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cognition and epilepsy

Jana Tchekalarova, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Antonio Luiz Gomes Júnior, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo Cavalcante, Albena Momchilova, Rumyana Tzoneva
PURPOSE: Activation of CB1 receptors, produces anticonvulsant effect accompanied by memory disturbance both in animal seizure tests and in patients with epilepsy. Few reports considered the role of CB2 receptor on seizure susceptibility and cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of a selective CB2 receptor agonist β-caryophyllene (BCP) in models of seizures and cognition in mice. METHODS: Dose-dependent effects of BCP was studied in maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test, subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and Morris water maze test...
March 12, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Iris Gorny, Kristina Krause, Anita Albert, Sabrina Schneider, Leona Möller, Lena Habermehl, Adam Strzelczyk, Felix Rosenow, Anke Hermsen, Susanne Knake, Katja Menzler
Objectives: The German socio-demographic estimation scale was developed by Jahn et al. (1) to quickly predict premorbid global cognitive functioning in patients. So far, it has been validated in healthy adults and has shown a good correlation with the full and verbal IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) in this group. However, there are no data regarding its use as a bedside test in epilepsy patients. Methods: Forty native German speaking adult patients with refractory epilepsy were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Vanessa Lin Lin Lee, Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Yin-Sir Chung, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Metabolic epilepsy is a metabolic abnormality which is associated with an increased risk of epilepsy development in affected individuals. Commonly used antiepileptic drugs are typically ineffective against metabolic epilepsy as they do not address its root cause. Presently, there is no review available which summarizes all the treatment options for metabolic epilepsy. Thus, we systematically reviewed literature which reported on the treatment, therapy and management of metabolic epilepsy from four databases, namely PubMed, Springer, Scopus and ScienceDirect...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wei-En J Tseng, Siew-Na Lim, Lu-An Chen, Shuo-Bin Jou, Hsiang-Yao Hsieh, Mei-Yun Cheng, Chun-Wei Chang, Han-Tao Li, Hsing-I Chiang, Tony Wu
Whether the cognitive processing of music and speech relies on shared or distinct neuronal mechanisms remains unclear. Music and language processing in the brain are right and left temporal functions, respectively. We studied patients with musicogenic epilepsy (ME) that was specifically triggered by popular songs to analyze brain hyperexcitability triggered by specific stimuli. The study included two men and one woman (all right-handed, aged 35-55 years). The patients had sound-triggered left temporal ME in response to popular songs with vocals, but not to instrumental, classical, or nonvocal piano solo versions of the same song...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Kyle P Lillis, Kevin J Staley
For over a century, epileptic seizures have been characterized as a state of pathological, hypersynchronous brain activity. Anti-epileptic therapies have been developed largely based on the dogma that the altered brain rhythms result from an overabundance of glutamatergic activity or insufficient GABAergic inhibition. The most effective drugs in use today act to globally decrease excitation, increase inhibition, or decrease all activity. Unfortunately, such broad alterations to brain activity often lead to impactful side effects such as mood disordersdrowsiness, cognitive impairment, and sleep disruption...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Brandon Kar Meng Choo, Uday P Kundap, Yatinesh Kumari, Seow-Mun Hue, Iekhsan Othman, Mohd Farooq Shaikh
Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus , is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Sophie Dupont
Catamenial epilepsy, defined as the exacerbation of the frequency of seizures in a given phase of the menstrual cycle, affects 35% of women. In women with catamenial epilepsy with perimenstrual seizures, progesterone therapy may be effective. In case of enzyme inducer AEDs, hormonal contraception is deprecated (estroprogestative or progestative pill, progestative implant, patches or hormonal rings). Because of its high malformative teratogenic potential, its possible depressive cognitive effects and the autistic risk, sodium valproate is not indicated during pregnancy...
March 8, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Marine Loizon, Sylvain Rheims
Epilepsy is considered as drug-resistant when seizures persist despite the administration of 2 antiepileptic drugs adapted to the patient's needs, with an effective dosage, well-tolerated, whether as a single agent or in combination. Any patient suffering from drug-resistant focal epilepsy should be evaluated at least once in a tertiary epilepsy centre to discuss the appropriateness of a pre-surgical work-up. In drug-resistant epilepsy, the determinants of quality of life are multifactorial and not exclusively linked to the seizure frequency...
March 7, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
J J Garcia-Penas
INTRODUCTION: Most individuals with epilepsy will respond to pharmacologic treatment; however, approximately 20-30% will develop medically refractory epilepsy. Cognitive side effects of antiepileptic drugs are common and can negatively affect tolerability, compliance, and long-term retention of the treatment. Ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for these children with refractory epilepsy without any negative effect on cognition or behavior. AIM: To review the current state of experimental and clinical data concerning the neuroprotective and cognitive effects of the ketogenic diet in both humans and animals...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Vanessa Siffredi, Vicki Anderson, Alissandra McIlroy, Amanda G Wood, Richard J Leventer, Megan M Spencer-Smith
OBJECTIVES: Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), characterized by developmental absence of the corpus callosum, is one of the most common congenital brain malformations. To date, there are limited data on the neuropsychological consequences of AgCC and factors that modulate different outcomes, especially in children. This study aimed to describe general intellectual, academic, executive, social and behavioral functioning in a cohort of school-aged children presenting for clinical services to a hospital and diagnosed with AgCC...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Arjune Sen, Valentina Capelli, Masud Husain
With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia...
