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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107600/the-predictive-and-prognostic-role-of-serum-neopterin-and-tryptophan-breakdown-in-prostate-cancer
#2
Renate Pichler, Josef Fritz, Isabel Heidegger, Eberhard Steiner, Zoran Culig, Helmut Klocker, Dietmar Fuchs
The Interferon-gamma induced enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and GTP-cylohydrolase are key players in tumor immune escape mechanisms. We quantified serum levels of neopterin and tryptophan breakdown (tryptophan, kynurenine and kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio) in addition to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) patients (n=100) before radical prostatectomy (RP) as well as at time of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after RP (n=50) in comparison to healthy men (n=49). Effects of biomarkers on the risk of PCa diagnosis on transrectal biopsy, worse histopathological characteristics of the RP specimens and cancer-specific survival (CSS) after BCR were investigated...
January 20, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107226/evaluation-of-a-predictive-staging-model-for-hiv-associated-kaposi-sarcoma-in-uganda
#3
Fred Okuku, Elizabeth M Krantz, James Kafeero, Moses R Kamya, Jackson Orem, Corey Casper, Warren Phipps
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is commonly staged using the AIDS Clinical Trials Group criteria, which classify 3 variables-- tumor extent (T), immune status (I), and systemic symptoms (S) - into good risk (0) and poor risk (1). Although validated in the US and Europe, these criteria have not been systematically evaluated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where the burden of KS is greatest. METHODS: We reviewed medical charts of adult patients with HIV-associated KS seen at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1992-2007...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106823/integrated-microrna-mrna-profiling-identifies-oncostatin-m-as-a-marker-of-mesenchymal-like-er-negative-her2-negative-breast-cancer
#4
Giulia Bottai, Lixia Diao, Keith A Baggerly, Laura Paladini, Balázs Győrffy, Carlotta Raschioni, Lajos Pusztai, George A Calin, Libero Santarpia
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) simultaneously modulate different oncogenic networks, establishing a dynamic system of gene expression and pathway regulation. In this study, we analyzed global miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles of 17 cell lines representing different molecular breast cancer subtypes. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between miRNA and mRNA expression. Hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis were also performed. Publicly available gene expression profiles (n = 699) and tumor tissues (n = 80) were analyzed to assess the relevance of key miRNA-regulated pathways in human breast cancer...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106541/cell-membrane-and-intracellular-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-9-tlr9-in-colorectal-cancer-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#5
Shadab Shahriari, Somayeh Rezaeifard, Hamid Reza Moghimi, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Zahra Faghih
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a DNA receptor of innate immune system which plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Recent evidence reveals over-expression and functionality of TLR9 in a wide variety of cancer cells and its contribution to tumor cell proliferation and survival. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the aberrant cell surface expression of TLR9 in cancer using cell-lines model. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell-lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and SKBR3) and five colorectal adenocarcinoma cell-lines (HT29, HT29/219, SW480, SW48 and SW1116) in addition to one primary foreskin isolated fibroblast cell were analyzed for cell surface and intracellular expression of TLR9 by flow cytometry method...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105616/-interpretation-of-the-updates-of-nccn-2017-version-1-0-guideline-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
Gong Chen
The NCCN has recently released its 2017 version 1.0 guideline for colorectal cancer. There are several updates from this new version guideline which are believed to change the current clinical practice. Update one, low-dose aspirin is recommended for patients with colorectal cancer after colectomy for secondary chemoprevention. Update two, biological agents are removed from the neoadjuvant treatment regimen for resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This update is based on lack of evidence to support benefits of biological agents including bevacizumab and cetuximab in the neoadjuvant setting...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105371/unfolding-anti-tumor-immunity-er-stress-responses-sculpt-tolerogenic-myeloid-cells-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Juan R Cubillos-Ruiz, Eslam Mohamed, Paulo C Rodriguez
Established tumors build a stressful and hostile microenvironment that blocks the development of protective innate and adaptive immune responses. Different subsets of immunoregulatory myeloid populations, including dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and macrophages, accumulate in the stressed tumor milieu and represent a major impediment to the success of various forms of cancer immunotherapy. Specific conditions and factors within tumor masses, including hypoxia, nutrient starvation, low pH, and increased levels of free radicals, provoke a state of "endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress" in both malignant cells and infiltrating myeloid cells...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105368/clinical-and-immunologic-correlates-of-response-to-pd-1-blockade-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-renal-medullary-carcinoma
