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Ernest Moon Tong So, Yorky Mei Po Lao, Irene Lai Kuen Wong
OBJECTIVES: The study examined Macau parents' perceptions of underage children's gambling involvement, and parents' attitudes towards help seeking if their children had a gambling problem. The parents' gambling behavior in the past year was also investigated. METHODS: This is a parent survey using a self-administered questionnaire. A convenience sample of 311 Macau parents (106 fathers and 205 mothers) with underage children aged 3-17 years was recruited. The response rate is 77...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
Amy Slater, Emma Halliwell, Hannah Jarman, Emma Gaskin
In recent years, elements of the modern environment (such as television, Internet, toys and clothes) have been criticized for having an increasingly sexualized or appearance focus, which has been suggested to be detrimental to girls' development. The current study examined the impact of an appearance-focused Internet game on young girls' body image and career cognitions and aspirations. Eighty British girls aged 8-9 years were randomly assigned to play an appearance-focused or a non-appearance focused game for 10 minutes...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Gunhilde M Buchsbaum, Toy Gee Lee
Importance: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, the prevalence of which is likely to increase with the aging of our population. Also changing are parameters by which outcomes are assessed, shifting toward patient-centered care. Objective: To review vaginal obliterative procedures for surgical treatment of advanced pelvic organ prolapse historically and to discuss evidence on indications for colpocleisis, outcomes, and complications, as well as review pros and cons for concomitant vaginal hysterectomy and anti-incontinence procedures...
March 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
David M Sobel, Susan M Letourneau
It is widely believed that exploration is a mechanism for young children's learning. The present investigation examines preschoolers' beliefs about how learning occurs. We asked 3- to 5-year-olds to articulate how characters in a set of stories learned about a new toy. Younger preschoolers were more likely to overemphasize the role of characters' actions in learning than older children were (Experiment 1, N = 53). Overall performance improved when the stories explicitly stated that characters were originally ignorant and clarified the characters' actions, but general developmental trends remained (Experiment 2, N = 48)...
March 10, 2017: Child Development
Daniel Benharroch, Boris Talalay
An attempted interpretation of recurrent episodes of hepatitis in a girl at ages 6 and 13 years, which were followed by an interval of 35 years of apparent good health, is reported. A subsequent transient incidence of a halothane hypersensitivity reaction at age 48 years led to the disclosure of negative hepatitis A, B and C antigenicity. A tentative diagnosis may be reached if we accept, at its face value, the statement that a toy that the child played with before each hepatitis episode carried a very high benzene content...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Kongtana Trakarnsanga, Rebecca E Griffiths, Marieangela C Wilson, Allison Blair, Timothy J Satchwell, Marjolein Meinders, Nicola Cogan, Sabine Kupzig, Ryo Kurita, Yukio Nakamura, Ashley M Toye, David J Anstee, Jan Frayne
With increasing worldwide demand for safe blood, there is much interest in generating red blood cells in vitro as an alternative clinical product. However, available methods for in vitro generation of red cells from adult and cord blood progenitors do not yet provide a sustainable supply, and current systems using pluripotent stem cells as progenitors do not generate viable red cells. We have taken an alternative approach, immortalizing early adult erythroblasts generating a stable line, which provides a continuous supply of red cells...
March 14, 2017: Nature Communications
Elizabeth B Rush, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Jodi A Quas, Thomas D Lyon
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of the putative confession (telling the child that an adult "told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth") on children's disclosure of a minor transgression after questioning by their parents. METHODS: Children (N = 188; 4 - 7-year-olds) played with a confederate, and while doing so, for half of the children, toys broke. Parents then questioned their children about what occurred, and half of the parents were given additional scripted suggestive questions...
February 2017: Legal Criminol Psychol
Marianella Casasola, Jui Bhagwat, Stacey N Doan, Hailey Love
Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the containment and support spatial constructions infants spontaneously create and those they observe when playing with a nesting toy. Infants (N=76) of 8, 13, or 18months played alone for 2min and then played with a caregiver for another 2min. At 8months, infants created few relations; at 13months, they inserted objects, resulting in containment, and stacked objects, resulting in support; at 18months, they created more than three times more containment relations than support relations, a result replicated in a second study...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Carlos Polanco, Thomas Buhse, Gloria Vizcaíno, Jacobo Levy Picciotto
This paper addresses the polar profile of ancient proteins using a comparative study of amino acids found in 25 000 000-year-old shells described in Abelson's work. We simulated the polar profile with a computer platform that represented an evolutionary computational toy model that mimicked the generation of small proteins starting from a pool of monomeric amino acids and that included several dynamic properties, such as self-replication and fragmentation-recombination of the proteins. The simulations were taken up to 15 generations and produced a considerable number of proteins of 25 amino acids in length...
