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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229518/transition-to-success-on-the-model-room-task-the-importance-of-improvements-in-working-memory
#1
Lauren E Hartstein, Neil E Berthier
Previous work has shown that children under age 3 often perform very poorly on the model room task, in which they are asked to find a hidden toy based on its location in a scale model. One prominent theory for their failure is that they lack the ability to understand the model as both a physical object and as a symbolic representation of the larger room. A hypothesized additional component is that they need to overcome weak, competing representations of where the object was on a previous trial, and where it is in the present trial, in order to succeed in their search...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229502/shared-musical-knowledge-in-11-month-old-infants
#2
Samuel A Mehr, Elizabeth S Spelke
Five-month-old infants selectively attend to novel people who sing melodies originally learned from a parent, but not melodies learned from a musical toy or from an unfamiliar singing adult, suggesting that music conveys social information to infant listeners. Here, we test this interpretation further in older infants with a more direct measure of social preferences. We randomly assigned 64 11-month-old infants to 1-2 weeks' exposure to one of two novel play songs that a parent either sang or produced by activating a recording inside a toy...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229484/the-effects-of-secret-instructions-and-yes-no-questions-on-maltreated-and-non-maltreated-children-s-reports-of-a-minor-transgression
#3
Elizabeth C Ahern, Stacia N Stolzenberg, Kelly McWilliams, Thomas D Lyon
This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations...
November 2016: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228023/reconciling-transition-path-time-and-rate-measurements-in-reactions-with-large-entropic-barriers
#4
Dmitrii E Makarov
Recent experiments and simulation studies showed that protein/DNA folding barriers inferred from folding rates or from potentials of mean force are often much higher than the barriers estimated from the distributions of transition path times. Here a toy model is used to explain a possible origin of this effect: It is shown that when the transition in question involves an entropic barrier, the one-dimensional Langevin model commonly used to interpret experimental data, while adequately predicting the transition rate, fails to describe the properties of the subset of the trajectories that form the transition path ensemble; the latter may still be describable in terms of a one-dimensional model, but with a different potential, just as observed experimentally...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227753/statistically-significant-time-varying-neural-connectivity-estimation-using-generalized-partial-directed-coherence
#5
Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala, Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala, Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala
This paper illustrates the effectiveness of generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC) in characterizing time-varying neural connectivity by properly extrapolating its single trial asymptotic statistical results to a multi trial setting. Time-varying estimation is performed with a sliding-window procedure based on the proposal in [1], whereby a time-frequency map of the connectivity between channels is built. The technique is validated on a non-linear toy model generating simulated EEG and then applied to a publicly available real EEG dataset for benchmarking purposes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222280/toys-for-boys-can-be-lifesaving-in-recreational-waters
#6
EDITORIAL
Joost J L M Bierens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221049/childhood-gender-typed-behavior-and-adolescent-sexual-orientation-a-longitudinal-population-based-study
#7
Gu Li, Karson T F Kung, Melissa Hines
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay...
February 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203332/status-and-determinants-of-motor-impairment-in-preschool-children-from-migrant-families-in-china
#8
Hua Jin, Jing Hua, Jianqiang Shen, Lijuan Feng, Guixiong Gu
BACKGROUND: Although poor health conditions and decreased developmental levels have been investigated in migrant children, no study in China has focused on these children's individual motor development. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the prevalence of motor impairment in Chinese migrant children and to determine the contributory factors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was administered to primary caregivers of preschool children aged 3 - 6 (n = 2,976) in ten kindergartens from two districts of Suzhou, China, to assess the children's home socioeconomic status and motor environment, that is, the presence of affordances for motor development...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199414/direct-and-transgenerational-effects-of-low-doses-of-perinatal-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-on-social-behaviors-in-mice
#9
Kayla M Quinnies, Erin P Harris, Rodney W Snyder, Susan S Sumner, Emilie F Rissman
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical commonly used as a plasticizer in medical equipment, food packaging, flooring, and children's toys. DEHP exposure during early development has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in children. In animal models, early exposure to DEHP results in abnormal development of the reproductive system as well as altered behavior and neurodevelopment. Based on these data, we hypothesized that developmental exposure to DEHP would decrease social interactions and increase anxiety-like behaviors in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and that the effects would persist over generations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190576/field-portable-xrf-reveals-the-ubiquity-of-antimony-in-plastic-consumer-products
#10
Andrew Turner, Montserrat Filella
Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1)...
