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KPC multidrug resistance gram negative

John J Veillette, James Truong, Steven C Forland
Limited data exist regarding optimal dosing of ceftazidime/avibactam (C/A) in patients with unique physiology, who were excluded from published clinical trials. Data are also lacking regarding clinical efficacy of C/A in patients with infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. To expand knowledge in these areas, we present pharmacokinetic data from two patients with KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections, both of whom had renal impairment, and one of whom was morbidly obese...
September 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Johanna M Vanegas, O Lorena Parra, J Natalia Jiménez
BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacilli are a cause of serious infections in the pediatric population. Carbapenem are the treatment of choice for infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, but the emergence of carbapenem resistance has substantially reduced access to effective antimicrobial regimens. Children are a population vulnerable to bacterial infections and the emergence of resistance can worsen prognosis. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli in pediatric patients from five tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Yunliang Zhang, Xiaoyan Lin, Karen Bush
Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic of the tetracycline class being developed for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections. Eravacycline has activity against many key Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, including strains that are multidrug-resistant. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates from 2010 to 2013 (n=110) were characterized for carbapenemase genes by PCR and sequencing...
August 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Radoslaw Jaworski, Ireneusz Haponiuk, Mariusz Steffens, Elzbieta Arlukowicz, Ninela Irga-Jaworska, Maciej Chojnicki, Ewelina Kwasniak, Jacek Zielinski
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of multidrug resistant microorganisms worldwide is increasing. The aim of the study was to present institutional experience with the multidrug resistant microorganism colonization patterns observed in children with congenital heart diseases hospitalized in a hybrid pediatric cardiac surgery center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Microbiological samples were routinely collected in all children admitted to our department. All microbiological samples were analyzed with regard to multidrug resistant microorganisms: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Gram-negative rods producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), multidrug resistant Gram-negative rods (MDR-GNRs), carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA)...
June 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Ursel Heudorf, Barbara Büttner, Anja M Hauri, Petra Heinmüller, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Martin Kaase, Niels Kleinkauf, Sabine Albert-Braun, Rolf Tessmann, Volkhard A J Kempf
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) and the infections they cause are a serious threat and a challenge to the healthcare system. This particularly applies to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGN). Currently, the introduction of a nationwide mandatory notification system for CRGN in Germany is under consideration. Against this background, this paper presents an analysis of the mandatory reporting system for CRGN in effect since November 2011 in the federal state of Hesse (Germany)...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
Teresa Martinez, Idali Martinez, Guillermo J Vazquez, Edna E Aquino, Iraida E Robledo
Carbapenems are considered the last-resort antibiotics to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzyme hydrolyses β-lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. KPC has been detected worldwide in Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates associated with transposon Tn4401 commonly located in plasmids. Acinetobacter baumannii has become an important multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen. KPC-producing A. baumannii has been reported to date only in Puerto Rico...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Carbapenemase producing Gram-negative pathogen is of great concern for physician. The challenging aspects are treatment option and infection control. Monitoring of respective carbapenemase resistance mechanism is necessary to prevent the outbreaks. Currently, the rapid emergence of oxacillinase (OXA-48) like is alarming. Increasing frequency of OXA-48 is seen than the classical carbapenemase (KPC, NDM, IMP, and VIM) across the world. The bla OXA-48 gene is commonly identified in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae...
January 2016: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez, Tony Mazzulli, Nicole Christian, Barbara M Willey, David A Boyd, Laura F Mataseje, Michael R Mulvey, Celia D C Christie, Alison M Nicholson
INTRODUCTION: The global dissemination of the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM) gene among certain strains of bacteria has serious implications since the infections caused by such organisms pose a therapeutic challenge. Although the NDM gene has been detected in various parts of the world, this is the first report of its detection in the English-speaking Caribbean. The NDM producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from an Indian patient who had recently relocated to Jamaica. METHODOLOGY: Identification and susceptibility testing of the K...
February 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
B Ghebremedhin, A Halstenbach, M Smiljanic, M Kaase, P Ahmad-Nejad
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance in bacteria leads to massive health problems. Incidence of carbapenem and multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria are increasing globally and turn out to be a very urgent challenge in health care. Resistant bacteria play an important clinical role during hospital outbreaks as well as in sepsis. Rapid diagnostic tests are necessary to provide immediate information for antimicrobial treatment and infection control measures. METHODS: Our mass spectrometry-based assay was validated with 63 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacterial isolates, and 35 carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative species with no carbapenemase production...
2016: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Patricia A Bradford, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Douglas J Biedenbach, Mark G Wise, Meredith Hackel, Daniel F Sahm
The increasing use of carbapenems for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacterial infections has contributed to the global dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Serine and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) that hydrolyze carbapenems have become prevalent and endemic in some countries, necessitating the use of older classes of agents, such as colistin. A total of 19,719 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (excluding Proteeae and Serratia spp., which have innate resistance to colistin) were collected from infected patients during 2012 and 2013 in a global surveillance program and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using CLSI methods...
