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cognition and epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535638/-application-of-long-term-video-electroencephalogram-and-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-detection-of-cognition-in-patients-with-benign-epilepsy-of-childhood-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#1
X X Yan, Q Yu, Y T Gao, L T Li, D H Yu, Y Chen, X J Yao, W D Yang, Z J Chen, J Z Yin, Y An, K Tan
Objective: To study the relationship between the changes of brain network and cognition in patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) by using long term video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) technology. Methods: Eleven patients with right-handed were recruited (from April 2015 to September 2016) from epilepsy specialist outpatients and functional department of neurosurgery of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital...
May 23, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533141/common-and-distinctive-patterns-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children-with-benign-epilepsy-syndromes
#2
Dazhi Cheng, Xiuxian Yan, Zhijie Gao, Keming Xu, Xinlin Zhou, Qian Chen
BACKGROUND: Childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes are the most common forms of benign epilepsy syndromes. Although cognitive dysfunctions occur in children with both childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, the similarity between their patterns of underlying cognitive impairments is not well understood. To describe these patterns, we examined multiple cognitive functions in children with childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532711/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-new-onset-epilepsy-should-they-be-always-investigated
#3
REVIEW
Andres M Kanner
The new definition of epilepsy establishes that epilepsy is not only a disorder presenting with epileptic seizures but it can be often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities. In fact, the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities is relatively high in patients with epilepsy (PWE), as one in three patients will have experienced a psychiatric disorder in the course of their life, with mood and anxiety disorders being the most frequent. Psychiatric comorbidities often precede the onset of the seizure disorder, and affect the life of these patients and the course of the seizure disorder at several levels, including a worse tolerance of pharmacotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in particular the development of iatrogenic psychiatric symptoms from pharmacologic and surgical treatments, an increased mortality risk, a worse quality of life and higher economic burdens of the patient, family and society as a hole...
April 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524223/-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathies-what-matters-is-genetics
#4
J J Garcia-Penas, M Jimenez-Legido
INTRODUCTION: Epileptic encephalopathies in infancy are defined as conditions where the sustained epileptic activity itself may contribute to the severe neurological and cognitive impairment. These epileptic encephalopathies include Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy, West syndrome, Dravet syndrome, and malignant migrating epilepsy in infancy. These syndromes result from identifiable primary causes, such as structural, neurodegenerative, metabolic, or genetic defects...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524219/-epileptic-encephalopathies
#5
J Ramos-Lizana
According to the International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE) Commission on Classification and Terminology, the term 'epileptic encephalopathy' reflects the notion that epileptic activity in itself can contribute to the genesis of severe cognitive or behavioural disabilities, beyond what could be expected from the pathology underlying the epilepsy. However, in many cases it is difficult to define the boundary between the relative contribution of the epileptic seizures and the underlying cause in the genesis of cognitive deficits...
May 17, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522734/voluntary-control-of-epileptiform-spike-wave-discharges-in-awake-rats
#6
Jeremy A Taylor, Krista M Rodgers, Florencia M Bercum, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Genetically inherited absence epilepsy in humans is typically characterized by brief (seconds) spontaneous seizures, which involve spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG and interruption of consciousness and ongoing behavior. Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities and anti-absence drugs. SWDs have also been proposed as models of complex partial seizures (CPSs) following traumatic brain injury (post-traumatic epilepsy; PTE). However, the ictal characteristics of these rat models, including SWDs and associated immobility, are also prevalent in healthy outbred laboratory rats...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522348/the-impact-of-genetic-and-experimental-studies-on-classification-and-therapy-of-the-epilepsies
#7
REVIEW
Giuliano Avanzini, Massimo Mantegazza, Benedetta Terragni, Laura Canafoglia, Paolo Scalmani, Silvana Franceschetti
Different types of epilepsy are associated with gene mutations, in which seizures can be the only symptom (genetic epilepsies) or be one of the elements of complex clinical pictures that are often progressive over time (epileptic or epileptogenic encephalopathies). In epileptogenic encephalopathies, epileptic seizures and other neurological and cognitive signs are symptoms of genetically determined neuropathological or neurochemical disorders. In epileptic encephalopathies, epileptic activity itself is thought to contribute to severe cognitive and behavioral impairments above and beyond what might be expected from the underlying pathology alone...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521807/case-report-a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-mitochondrial-cytochrome-c-oxidase-ii-gene-causing-mitochondrial-disorder
#8
Laura Kytövuori, Mikko Kärppä, Hannu Tuominen, Johanna Uusimaa, Markku Saari, Reetta Hinttala, Kari Majamaa
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2, MT-CO2, encodes one of the three subunits, which form the catalytic core of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), complex IV. Mutations in MT-CO2 are rare and the associated phenotypes are variable including nonsyndromic and syndromic forms of mitochondrial diseases. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 30-year-old man with cognitive decline, epilepsy, psychosis, exercise intolerance, sensorineural hearing impairment, retinitis pigmentosa, cataract and lactic acidosis...