2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala
This paper illustrates the effectiveness of generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC) in characterizing time-varying neural connectivity by properly extrapolating its single trial asymptotic statistical results to a multi trial setting. Time-varying estimation is performed with a sliding-window procedure based on the proposal in [1], whereby a time-frequency map of the connectivity between channels is built. The technique is validated on a non-linear toy model generating simulated EEG and then applied to a publicly available real EEG dataset for benchmarking purposes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sally Wilson, Christine Toye, Samar Aoun, Susan Slatyer, Wendy Moyle, Elizabeth Beattie
BACKGROUND: Family carers of people living and dying with dementia experience grief. The prevalence, predictors and associated factors of grief in this population have been identified, and psychosocial interventions to decrease grief symptoms have been implemented. However, the effect of psychosocial interventions on family carers' grief, loss or bereavement has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the existing evidence regarding the impact of psychosocial interventions to assist adjustment to grief, pre- and post-bereavement, for family carers of people with dementia...
March 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Genta Ito, Kuniko Yoshimura, Yasuyuki Momoi
Reliable methodology for predicting the age of mature dogs is currently unavailable. In this study, amplicon sequencing of 50 blood samples obtained from diseased dogs was used to measure methylation in seven DNA regions. Significant correlations between methylation level and age were identified in four of the seven regions. These four regions were then tested in samples from 31 healthy toy poodles, and correlations were detected in two regions. The age of another 11 dogs was predicted using data from the diseased dogs and the healthy poodles...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Christian Colliex
This contribution aims at reporting, from the subjective point of view of a witness based in Orsay, the fundamental role of Ondrej Krivanek in the spectacular emergence of EELS (Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy) as a key tool in analytical electron microscopy. In this regard, he has successively designed and built while he was at Gatan, serial EELS spectrometers, parallel EELS spectrometers and post-column energy filters which have been fitted to many different (S)TEM columns installed around the world. More recently the implementation of monochromators on the NION dedicated STEM together with the realization and performance of aberration correctors (which lie out of the scope of the present review), have placed the most advanced instrumental tool in the hands of continuously increasing populations of users in many domains of materials science and in life sciences...
November 24, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
Salvatore Mandrà, Zheng Zhu, Helmut G Katzgraber
We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Alfredo Rossi, Silvia Vignola, Francesca Nason, Federica Boschetti, Manuela Bramerio, Alessandro Bailini, Giordano Pinarello
OBJECTIVES: Serious and even fatal consequences of disk batteries ingestion in children are well known. Among other applications, disk batteries are currently utilized to power small toys, from which they can be unexpectedly extracted and swallowed. METHODS: We tested a new cell intended for little toys (Green Cell - GC), after 6 and 12 hour of in-vitro close contact with esophageal swine mucosa. The GC was compared with Lithium and Silver button batteries under the same experimental conditions...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
David Z Adams, Richard Gruss, Alan S Abrahams
OBJECTIVES: Product issues can cost companies millions in lawsuits and have devastating effects on a firm's sales, image and goodwill, especially in the era of social media. The ability for a system to detect the presence of safety and efficacy (S&E) concerns early on could not only protect consumers from injuries due to safety hazards, but could also mitigate financial damage to the manufacturer. Prior studies in the field of automated defect discovery have found industry-specific techniques appropriate to the automotive, consumer electronics, home appliance, and toy industries, but have not investigated pain relief medicines and medical devices...
April 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Lauren E Hartstein, Neil E Berthier
Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
Samuel A Mehr, Elizabeth S Spelke
Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of social preferences. We randomly assigned 64 11-month-old infants to 1-2 weeks' exposure to one of two novel play songs that a parent either sang or produced by activating a recording inside a toy...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
Elizabeth C Ahern, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Dmitrii E Makarov
Recent experiments and simulation studies showed that protein/DNA folding barriers inferred from folding rates or from potentials of mean force are often much higher than the barriers estimated from the distributions of transition path times. Here a toy model is used to explain a possible origin of this effect: It is shown that when the transition in question involves an entropic barrier, the one-dimensional Langevin model commonly used to interpret experimental data, while adequately predicting the transition rate, fails to describe the properties of the subset of the trajectories that form the transition path ensemble; the latter may still be describable in terms of a one-dimensional model, but with a different potential, just as observed experimentally...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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