March 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Alejandro Díaz, Diana Cristina Ortiz, Mónica Trujillo, Carlos Garcés, Fabian Jaimes, Andrea Victoria Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections represent a growing problem and a serious global threat. Data in children are scarce. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC) are the most common mechanism of resistance this organism has developed. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes from a cohort of children infected or colonized with carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) at a tertiary care center in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all pediatric cases from whom CRKp isolates were obtained from 2008 to 2013...
March 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Nico T Mutters, Frank Günther, Anja Sander, Alexander Mischnik, Uwe Frank
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are a worldwide problem. International migration and travel facilitate the spread of MDRO. Therefore the goal of our study was to assess the risk of influx of MDRO from patients transferred to one of Central Europe's largest hospitals from abroad. METHODS: A mono-centre study was conducted. All patients transferred from other countries were screened; additional data was collected on comorbidities, etc. Presence of carbapenemases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negatives was confirmed by PCR...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kazım Sahin, Ayse Tekin, Sule Ozdas, Demet Akin, Hande Yapislar, Aziz Ramazan Dilek, Emine Sonmez
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide. Antibiotic-resistant strains can lead to serious problems regarding treatment of infection. Carbapenem antibiotics are the final treatment option for infections caused by serious and life-threatening multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, an understanding of carbapenem resistance is important for infection control. In the study described herein, the phenotypic and genotypic features of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in our hospital were evaluated...
2015: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Dominika Ojdana, Paweł Sacha, Dorota Olszańska, Piotr Majewski, Piotr Wieczorek, Jadwiga Jaworowska, Anna Sieńko, Anna Jurczak, Elżbieta Tryniszewska
An increase in the antibiotic resistance among members of the Enterobacteriaceae family has been observed worldwide. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods are increasingly reported. The treatment of infections caused by Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae has become an important clinical problem associated with reduced therapeutic possibilities. Antimicrobial carbapenems are considered the last line of defense against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Unfortunately, an increase of carbapenem resistance due to the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes has been observed...
2015: BioMed Research International
Evan J Zasowski, Jeffrey M Rybak, Michael J Rybak
Gram-negative resistance has reached a crucial point, with emergence of pathogens resistant to most or all available antibiotics. Ceftazidime-avibactam is a newly approved agent combining ceftazidime and a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. Avibactam has increased potency and expanded spectrum of inhibition of class A and C β-lactamases relative to available β-lactamase inhibitors, including extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC, and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) enzymes...
August 2015: Pharmacotherapy
Étienne Ruppé, Paul-Louis Woerther, François Barbier
The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially those belonging to the CTX-M family. The efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor associations for severe infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has not been adequately evaluated in critically ill patients, and carbapenems still stands as the first-line choice in this situation...
December 2015: Annals of Intensive Care
Jordan L Liscio, Monica V Mahoney, Elizabeth B Hirsch
The rise in resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a major concern and has led to difficulty in treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections. Two recently approved combination antibiotics, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam, may be effective in treating these resistant infections. Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin that has been developed in combination with tazobactam, a recognised β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI). Avibactam is a novel BLI combined with ceftazidime, a cephalosporin with an established history...
September 2015: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Amabel Lapuebla, Marie Abdallah, Olawole Olafisoye, Christopher Cortes, Carl Urban, John Quale, David Landman
Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic to hospitals in New York City and other regions. RPX7009 is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against serine carbapenemases. We tested the activity of meropenem plus RPX7009 against 4,500 recent Gram-negative clinical isolates from 11 New York City hospitals. The meropenem-RPX7009 combination was found to have excellent in vitro activity against Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp...
August 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Amabel Lapuebla, Marie Abdallah, Olawole Olafisoye, Christopher Cortes, Carl Urban, David Landman, John Quale
Imipenem with relebactam was active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp., including K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing isolates. Loss of OmpK36 in KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates affected the susceptibility of this combination. Enhanced activity was evident against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including isolates with depressed oprD and increased ampC expression. However, the addition of relebactam to imipenem did not provide added benefit against Acinetobacter baumannii...
August 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Seri Jeong, Jung Ok Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong, Il Kwon Bae, Wonkeun Song
The emergence of clinical isolates of carbapenemase-producing microbes confers multidrug-resistance to these bacteria and renders them difficult to treat. This study was performed to evaluate peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe-based multiplex real-time PCR kits used to detect carbapenemase genes. In total, 324 carbapenemase genes, collected from 318 gram-negative clinical isolates in 36 different hospital laboratories, were assayed to evaluate multiplex real-time PCR kits (PANAGENE; Daejeon, Korea). The nine most prevalent carbapenemase genes (KPC, OXA-48, GES, IMP, VIM, NDM, ISAba1-OXA-51, OXA-23, and OXA-58) were included in this study...
June 2015: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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