May 18, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521701/unexpected-effects-of-acetylcholine-precursors-on-pilocarpine-seizure-induced-neuronal-death
#9
Minwoo Lee, Bo Young Choi, Sang Won Suh
Choline alfoscerate (α-GPC) and Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-Choline) are both acetylcholine precursors and are considered to act as pro-cholinergic nootropic agents. Acetylcholine precursors have also recently found frequent use in the neurology clinic. Stroke and many types of dementia have been shown to respond favorably after treatment with these agents, not only in terms of cognitive dysfunction but also behavioral and psychological symptoms. The primary mechanisms of Acetylcholine precursors are the following: 1) Acetylcholine precursors themselves are used in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and 2) byproducts like glycerophosphate have protective functions for neuronal phospholipids...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506618/the-ptz-kindling-mouse-model-of-epilepsy-exhibits-exploratory-drive-deficits-and-aberrant-vta-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-both-familiar-and-novel-space
#10
Mahboubeh Ahmadi, Jean-Philippe Dufour, Erich Seifritz, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Bechara J Saab
Recurrent seizures that define epilepsy are often accompanied by psychosocial problems and cognitive deficits with incompletely understood aetiology. We therefore used the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model of epilepsy in mice to examine potential seizure-associated neuropathologies, focusing on motivation, memory and novel-environment-induced activation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. In addition to recurrent seizures, we found that PTZ kindling led to a strong suppression of novelty-driven exploration while largely sparing fear-driven exploration...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502691/long-term-seizure-quality-of-life-depression-and-verbal-memory-outcomes-in-a-controlled-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgical-series-using-portuguese-validated-instruments
#11
Luis Dias, Geisa Angelis, Wagner Teixeira, Luiz Casulari
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate long-term surgical outcomes in patients treated for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) compared to a similar group of patients that underwent a preoperative evaluation. METHODS: Patient interviews were conducted by an independent neuropsychologist and included a socio-demographic questionnaire and validated versions of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Adverse Events Profile (AEP), Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)...
May 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501473/electrical-status-epilepticus-during-sleep-in-mowat-wilson-syndrome
#12
Paolo Bonanni, Susanna Negrin, Anna Volzone, Nicoletta Zanotta, Roberta Epifanio, Claudio Zucca, Elisa Osanni, Elisa Petacchi, Franco Fabbro
AIM: Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS) is a genetic rare disease. Epilepsy is present in 70-75% of Patients and an age-dependent electroclinical pattern has been described. Up to date, there are studies with overnight sleep EEGs, probably because of the severe intellectual disability (ID) and hyperactivity of these Patients. Our purpose was to verify the hypothesis that MWS Patients might have electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES pattern). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of anamnestic and electrographic data was performed on 7 consecutive MWS Patients followed between 2007 and 2016...
May 10, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501143/do-we-know-how-to-diagnose-epilepsy-early-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
B Cretin, N Philippi, O Bousiges, L Dibitonto, F Sellal, C Martin-Hunyadi, F Blanc
Epilepsy is an increasingly recognized comorbidity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). First described as generalized in dementia patients, epileptic AD patients are nowadays fully described in earlier stages of the disease (with mild or subjective cognitive impairment). At such early stages, patients may present not only with generalized seizures, but also with focal seizures (commonly localized in the frontal or temporal lobe). Thus, partial or generalized epilepsy is part of the semiological spectrum of AD that should be borne in mind at all stages of disease to ensure early identification and prevent the risk of repeated seizures (such as accidents, injury, progression of cognitive impairment)...
