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Abdelmutalab G A Azrag, Christian W W Pirk, Abdullahi A Yusuf, Fabrice Pinard, Saliou Niassy, Gladys Mosomtai, Régis Babin
The antestia bug, Antestiopsis thunbergii (Gmelin 1790) is a major pest of Arabica coffee in Africa. The bug prefers coffee at the highest elevations, contrary to other major pests. The objectives of this study were to describe the relationship between A. thunbergii populations and elevation, to elucidate this relationship using our knowledge of the pest thermal biology and to predict the pest distribution under climate warming. Antestiopsis thunbergii population density was assessed in 24 coffee farms located along a transect delimited across an elevation gradient in the range 1000-1700 m asl, on Mt...
2018: PloS One
Qianli Huang, Xuezhong Li, Tarek A Elkhooly, Xujie Liu, Ranran Zhang, Hong Wu, Qingling Feng, Yong Liu
The implant materials with both osteogenic and anti-bacterial properties are promising for orthopedic and dental applications. Moreover, the inflammatory response induced by biomaterials has been recently recognized as one of the critical factors in determining implantation fate. A new generation of implant materials should have modulatory effects on the local inflammatory environment such that it favors osteogenesis and osteointegration instead of being bio-inert. In this study, the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) technique was employed to fabricate Cu-containing ceramic coatings on titanium substrates...
June 19, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lukas Kain, Orestis G Andriotis, Peter Gruber, Martin Frank, Marica Markovic, David Grech, Vedran Nedelkovski, Martin Stolz, Aleksandr Ovsianikov, Philipp J Thurner
Mechanical assessment of biological materials and tissue-engineered scaffolds is increasingly focusing at lower length scale levels. Amongst other techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has gained popularity as an instrument to interrogate material properties, such as the indentation modulus, at the microscale via cantilever-based indentation tests equipped with colloidal probes. Current analysis approaches of the indentation modulus from such tests require the size and shape of the colloidal probe as well as the spring constant of the cantilever...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Marzieh Mohammadi, Mona Alibolandi, Khalil Abnous, Zahra Salmasi, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mohammad Ramezani
In the present study, we fabricated an efficient, simple biomimetic scaffold to stimulate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Electrospun poly L-lactic acid nanofibers were employed to mimic the nanofibrillar structure of bone proteins and coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to simulate bone minerals. Thereafter, we regulated the release pattern of BMP-2 peptide through covalent attachment of an optimized liposomal formulation to the scaffold. The fabricated platform provided a sustained release profile of BMP-2 peptide up to 21days while supported cellular attachment and proliferation without cytotoxicity...
June 19, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Boming Yu, Aori Gele, Linping Wang
Iron oxide particle-decorated, hollow, carbon nanofibers (HCNFs), with poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) solution as the core and acetic acid lignin as the shell, were manufactured using a coaxial electrospinning technique, using iron(III) acetylacetonate as the iron oxide-precursor additive in the shell. The fabricated HCNFs exhibited a high specific capacitance of 121 F·g-1 at 0.5 A·g-1 , which was 2.18-fold that of solid electrospun nanofibers under the same conditions. The samples also possessed a superior cycling life, with a 90% retention rate after 1000 cycles in 1 M sodium sulfite...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maedeh Farzadi, Zahra Safaeepour, Hoda Nabavi, Masumeh Bagherzadeh Cham, Mohammad Ebrahim Mousavi
BACKGROUND: Rocker shoes are commonly prescribed to healthy and pathologic populations to decrease stress on the lower limbs. An optimal rocker shoe design must consider both toe and heel rockers. Heel rockers are as effective as toe rockers in relieving foot plantar pressures. However, most studies have focused on the position of toe rockers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different heel rocker apex placements on lower-limb kinetics and kinematics. METHODS: Eighteen healthy females participated in this study...
May 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Gichang Noh, Daebok Choi, Jin-Hun Kim, Dong-Gil Im, Yoon-Ho Kim, Hosung Seo, Jieun Lee
Single-photon emitters play an essential role in quantum technologies including quantum computing and quantum communications. Atomic defects in hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have recently emerged as new room-temperature single-photon emitters in solid-state systems, but the development of scalable and tunable h-BN single-photon emitters requires external methods that can control the emission energy of individual defects. Here, by fabricating van der Waals heterostructures of h-BN and graphene, we demonstrate electrical control of single-photon emission from atomic defects in h-BN via the Stark effect...
