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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651408/-identification-and-evaluation-of-t-cell-epitopes-of-rv0585c-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
X X Wang, X Chen, Y Q Li, T Y Xiao, Y Jiang, M C Li, H C Liu, K L Wan
Objective: To investigate the human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen and their immunogenicity and provide evidence for the development of specific tuberculosis immune diagnostic techniques and tuberculosis vaccine. Methods: We synthesized peptides from M. tuberculosis Rv0585c protein antigen predicted by TE-predict and IEDB human T cell epitope prediction tool. The cellular immunoreactivity of the predicted peptides was evaluated through ELISpot assay with the peripheral blood monouclear cells (PBMC) of clinical tuberculosis patients...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651406/-survival-time-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-aids-cases-and-related-factors-in-china-2010
#2
H L Tang, J Li, J Han, J Xu, Y R Mao
Objective: To analyze the survival time of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases and related factors in China in 2010. Methods: The reporting cards and follow-up cards of HIV/AIDS cases reported as of 31 December 2015 were collected from national AIDS information system. The newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases in 2010 were selected. The information of follow-up intervention, CD(4+)T cells (CD(4)) testing, antiretroviral treatment and mortality of the cases from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed. Life table method was applied to calculate the survival probability...
May 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651374/cd70-a-novel-target-of-car-t-cell-therapy-for-gliomas
#3
Linchun Jin, Haitao Ge, Yu Long, Changlin Yang, Yifan Emily Chang, Luyan Mu, Elias J Sayour, Gabriel De Leon, Qiong J Wang, James C Yang, Paul S Kubilis, Hongbo Bao, Songsong Xia, Dunyue Lu, Yingjun Kong, Li Hu, Yujiao Shang, Chencheng Jiang, Jing Nie, Shimin Li, Yunhe Gu, Jiahang Sun, Duane A Mitchell, Zhiguo Lin, Jianping Huang
Background: Cancer immunotherapy represents a promising treatment approach for malignant-gliomas, but is hampered by the limited number of ubiquitously expressed tumor antigens and the profoundly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We identified CD70 as a novel immunosuppressive ligand and glioma target. Methods: Normal tissues derived from 52 different organs, and primary and recurrent low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and glioblastomas (GBMs) were thoroughly evaluated for CD70 gene and protein expression...
June 23, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651365/cathepsin-k-inhibitors-for-osteoporosis-biology-potential-clinical-utility-and-lessons-learned
#4
Matthew T Drake, Bart L Clarke, Merry Jo Oursler, Sundeep Khosla
Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family. While cathepsin K is highly expressed in osteoclasts, lower levels of cathepsin K are also found in a variety of other tissues. Secretion of cathepsin K from the osteoclast into the sealed osteoclast-bone cell interface results in efficient degradation of type I collagen. The absence of cathepsin K activity in humans results in pycnodysostosis, characterized by increased bone mineral density and fractures. Pharmacological cathepsin K inhibition leads to continuous increases in BMD for up to five years of treatment and improves bone strength at the spine and hip...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651306/heme-oxygenase-1-induction-and-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-and-taraxacum-herba-extracts-prevented-colitis-and-was-more-effective-than-sulfasalazine-in-preventing-relapse
#5
Kyu-Hyun Han, Jong-Min Park, Migyeong Jeong, Young-Min Han, Eun-Jin Go, Juyeon Park, Hocheol Kim, Jae Gab Han, Oran Kwon, Ki Baik Hahm
Background/Aims: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), repeated bouts of remission and relapse occur in patients and can impose a risk of colitis-associated cancer. We hypothesized that plant extracts of Atractylodes macrocephala (AM) or Taraxacum herba (TH) may be better than sulfasalazine for treating this disease because these extracts can promote additional regeneration. Methods: Murine intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells were pretreated with AM or TH before a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced challenge...
June 27, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651159/health-related-quality-of-life-results-from-the-phase-iii-checkmate-067-study
#6
Dirk Schadendorf, James Larkin, Jedd Wolchok, F Stephen Hodi, Vanna Chiarion-Sileni, Rene Gonzalez, Piotr Rutkowski, Jean-Jacques Grob, C Lance Cowey, Christopher Lao, John Wagstaff, Margaret K Callahan, Michael A Postow, Michael Smylie, Pier Francesco Ferrucci, Reinhard Dummer, Andrew Hill, Fiona Taylor, Javier Sabater, Dana Walker, Srividya Kotapati, Amy Abernethy, Georgina V Long
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody of immune checkpoint programmed death 1 on T cells (PD-1), combined with ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor, as combination therapy on the one hand and nivolumab as monotherapy on the other, have both demonstrated improved efficacy compared with ipilimumab alone in the CheckMate 067 study. However, the combination resulted in a higher frequency of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs), which could result in diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
June 22, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651122/activation-of-irf3-contributes-to-ifn-%C3%AE-and-isg54-expression-during-the-immune-responses-to-b16f10-tumor-growth
#7
Zachary Guinn, Deborah M Brown, Thomas M Petro
Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF-3) has been shown to contribute to immune control of B16 melanoma tumor growth. We have shown previously that IRF-3 has a role in IFN-γ-induced expression of pro-apoptotic interferon stimulated gene 54 (ISG54) in macrophages and IFN-γ in T cells. To investigate the IRF3-IFN-γ-ISG54 nexus, we injected C57Bl/6 (B6) and IRF3KO mice s.c. with luciferase-producing B16-F10 tumor cells. Tumor growth as measured by luciferase levels was similar between B6 and IRF3KO mice at days 2 and 6, but was significantly greater at day 9 in IRF3KO mice compared with B6 mice...