#8
Kathryn E Beckermann, Pradeep C Jolly, Ju Y Kim, Jennifer Bordeaux, Igor Puzanov, W Kimryn Rathmell, Douglas B Johnson
BACKGROUND: Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare kidney tumor that occurs in adolescent and young adults, typically in association with sickle cell trait. RMC exhibits rapid disease progression, frequent metastases at diagnosis, and dismal clinical outcomes. Currently available therapies, including cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy, multi-tyrosine kinase, and mTOR inhibitor strategies demonstrate either transient responses or minimal activity. Therefore, further molecular characterization and additional treatment strategies are urgently needed in this aggressive disease...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105238/immune-associated-proteins-with-potential-in-vivo-anti-tumor-activities-are-upregulated-in-lung-cancer-cells-treated-with-umbelliprenin-a-proteomic-approach
#9
Narges Khaghanzadeh, Kazuyuki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Kuramitsu, Abbas Ghaderi, Zahra Mojtahedi
Umbelliprenin (Umb), a natural coumarin, has demonstrated anti-tumor activities, both in vitro and particularly in vivo, in several types of cancer, including lung cancer. The present study aimed to identify molecular targets of Umb using a high-throughput approach. Lung cancer cell lines, QU-DB (large-cell lung carcinoma) and A549 (adenocarcinoma), were treated with Umb. Differentially-expressed proteins were identified using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. In the QU-DB cells, differential expression of proteins, including downregulation of the tumorigenic protein heat shock protein 90 kDa and upregulation of the potential anti-tumor proteins Nipsnap1 and glycine-tRNA ligase (GRS), suggested that Umb is a strong anti-tumor compound...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105229/programmed-cell-death-1-correlates-with-the-occurrence-and-development-of-mg63-osteosarcoma
#10
Fuyou Zhao, Qiong Wu, Xiusong Dai, Yumei Li, Huaiyong Gan, Ri Wang, Jie Lv, Yuqing Chen
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) on osteosarcoma (OD) stem cells and T cells, and to determine their correlation. OS stem cells were sorted and identified from OS MG63 cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the PD-1 expression of the OS tumor stem cell membrane surface. The expression of PD-1 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MTT was used to detect the effect of PD-1 signals on T-cell proliferation. The results indicated that the cancer cells (cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum) exhibited clear proliferation within 1 week of cell culture, which showed their strong proliferation and aggressive ability...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105157/prognostic-impact-of-the-tumor-infiltrating-regulatory-t-cell-foxp3-activated-cytotoxic-t-lymphocyte-granzyme-b-ratio-on-resected-left-sided-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Ho Kyoung Hwang, Hyoung-Il Kim, Se Hoon Kim, Junjeong Choi, Chang Moo Kang, Kyung Sik Kim, Woo Jung Lee
Among the subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (granzyme B(+)) have an antitumor effect, while regulatory T lymphocytes [forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+)] suppress the antitumor immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between TIL subsets and survival outcomes in patients with left-sided pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From January 2000 to December 2008, 30 patients who underwent curative distal pancreatectomy without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy due to left-sided PDAC were enrolled in the present study...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105100/clinical-significance-of-leukocyte-associated-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-1-expression-in-human-cervical-cancer
#12
Yue Wang, Xueshan Zhang, Fang Miao, Yanning Cao, Jiangnan Xue, Qizhi Cao, Xiaoshu Zhang
Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is broadly expressed on the majority of immune cells; however, the biological role of LAIR in solid tumors has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, using immunohistochemical staining analysis, the expression of LAIR-1 in human cervical cancer (HCC) and nontumor-adjacent tissue specimens was determined, and the results indicated that the expression of LAIR-1 in HCC tissue was higher compared with that in noncancerous tissue. The χ(2) test was used to analyze the correlation between the expression of LAIR-1 in tumor tissues with clinicopathological parameters...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104913/exosome-derived-micrornas-in-cancer-metabolism-possible-implications-in-cancer-diagnostics-and-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Marco Tomasetti, Wan Lee, Lory Santarelli, Jiri Neuzil
Malignant progression is greatly affected by dynamic cross-talk between stromal and cancer cells. Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that have key roles in cell-cell communication by transferring nucleic acids and proteins to target cells and tissues. Recently, MicroRNAs (miRs) and their delivery in exosomes have been implicated in physiological and pathological processes. Tumor-delivered miRs, interacting with stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment, modulate tumor progression, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune escape...