May 10, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494323/stress-regulation-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Iliana Kotwas, Aileen McGonigal, Mireille Bastien-Toniazzo, Fabrice Bartolomei, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi
The prevalence of psychological distress, especially depressive and anxiety disorders, is higher in epilepsy than in other chronic health conditions. These comorbid conditions contribute even more than epileptic seizures themselves to impaired quality of life in patients with epilepsy (PWE). The link between these comorbidities and epilepsy appears to have a neurobiological basis, which is at least partly mediated by stress through psychological and pathophysiological pathways. The impact of stress in PWE is also particularly important because it is the most frequently reported seizure trigger...
May 8, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492982/adenosine-a1-receptors-play-an-important-protective-role-against-cognitive-impairment-and-long-term-potentiation-inhibition-in-a-pentylenetetrazol-mouse-model-of-epilepsy
#15
Qing Zhou, Suiqiang Zhu, Yuchen Guo, Lifei Lian, Qi Hu, Xiaoyan Liu, Feng Xu, Na Zhang, Huicong Kang
Epilepsy is a complicated neurological disorder that occurs worldwide and features several kinds of comorbidities in addition to recurrent seizures. One of the most common comorbidities is cognitive impairment, which seriously affects patients' quality of life. Through activating pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), adenosine has demonstrated anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in many epileptic animal models. However, whether the neuroprotective effect of A1Rs will protect cognition during epileptogenesis remains unknown...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492978/seizure-response-to-perampanel-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-with-gliomas-early-observations
#16
Charles Vecht, Alberto Duran-Peña, Caroline Houillier, Thomas Durand, Laurent Capelle, Gilles Huberfeld
Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) occurs commonly in gliomas, possibly due to a shared mechanism of AMPA-activation involving both seizure activity and tumor growth. We tested the AMPA-receptor blocker perampanel (PER) in patients with DRE in low- and high-grade gliomas. Seizure response was defined as 50% drop in seizure frequency or as seizure-freedom. Cognitive function was examined by computerized test on cognitive speed (CTCS), which is sensitive to the type of cognitive dysfunction associated with epilepsy and use of anticonvulsants...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492363/vagus-nerve-stimulation-improves-working-memory-performance
#17
Lihua Sun, Jari Peräkylä, Katri Holm, Joonas Haapasalo, Kai Lehtimäki, Keith H Ogawa, Jukka Peltola, Kaisa M Hartikainen
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treating refractory epilepsy and major depression. While the impact of this treatment on seizures has been established, its impact on human cognition remains equivocal. The goal of this study is to elucidate the immediate effects of vagus nerve stimulation on attention, cognition, and emotional reactivity in patients with epilepsy. Twenty patients (12 male and 8 female; 45 ± 13 years old) treated with VNS due to refractory epilepsy participated in the study. Subjects performed a computer-based test of executive functions embedded with emotional distractors while their brain activity was recorded with electroencephalography...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491003/theta-rhythmopathy-as-a-cause-of-cognitive-disability-in-tle
#18
Tristan Shuman, Benjamin Amendolara, Peyman Golshani
Memory difficulties are commonly associated with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and cause significant disability. This article reviews the role of altered hippocampal theta oscillations and theta-gamma coupling as potential causes of memory disturbance in temporal lobe epilepsy, dissecting the potential mechanisms underlying these changes in large-scale neuronal synchronization. We discuss development of treatments for cognitive dysfunction directed at restoring theta rhythmicity and future directions for research...
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490998/do-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-cognitive-decline-have-alzheimer-s-disease-or-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-cte
#19
COMMENT
William B Barr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490992/the-contribution-of-cognitive-networks-to-depression-in-epilepsy
#20
Genevieve Rayner
This review poses the question: Does disruption to cognitive brain networks in epilepsy contribute to the problem of comorbid depression? Initial evidence suggests that the network disease that gives rise to seizures has a predilection for the same cognition-related networks that regulate mood, with comorbidity reflective of more extensive disease. Framing both epilepsy and its psychiatric comorbidities in terms of dysfunction in overlapping (cognitive) networks raises the possibility that depression can be a primary feature of the disease in some cases and facilitates an epilepsy classification system where behavioral features of the disorder are embedded in a neurobiological mechanism...
March 2017: Epilepsy Currents
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