February 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Trishna Kantamneni, Lileth Mondok, Sumit Parikh
Movement disorders in the pediatric age group are largely of the hyperkinetic type. Metal ion accumulation in the central nervous system presents predominantly with movement disorders and over time leads to psychomotor decline. Abnormalities in monoamine and amino acidergic neurotransmitter metabolism present in individuals with a combination of abnormal movements, epilepsy, and cognitive and motor delay. Detailed clinical history, careful examination, appropriate diagnostic work-up with metabolic screening, cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and targeted genetic testing help with accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Noah Sideman, Ganne Chaitanya, Xiaosong He, Gaelle Doucet, Na Young Kim, Michael R Sperling, Ashwini D Sharan, Joseph I Tracy
OBJECTIVE: In epilepsy, asymmetries in the organization of mesial temporal lobe (MTL) functions help determine the cognitive risk associated with procedures such as anterior temporal lobectomy. Past studies have investigated the change/shift in a visual episodic memory laterality index (LI) in mesial temporal lobe structures through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task activations. Here, we examine whether underlying task-related functional connectivity (FC) is concordant with such standard fMRI laterality measures...
February 27, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Marwa Daghsni, Saida Lahbib, Mohamed Fradj, Marwa Sayeb, Wided Kelmemi, Lilia Kraoua, Mariem Kchaou, Faouzi Maazoul, Slim Echebbi, Nadia Ben Ali, Sonia Abdelhak, Ridha M'rad
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by seizures, severe cognitive abnormalities, and behavior impairments. These features could evolve over time and get worse, especially when the encephalopathy is pharmacoresistant. Thus, genetic studies should provide a better understanding of infantile epilepsy syndromes. Herein, we investigate the genetics of JME in a consanguineous family analyzing the copy number variations detected using over 700 K SNP arrays. We identified a 254-kb deletion in the 22q11...
February 28, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Claudiu T Supuran
Mammalian carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC of which 16 isoforms are known, are involved in important physiological functions. Their inhibition is exploited pharmacologically for the treatment of many diseases (glaucoma, edema, epilepsy, obesity, hypoxic tumors, neuropathic pain, etc.) but the activators were less investigated till recently. A review on the CA activation is presented, with the activation mechanism, drug design approaches of activators and comparison of the various isoforms activation profiles being discussed...
February 26, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Rani A Sarkis, Scott McGinnis, Sara N Rushia, Suna Park, Emile E Ansari, Kim C Willment
We aimed to investigate the cognitive and psychosocial outcomes of patients older than 50 with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy as compared to a younger cohort. One hundred and thirty-one patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (47% age ≥ 50) who underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing were retrospectively identified. A comparison of percentage of Z scores < - 1.5 between the older and younger cohort on Trail Making Tests A and B, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) delayed recall, and Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test delayed recall was performed as well as the presence of disability due to epilepsy and depression scores...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Shuai Zhang, Zhibin Fan, Ping Qiao, Yinsuo Zhao, Yanan Wang, Da Jiang, Xiangming Wang, Xiaojuan Zhu, Yu Zhang, Baiqu Huang, Jun Lu, Xiaoxue Li
A deficit of GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) transmission will lead to epilepsy and other cognitive disorders. Recent evidence has shown that neuronal miRNAs affect various synapses, including GABAergic synapses. However, the miRNAs that control GABAergic synapses remain not fully understood. Here, we identified miR-51, a member of Caenorhabditis elegans miR-99/100 family, as a key regulator of GABAergic synapses. Loss of mir-51 increased PTZ (Pentylenetetrazole) and aldicarb hypersensitivities, and decreased the number of GABAergic synapses and abundance of GABAA receptors...
February 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ana Laura Calderon-Garcidueñas, Bertrand Mathon, Pierre Lévy, Anne Bertrand, Karima Mokhtari, Séverine Samson, Valérie Thuriès, Virginie Lambrecq, Vi-Huong Nguyen-Michel, Sophie Dupont, Claude Adam, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Clémenceau, Charles Duyckaerts, Vincent Navarro, Franck Bielle
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Surgery results in seizure freedom for most pharmacoresistant patients, but the epileptic and cognitive prognosis remains variable. The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) histopathological classification of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) has fostered research to understand MTLE-HS heterogeneity. We investigated the associations between histopathological features (ILAE types, hypertrophic CA4 neurons, granule cell layer alterations, CD34 immunopositive cells) and clinical features (presurgical history, postsurgical outcome) in a monocentric series of 247 MTLE-HS patients treated by surgery...
February 24, 2018: Brain Pathology
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