June 22, 2018: Nano Letters
Heng Zhao, Zhengyi Dai, Xiaoyong Xu, Jing Pan, Jingguo Hu
Loading the electro-catalysts at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is one of promising strategies to develop photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting cells. However, the assembly of compatible and synergistic heterojunction between the semiconductor and the selected catalyst remains challenging. Here, we report a hierarchical p-Si/ReS2 heterojunction photocathode fabricated through uniform growth vertically standing ReS2 nanosheets (NSs) on planar p-Si substrate for solar-driven hydrogen evolution reaction (HER)...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenwen Zhang, Chao Ye, Ke Zheng, Jiajia Zhong, Yuzhao Tang, Yimin Fan, Markus J Buehler, Shengjie Ling, David L Kaplan
Tensan silk, a natural fiber produced by the Japanese oak silk moth (Antherea yamamai, abbreviated to A. yamamai), features superior characteristics, such as compressive elasticity and chemical resistance, when compared to the more common silk produced from the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori (B. mori). In this study, the "structure-property" relationships within A. yamamai silk are disclosed from the different structural hierarchies, confirming the outstanding toughness as dominated by the unique mesoscale fibrillar architectures...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Sufi Zafar, Christopher D'Emic, Ashish Jagtiani, Ernst Kratschmer, Xin Miao, Yu Zhu, Renee Mo, Norma Sosa, Hendrik F Hamann, Ghavam Shahidi, Heike Riel
Silicon nanowire field effect transistor (FET) sensors have demonstrated their ability for rapid and label free detection of proteins, nucleotide sequences, and viruses at ultralow concentrations with the potential to be a transformative diagnostic technology. Their nanoscale size gives them their unique ultralow detection ability but also makes their fabrication challenging with large sensor to sensor variations, thus limiting their commercial applications. In this work, a combined approach of nanofabrication, device simulation, materials and electrical characterization is applied towards identifying and improving fabrication steps that induce sensor to sensor variations...
June 22, 2018: ACS Nano
Ying Tu, Norlaily Ahmad, Joe Briscoe, De-Wen Zhang, Steffi Krause
Light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPS) are of great interest in bioimaging applications such as the monitoring of concentrations in microfluidic channels or the investigation of metabolic and signaling events in living cells. By measuring the photocurrents at electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) and electrolyte-semiconductor structures, LAPS can produce spatiotemporal images of chemical or biological analytes, electrical potentials and impedance. However, its commercial applications are often restricted by their limited AC photocurrents and resolution of LAPS images...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yao Kang, Fengmei Su, Qingkai Zhang, Feng Liang, Keegan R Adair, Kunfeng Chen, Dongfeng Xue, Katsuro Hayashi, Shan Cecilia Cao, Hossein Yadegari, Xueliang Sun
Low cost, high energy density and highly efficient devices for energy storage have long been desired in our society. Herein, a novel high energy density hybrid sodium-air cell was fabricated successfully based on acidic catholytes. Such a hybrid sodium-air cell possess a high theoretical voltage of 3.94 V, capacity of 1121 mAh g-1, and energy density of 4418 Wh kg-1. Firstly, the buffering effect of an acidic solution was demonstrated, which provides relatively long and stable cell discharge behaviours. Secondly, the catholyte of hybrid sodium-air cells were optimized systematically from the solutions of 0...
June 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Debbie Chatman Bryant, L Monique Hill, Cathy Melvin, Yolanda M Powell-Young, Marvella E Ford
Despite cutting edge progress in early detection, risk reduction, and prevention, unique contextual and sociocultural factors contribute to higher mortality rates for selected cancers in African-American men and women. Collaborative community engagement and outreach programming strategies that focus on sustainability and grass-roots organizing can inform health risk disparities, build trust, and allow communities to take ownership of their own health needs. This paper describes a successful evidence-based community engagement intervention woven into the social and interpersonal fabric of the African-American community in Charleston, South Carolina...