February 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179891/do-young-chinese-children-gain-anthropomorphism-after-exposure-to-personified-touch-screen-and-board-games
#11
Hui Li, Yeh Hsueh, Fuxing Wang, Xuejun Bai, Tao Liu, Li Zhou
Research shows that preschoolers are likely to anthropomorphize not only animals, but also inanimate toy after being exposed to books that personify these objects. Can such an effect also arise through young children's use of touch-screen games? The present study is the first to examine whether playing a touch-screen personified train game affects young children's anthropomorphism of real trains. Seventy-nine 4- and 6-year-old children were randomly assigned to play either a touch-screen game or a board game of Thomas the Tank Engine for 10 min...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151078/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-marine-brucella-from-a-southern-sea-otter-enhydra-lutris-nereis-california-usa
#12
Melissa A Miller, Tristan L Burgess, Erin M Dodd, Jack C Rhyan, Spencer S Jang, Barbara A Byrne, Frances M Gulland, Michael J Murray, Sharon Toy-Choutka, Patricia A Conrad, Cara L Field, Inga F Sidor, Woutrina A Smith
We characterize Brucella infection in a wild southern sea otter ( Enhydra lutris nereis) with osteolytic lesions similar to those reported in other marine mammals and humans. This otter stranded twice along the central California coast over a 1-yr period and was handled extensively at two wildlife rehabilitation facilities, undergoing multiple surgeries and months of postsurgical care. Ultimately the otter was euthanized due to severe, progressive neurologic disease. Necropsy and postmortem radiographs revealed chronic, severe osteoarthritis spanning the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left hind fifth digit...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148766/frogs-use-a-viscoelastic-tongue-and-non-newtonian-saliva-to-catch-prey
#13
Alexis C Noel, Hao-Yuan Guo, Mark Mandica, David L Hu
Frogs can capture insects, mice and even birds using only their tongue, with a speed and versatility unmatched in the world of synthetic materials. How can the frog tongue be so sticky? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we perform a series of high-speed films, material tests on the tongue, and rheological tests of the frog saliva. We show that the tongue's unique stickiness results from a combination of a soft, viscoelastic tongue coupled with non-Newtonian saliva. The tongue acts like a car's shock absorber during insect capture, absorbing energy and so preventing separation from the insect...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143829/the-value-of-homemade-phantoms-for-training-veterinary-students-in-the-ultrasonographic-detection-of-radiolucent-foreign-bodies
#14
Carolina Mariano Beraldo, Érika Rondon Lopes, Raduan Hage, Maria Cristina F N S Hage
Ingested or penetrating foreign bodies are common in veterinary medicine. When they are radiolucent, these objects become a diagnostic challenge, but they can be investigated sonographically. However, successful object identification depends on the skill of the sonographer. Considering that these cases appear randomly during hospital routines, it is not always possible to train all students to identify them correctly. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce homemade simulations of radiolucent foreign bodies for veterinary student demonstrations that could be identified sonographically and to evaluate the acceptability, applicability, and usefulness of these simulations according to a visual analog scale questionnaire and subjective questions...