June 23, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651074/chimeric-antigen-receptor-engineered-natural-killer-and-natural-killer-t-cells-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#8
REVIEW
Dominique Bollino, Tonya J Webb
Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system and NK T (NKT) cells, which have roles in both the innate and adaptive responses, are unique lymphocyte subsets that have similarities in their functions and phenotypes. Both cell types can rapidly respond to the presence of tumor cells and participate in immune surveillance and antitumor immune responses. This has incited interest in the development of novel cancer therapeutics based on NK and NKT cell manipulation. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), generated through the fusion of an antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody or other ligand to intracellular signaling domains, can enhance lymphocyte targeting and activation toward diverse malignancies...
June 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651073/hemophilia-a-inhibitor-treatment-the-promise-of-engineered-t-cell-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Kalpana Parvathaneni, Maha Abdeladhim, Kathleen P Pratt, David W Scott
Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding factor VIII (FVIII), a cofactor protein that is essential for normal blood clotting. Approximately, 1 in 3 patients with severe hemophilia A produce neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) that block its biologic function in the clotting cascade. Current efforts to eliminate inhibitors consist of repeated FVIII injections under what is termed an "ITI" protocol (Immune Tolerance Induction). However, this method is extremely costly and approximately 30% of patients undergoing ITI do not achieve peripheral tolerance...
June 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651003/iron-elevation-and-adipose-tissue-remodeling-in-the-epididymal-depot-of-a-mouse-model-of-polygenic-obesity
#10
Xiaoya Ma, Vinh T Pham, Hiroyuki Mori, Ormond A MacDougald, Yatrik M Shah, Peter F Bodary
BACKGROUND: Iron dysregulation is a potential contributor to the pathology of obesity-related metabolic complications. KK/HIJ (KK) mice, a polygenic obese mouse model, have elevated serum iron levels. A subset of KK male mice display a bronzing of epididymal adipose tissue (eAT) associated with >100-fold (p<0.001) higher iron concentration. METHODS: To further phenotype and characterize the adipose tissue iron overload, 27 male KK mice were evaluated. 14 had bronzing eAT and 13 had normal appearing eAT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651002/the-n-terminal-domain-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-ppe17-rv1168c-protein-plays-a-dominant-role-in-inducing-antibody-responses-in-active-tb-patients
#11
Philip Raj Abraham, Niteen Pathak, Gourango Pradhan, Gaddam Sumanlatha, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
The PPE (proline-proline-glutamic acid) proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are characterized by a conserved N-terminal domain of approximately 180 amino acids and variable C-terminal domain. Since last decade, these proteins have gained much importance in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) as they act as a source of antigenic variation. We have demonstrated earlier that one of the PPE proteins PPE17 (Rv1168c) induces strong B-cell and T-cell responses in active TB disease and also displays a higher antibody titer compared to immunodominant antigens such as ESAT-6, Hsp60 and PPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650976/effect-of-praziquantel-on-the-differential-expression-of-mouse-hepatic-genes-and-parasite-atp-binding-cassette-transporter-gene-family-members-during-schistosoma-mansoni-infection
#13
Melissa C Sanchez, Katina V Krasnec, Amalia S Parra, Christian von Cabanlong, Geoffrey N Gobert, Boris Umylny, Pauline M Cupit, Charles Cunningham
Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by sexually dimorphic blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug widely available to treat the disease but does not kill juvenile parasites. Here we report the use of next generation sequencing to study the transcriptional effect of PZQ on murine hepatic inflammatory, immune and fibrotic responses to Schistosoma mansoni worms and eggs. An initial T helper cell 1 (Th1) response is induced against schistosomes in mice treated with drug vehicle (Vh) around the time egg laying begins, followed by a T helper cell 2 (Th2) response and the induction of genes whose action leads to granuloma formation and fibrosis...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650939/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-nonprogressors
#14
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status, and their proliferation ability in 32 long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) along with 35 HIV-1-negative subjects using multicolor flow cytometry...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650722/optimized-dna-vaccine-enhanced-by-adjuvant-il28b-induces-protective-immune-responses-against-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-in-mice
#15
Yan Zhou, Ziyan Wang, Yongqing Xu, Zeqiang Zhang, Rui Hua, Wei Liu, Chunlai Jiang, Yan Chen, Wenying Yang, Wei Kong