July 2017: Journal of National Black Nurses' Association: JNBNA
Mutsumi Takahashi, Yogetsu Bando
AIM: Mouthguards can reduce the risk of sports-related injuries, but the sheet material and thickness have a large effect on their efficacy and safety. The aim of this study to investigate the thickness of molded mouthguards when the model position on the forming table was changed stepwise in the anteroposterior direction for different sheet thicknesses and materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethylene vinyl acetate sheets and olefin copolymer sheets with 4.0- or 2...
June 22, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Lavish Pamwani, Anowarul Habib, Frank Melandsø, Balpreet Singh Ahluwalia, Amit Shelke
The main aim of the paper is damage detection at the microscale in the anisotropic piezoelectric sensors using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). A novel technique based on the single input and multiple output of Rayleigh waves is proposed to detect the microscale cracks/flaws in the sensor. A convex-shaped interdigital transducer is fabricated for excitation of divergent SAWs in the sensor. An angularly shaped interdigital transducer (IDT) is fabricated at 0 degrees and ±20 degrees for sensing the convex shape evolution of SAWs...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
Keyi Yan, Yuhki Toku, Yasuyuki Morita, Yang Ju
In this research, we propose a new simple method to fabricate hydrogen gas sensor by stacking the multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets. MWCNT sheet offers a larger surface area and more CNT contacts, which are key factors for gas sensing, because of its super-high alignment and end-to-end structure comparing to the traditional CNT film. Besides, MWCNT sheet can be directly drawn from the spinnable CNT array in large scales. Therefore, this method is a potential answer for the mass production and commercialization of CNT based sensor with high response...
June 22, 2018: Nanotechnology
Philippe Vuka Tsalu, Geun Wan Kim, Jong Wook Hong, Ji Won Ha
The most polarizable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) longitudinal mode of anisotropic metallic nanoparticles, such as gold bipyramids (AuBPs), is of high prominence. This optical response has tremendous applications from spectroscopy to photonics and energy devices to sensing. In conventional LSPR-based sensing, broadening and asymmetry in peaks due to chemical and instrument noise hinder obtaining a precise insight on shift positions, accordingly limiting the effectiveness and impact of LSPR sensors...
June 22, 2018: Nanoscale
Duyu Chen, Enrique Lomba, Salvatore Torquato
Disordered hyperuniform materials are a new, exotic class of amorphous matter that exhibits crystal-like behavior, in the sense that volume-fraction fluctuations are suppressed at large length scales, and yet they are isotropic and do not display diffraction Bragg peaks. These materials are endowed with novel photonic, phononic, transport and mechanical properties, which are useful for a wide range of applications. Motivated by the need to fabricate large samples of disordered hyperuniform systems at the nanoscale, we study the small-wavenumber behavior of the spectral density of binary mixtures of charged colloids in suspension...
June 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Fukushima Tatsuhiro, Tatehara Seiko, Takebe Yusuke, Tokuyama-Toda Reiko, Satomura Kazuhito
In the present study, a scaffold-free tissue construct was developed as an approach for the regeneration of tissue defects, which produced good outcomes. We fabricated a scaffold-free tissue construct from human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs construct), and examined the characteristics of the construct. For its fabrication, basal sheets prepared by 4-week hDPSCs culturing were subjected to 1-week three-dimensional culture, with or without osteogenic induction, whereas hDPSC sheets (control) were fabricated by 1-week culturing of basal sheets on monolayer culture...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Minwon Seo, Jong-Mo Seo, Dong-Il Dan Cho, Kyoin Koo
In nature, arthropods have evolved to utilize a multiaperture vision system with a micro-optical structure which has advantages, such as compact size and wide-angle view, compared to that of a single-aperture vision system. In this paper, we present a multiaperture imaging system using a microlens array fabricated by a patterned-layer integrating soft lithography (PLISL) process which is based on a molding technique that can transfer three-dimensional structures and a gold screening layer simultaneously. The imaging system consists of a microlens array, a lens-adjusting jig, and a conventional (charge-coupled device) CCD image sensor...
June 22, 2018: Sensors
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