January 20, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104840/tumor-aneuploidy-correlates-with-markers-of-immune-evasion-and-with-reduced-response-to-immunotherapy
#14
Teresa Davoli, Hajime Uno, Eric C Wooten, Stephen J Elledge
Immunotherapies based on immune checkpoint blockade are highly effective in a subset of patients. An ongoing challenge is the identification of biomarkers that predict which patients will benefit from these therapies. Aneuploidy, also known as somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), is widespread in cancer and is posited to drive tumorigenesis. Analyzing 12 human cancer types, we find that, for most, highly aneuploid tumors show reduced expression of markers of cytotoxic infiltrating immune cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, and increased expression of cell proliferation markers...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104820/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-malignancies-with-mismatch-repair-deficiency-a-review-of-the-state-of-the-current-knowledge
#15
Ali Naboush, Christopher A J Roman, Iuliana Shapira
The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat malignant tumors with microsatellite instability is an emerging new modality. This is based on the observations that these tumors may have a high mutation rate-thus a potential source of tumor-specific neoantigens-and harbor infiltrating cytotoxic T cells in response, suggesting that they may be particularly susceptible to immune checkpoint therapy. PUBMED and ASCO library were systematically reviewed to identify all relevant data that involved the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancers with microsatellite instability...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104778/probiotic-strains-modulate-cytokine-production-and-the-immune-interplay-between-human-peripheral-blood-mononucear-cells-and-colon-cancer-cells
#16
Meir Djaldetti, Hanna Bessler
BACKGROUND: Human health is tightly connected with a great number of gut microbial cells designated as microbiome or microbiota. We have examined the effect of six microbial strains (MS) included in a commercial probiotic on cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on their immune dialog with colon carcinoma cells. METHODS: Non-stimulated and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PBMC were incubated for 24 hours with MS. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon gamma (IFNγ), IL-10, and IL-1ra, as well as the effect of MS on the immune interplay between PBMC and cells from HT-29 and RKO colon carcinoma lines were evaluated...
January 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104684/broad-and-conserved-immune-regulation-by-genetically-heterogeneous-melanoma-cells
#17
Natalie J Neubert, Laure Tillé, David Barras, Charlotte Soneson, Petra Baumgaertner, Donata Rimoldi, David Gfeller, Mauro Delorenzi, Silvia A Fuertes Marraco, Daniel E Speiser
While mutations drive cancer, it is less clear to what extent genetic defects control immune mechanisms and confer resistance to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-based immunotherapy. Here we studied the reactions of malignant and benign melanocyte lines to CTL using flow cytometry and gene expression analyses. We found rapid and broad upregulation of immune regulatory genes, essentially triggered by CTL-derived IFNγ and augmented by TNFα. These reactions were predominantly homogenous, independent of oncogenic driver mutations and similar in benign and malignant cells...
January 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104137/prostate-cancer-metastatic-to-the-renal-allograft-a-case-report
#18
A Alaini, P Singh, R Shah, E Fischer, K Ganta, T Barrett, K Servilla
Malignancy is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppression. Cancers associated with viruses such as nonmelanotic skin cancer and Kaposi sarcoma occur in allograft recipients at rates that far exceed that in the general population. The increased risk and tumor type may depend not only on degree of immune system modulation but also on the type of organ transplanted. In kidney transplant recipients, the risk of cancers such as prostate and breast does not seem to be increased...
January 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103502/tim3-gal9-interactions-between-t-cells-and-monocytes-result-in-an-immunosuppressive-feedback-loop-that-inhibits-th1-responses-in-osteosarcoma-patients
#19
Xiuzhong Li, Yanqing Chen, Xu Liu, Jin Zhang, Xu He, Guodong Teng, Dazhi Yu
The Tim3/Gal9 pathway is associated with immunosuppression and worse clinical outcome in multiple cancers. To illustrate the specific mechanism of Tim3/Gal9 interaction in osteosarcoma, we examined expression, function, and regulation of Tim3/Gal9 in various cells from osteosarcoma patients. Data showed that CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and monocytes from both peripheral blood and tumor of osteosarcoma patients contained high frequencies of Tim3(+) cells, while the Gal9 expression was primarily found in regulatory T cells (Tregs) from osteosarcoma patients and was elevated compared to that in non-cancer controls...
January 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103033/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-small-high-affinity-siglec-7-ligands-toward-novel-inhibitors-of-cancer-immune-evasion
#20
Horst Prescher, Martin Frank, Stephan Gütgemann, Elena Kuhfeldt, Astrid Schweizer, Lars Nitschke, Carsten Watzl, Reinhard Brossmer
Natural killer cells are able to directly lyse tumor cells, thereby participating in the immune surveillance against cancer. Unfortunately, many cancer cells use immune evasion strategies to avoid their eradication by the immune system. A prominent escape strategy of malignant cells is to camouflage themselves with Siglec-7 ligands, thereby recruiting the inhibitory receptor Siglec-7 expressed on the NK cell surface which subsequently inhibits NK-cell-mediated lysis. Here we describe the synthesis and evaluation of the first, high-affinity low molecular weight Siglec-7 ligands to interfere with cancer cell immune evasion...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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