Antigen-specific immune responses determine the efficacy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) vaccines. To optimize the immunogenicity of the antigen gD2, we developed the gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccine encoding HSV-2 glycoprotein D and UL25 gene encoding viral capsid vertex proteins in this study. The gD2 and gD2ΔUL25 DNA vaccines were compared with formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV-2), and results showed a greater protective immune response induced by gD2ΔUL25 than by gD2. Therefore, gD2ΔUL25 was chosen to evaluate further using the IL28B adjuvant...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650703/program-implementation-of-option-b%C3%A2-at-a-president-s-emergency-plan-for-aids-relief-supported-hiv-clinic-improves-clinical-indicators-but-not-retention-in-care-in-mbarara-uganda
#16
Kathleen Miller, Winnie Muyindike, Lynn T Matthews, Michael Kanyesigye, Mark J Siedner
2013 WHO guidelines for prevention of mother to child transmission recommend combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant women, regardless of CD4 count (Option B/B+). We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a government-operated HIV clinic in Mbarara, Uganda before and after implementation of Option B+ to assess the impact on retention in care. We limited our analysis to women not on ART at the time of their first reported pregnancy with CD4 count >350. We fit regression models to estimate relationships between calendar period (Option A vs...
June 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650673/evidence-of-interleukin-21-reduction-in-osteosarcoma-patients-due-to-pd-1-pd-l1-mediated-suppression-of-follicular-helper-t-cell-functionality
#17
Wenwu Gao, Junjie Zhou, Bin Ji
Interleukin 21 (IL-21) is crucial for the development of a robust CD8(+) T cell response and has been shown to promote antitumor immunity. Despite the fact that osteosarcoma presents significant genetic instability with a high immunogenic potential, the antitumor immune response in osteosarcoma is ineffective. We investigated whether this was due to impaired IL-21 responses. We found that the circulating CD4(+) T cells, a major source of IL-21, had reduced capacity to express IL-21 in osteosarcoma patients compared to healthy controls...
June 26, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650638/identification-and-structure-activity-relationships-of-novel-compounds-that-potentiate-the-activities-of-antibiotics-in-escherichia-coli
#18
Keith M Haynes, Narges Abdali, Varsha Jhawar, Helen I Zgurskaya, Jerry M Parks, Adam T Green, Jerome Yves Baudry, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jeremy C Smith, John K Walker
In Gram-negative bacteria, efflux pumps are able to prevent effective cellular concentrations from being achieved for a number of antibiotics. Small molecule adjuvants that act as efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) have the potential to reinvigorate existing antibiotics that are currently ineffective due to efflux mechanisms. Through a combination of rigorous experimental screening and in silico virtual screening we recently identified novel classes of EPIs that interact with the membrane fusion protein AcrA, a critical component of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in E...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650481/germinal-center-development-of-memory-b-cells-driven-by-il-9-from-follicular-helper-t-cells
#19
Yifeng Wang, Jingwen Shi, Jiacong Yan, Zhengtao Xiao, Xiaoxiao Hou, Peiwen Lu, Shiyue Hou, Tianyang Mao, Wanli Liu, Yuanwu Ma, Lianfeng Zhang, Xuerui Yang, Hai Qi
Germinal centers (GCs) support high-affinity, long-lived humoral immunity. How memory B cells develop in GCs is not clear. Through the use of a cell-cycle-reporting system, we identified GC-derived memory precursor cells (GC-MP cells) that had quit cycling and reached G0 phase while in the GC, exhibited memory-associated phenotypes with signs of affinity maturation and localized toward the GC border. After being transferred into adoptive hosts, GC-MP cells reconstituted a secondary response like genuine memory B cells...
June 26, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650475/division-site-selection-linked-to-inherited-cell-surface-wave-troughs-in-mycobacteria
#20
Haig A Eskandarian, Pascal D Odermatt, Joëlle X Y Ven, Mélanie T M Hannebelle, Adrian P Nievergelt, Neeraj Dhar, John D McKinney, Georg E Fantner
Cell division is tightly controlled in space and time to maintain cell size and ploidy within narrow bounds. In bacteria, the canonical Minicell (Min) and nucleoid occlusion (Noc) systems together ensure that division is restricted to midcell after completion of chromosome segregation(1). It is unknown how division site selection is controlled in bacteria that lack homologues of the Min and Noc proteins, including mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis and other chronic infections(2). Here, we use correlated optical and atomic-force microscopy(3,4) to demonstrate that morphological landmarks (waveform troughs) on the undulating surface of mycobacterial cells correspond to future sites of cell division...
June 26, 2017: Nature Microbiology
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