March 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143607/optimal-knockout-strategies-in-genome-scale-metabolic-networks-using-particle-swarm-optimization
#15
Govind Nair, Christian Jungreuthmayer, Jürgen Zanghellini
BACKGROUND: Knockout strategies, particularly the concept of constrained minimal cut sets (cMCSs), are an important part of the arsenal of tools used in manipulating metabolic networks. Given a specific design, cMCSs can be calculated even in genome-scale networks. We would however like to find not only the optimal intervention strategy for a given design but the best possible design too. Our solution (PSOMCS) is to use particle swarm optimization (PSO) along with the direct calculation of cMCSs from the stoichiometric matrix to obtain optimal designs satisfying multiple objectives...
February 1, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141712/significant-sleep-dysregulation-in-a-toddler-with-developmental-delay
#16
Martin T Stein, Judith Owens, Myles Abbott
Derrick's parents made an appointment with a new pediatrician for a second opinion about disordered sleep. Now 22-months old, he was evaluated at 18 months of age for developmental delay when he was found to have "a regulatory disorder associated with delays in language and motor development, hypotonia and significant sleep problems." The parents are now most concerned about his sleeping pattern. Prolonged sleep onset and frequent night awaking occur each night since 6-months of age. These problems are more severe in the past few months when he awakes screaming and cannot be settled...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141708/an-8-year-old-biological-female-who-identifies-herself-as-a-boy-perspectives-in-primary-care-and-from-a-parent
#17
Leah Kern, Penn Edmonds, Ellen C Perrin, Martin T Stein
An 8-year 8-month-old biological female who self-identifies as a boy, Ricardo is brought by his mother for a well-child check to his new pediatrician. Ricardo and his mother report that he is doing well, but have concerns about the upcoming changes associated with puberty. Ricardo states that he is particularly afraid of developing breasts. His mother asks about obtaining a referral to a specialist who can provide "hormone therapy" to delay puberty.Ricardo was adopted from Costa Rica at the age of 2 as a healthy girl named "Angela...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135775/differential-effects-of-film-on-preschool-children-s-behaviour-dependent-on-editing-pace
#18
Katarzyna Kostyrka-Allchorne, Nicholas R Cooper, Anna Maria Gossmann, Katy J Banks, Andrew Simpson
AIM: Evidence on how the pace of television and film editing affects children's behaviour and attention is inconclusive. We examined whether a fast-paced film affected how preschool-aged children interacted with toys. METHODS: The study comprised 70 children (36 girls) aged 2-4.5 years who attended preschools in Essex, United Kingdom. The children were paired up and tested with either a fast- or a slow-paced film of a narrator reading a children's story. The fast-paced version had 102 camera cuts and 16 still images and the slow-paced version had 22 camera cuts and four still images...
January 30, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130171/did-pre-affordable-care-act-medicaid-expansion-increase-access-to-surgical-cancer-care
#19
Waddah B Al-Refaie, Chaoyi Zheng, Manila Jindal, Michele L Clements, Patryce Toye, Lynt B Johnson, David Xiao, Timothy Westmoreland, Thomas DeLeire, Nawar Shara
INTRO: While the ACA expanded Medicaid access, it is unknown whether this has led to greater access to complex surgical care. Evidence on the effect of Medicaid expansion on access to surgical cancer care, a proxy for complex care, is sparse. Utilizing New York's 2001 statewide Medicaid expansion as a natural experiment, we investigated how expansion affected utilization of surgical cancer care among beneficiaries overall and among racial minorities. METHODS: The New York (NY) State Inpatient Database (1997-2006), we identified 67,685 non-elderly adults (18-64 years) who underwent cancer surgery...
January 23, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129179/geometric-and-textural-blending-for-3d-model-stylization
#20
YiJheng Huang, Wen-Chieh Lin, I-Cheng Yeh, Tong-Yee Lee
Stylizing a 3D model with characteristic shapes or appearances is common in product design, particularly in the design of 3D model merchandise, such as souvenirs, toys, furniture, and stylized items. A model stylization approach is proposed in this study. The approach combines base and style models while preserving user-specified shape features of the base model and the attractive features of the style model with limited assistance from a user. The two models are first combined at the topological level. A tree-growing technique is utilized to search for all possible combinations of the two models...
January 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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