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Developmental high voltage radiation

Ricardo H Pineda, Angeles B Ribera
Within the developing Xenopus spinal cord, voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel genes display different expression patterns, many of which occur in opposing dorsal-ventral gradients. Regional differences in Kv gene expression would predict different patterns of potassium current (I(Kv)) regulation. However, during the first 24 h of postmitotic differentiation, all primary spinal neurons undergo a temporally coordinated upregulation of I(Kv) density that shortens the duration of the action potential. Here, we tested whether spinal neurons demonstrate regional differences in I(Kv) regulation subsequent to action potential maturation...
April 2, 2008: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
G Martella, F Spadoni, G Sciamanna, A Tassone, G Bernardi, A Pisani, P Bonsi
By means of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we characterized the developmental profile of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium (Ca(2+)) channel subtypes in distinct neuronal populations of mouse striatum. Acutely dissociated medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) were recorded from mice at five developmental stages: postnatal-days (PD) 14, 23, 40, 150 and 270. During ageing, total HVA Ca(2+) current recorded from both MSNs and ChIs was unchanged. However, the pharmacological analysis of the differential contribution of HVA Ca(2+) channel subtypes showed a significant rearrangement of each component...
March 18, 2008: Neuroscience
H Maeda, T Ohno, M Sakurai
Electrophysiological recordings and optical imaging with a fast voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANNEPS) were used to directly examine the spatiotemporal properties of in vitro corticospinal synapses formed in co-cultures of cerebral cortex and spinal cord slices. Whole cell recordings from spinal cord cells showed both monosynaptic and polysynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in response to stimulation of corticospinal axons. Monosynaptic EPSCs and excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were isolated in artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing high concentrations of divalent cations...
December 19, 2007: Neuroscience
Judith Pachuau, Miguel Martin-Caraballo
In this study we have characterized the functional expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in developing chick nodose neurons, a population of placode-derived sensory neurons innervating the heart and various visceral organs. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) currents were measured using whole cell patch clamp recordings in neurons acutely isolated between embryonic day (E) 7 and E20, prior to hatching. E7 nodose neurons express relatively large high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) currents. HVA current density progressively increases between E7 and E17...
December 2007: Developmental Neurobiology
Martina Knirsch, Niels Brandt, Claudia Braig, Stephanie Kuhn, Bernhard Hirt, Stefan M├╝nkner, Marlies Knipper, Jutta Engel
Outer hair cells (OHCs) are innervated by type II afferent fibers of as yet unknown function. It is still a matter of debate whether OHCs perform exocytosis. If so, they would require presynaptic Ca2+ channels at their basal poles where the type II fibers make contacts. Here we show that L-type Ca2+ channel currents (charge carrier, 10 mM Ba2+) present in neonatal OHCs [postnatal day 1 (P1) to P7] decreased from approximately 170 to approximately 50 pA at approximately the onset of hearing. Ba2+ currents could hardly be measured in mature mouse OHCs because of their high fragility, whereas in the rat, the average Ba2+ current amplitude of apical OHCs was 58 +/- 9 pA (n = 20, P19-P30) compared with that of the inner hair cells (IHCs) of 181 +/- 50 pA (n = 24, P17-P30)...
June 13, 2007: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M Youssoufian, B Walmsley
Neurotrophins are a large class of trophic factors located throughout the central nervous system. While the role of neurotrophins in neuronal survival and axon guidance is well known, their secondary role in modulating synaptic transmission and cell firing properties is largely unexplored. In this study we examined the expression of neurotrophins in the mouse medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and investigated the effect of exogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) application on the firing properties of MNTB principal cells...
March 2007: European Journal of Neuroscience
Michael J Fedchyshyn, Lu-Yang Wang
Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) into nerve terminals triggers vesicular fusion and neurotransmitter release. However, it is unknown whether the coupling between VGCCs and synaptic vesicles (SVs) is developmentally regulated. By paired patch-clamp recordings from the mouse calyx of Held synapse, we show here that injection of a Ca(2+) buffer with slow binding kinetics (EGTA; 10 mm) potently attenuated transmitter release in young terminals [postnatal day 8 (P8)-P12] but produced little effect in older ones (P16-P18), suggesting that SVs in young synapses are loosely coupled to VGCCs, but the coupling tightens spatially during maturation...
April 20, 2005: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
L Mulder, J H Koolstra, T M G J Van Eijden
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy and applicability of a commercially available microCT system for comparative measurements of the degree and distribution of mineralization of developing bone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Homogeneous K2HPO4 solutions with different concentrations (range 0-800 mg/cm3) were used to assess the accuracy of a microCT system equipped with a polychromatic X-ray source. Both high (45 kV) and low (70 kV) tube peak voltages were explored. The resulting attenuation was compared with calculated theoretical attenuation values to estimate the accuracy...
November 2004: Acta Radiologica
Jutta Henne, Gunnar Jeserich
Developmental changes in membrane excitability and the potassium channel profile were monitored in acutely isolated trout retinal ganglion cells by patch-clamp recording in combination with single-cell RT-PCR. During embryonic development in the egg, a sustained above-threshold stimulation of ganglion cells elicited in most cases only a single spike response. After hatching, the proportion of multiply spiking cells increased strongly and the ability of spike frequency coding was acquired. This was accompanied by the occurrence of a highly tetraethylammonium (TEA)- and quinine-sensitive delayed rectifier current, which gradually masked a rapidly inactivating A-type potassium current that was predominant at earlier stages...
January 1, 2004: Journal of Neuroscience Research
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