ng, Joseph J Y Sung
BACKGROUND: Certain subgroups have higher rates of false fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results, yet few studies have addressed this topic. OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic factors associated with false-positive and false-negative FIT results in colorectal cancer screening. DESIGN: Retrospective database review of prospectively collected data. SETTING: A bowel cancer screening center in Hong Kong invited participants for colorectal cancer screening (2008-2012)...
March 2015: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25070664/urinary-pge-m-in-colorectal-cancer-predicting-more-than-risk
#17
COMMENT
Karen Colbert Maresso, Eduardo Vilar, Ernest T Hawk
Progress in cancer chemoprevention has been hindered by a lack of validated biomarkers of risk and interventive response. The identification of accurate, reliable, and easily measurable risk and response biomarkers within the field of cancer prevention could dramatically alter our approach to the disease. Colorectal cancer is associated with substantial morbidity and a limited 5-year survival rate for late-stage disease. The identification of biomarkers to predict (i) those most at risk of clinically significant colorectal neoplasia in conjunction with or building upon current risk models and/or (ii) those most likely to respond to potential colorectal chemopreventive agents, such as aspirin and NSAIDs, would significantly advance colorectal cancer risk management...
October 2014: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25024615/birthplace-is-not-a-determinant-of-colorectal-adenomas
#18
Fiona Tran, Jenn Hian Koo
AIM: To examine the impact of the patient's birthplace on the prevalence of colonic polyps and histopathological subtypes. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of the colonoscopy practice of one Gastroenterologist in a tertiary-referral hospital from 2008 to 2011. Data collected include demography, birthplace, language spoken, details of the colonoscopy including indications, completion rates, complications, results including prevalence and histopathology of polyps...
July 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24909623/development-of-a-risk-score-to-stratify-symptomatic-adults-referred-for-colonoscopy
#19
Chee-Wei Law, Sanjay Rampal, April C Roslani, Sanjiv Mahadeva
BACKGROUND AND AIM: With an increasing burden on overstretched colonoscopy services, a simple risk score for significant pathology in symptomatic patients may aid in the prioritization of patients. METHODS: A derivative study of a risk score model for colonic neoplasia (colorectal carcinoma [CRC] and advanced adenoma) and CRC alone was conducted in symptomatic adults referred for an index colonoscopy. The accuracy of the final model was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic...
November 2014: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24760190/aspirin-and-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-relation-to-the-expression-of-15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-hpgd
#20
Stephen P Fink, Mai Yamauchi, Reiko Nishihara, Seungyoun Jung, Aya Kuchiba, Kana Wu, Eunyoung Cho, Edward Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Sanford D Markowitz, Andrew T Chan
Aspirin use reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia, at least in part, through inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase 2)-related pathways. Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) (15-PGDH, HPGD) is down-regulated in colorectal cancers and functions as a metabolic antagonist of PTGS2. We hypothesized that the effect of aspirin may be antagonized by low 15-PGDH expression in the normal colon. In the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, we collected data on aspirin use every 2 years and followed up participants for diagnoses of colorectal cancer...
April 23, 2014: Science Translational Medicine
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