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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324301/neuroimaging-in-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Erik H Middlebrooks, Lawrence Ver Hoef, Jerzy P Szaflarski
In recent years, the field of neuroimaging has undergone dramatic development. Specifically, of importance for clinicians and researchers managing patients with epilepsies, new methods of brain imaging in search of the seizure-producing abnormalities have been implemented, and older methods have undergone additional refinement. Methodology to predict seizure freedom and cognitive outcome has also rapidly progressed. In general, the image data processing methods are very different and more complicated than even a decade ago...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318972/persistent-single-neuron-activity-during-working-memory-in-the-human-medial-temporal-lobe
#2
Simon Kornblith, Rodrigo Quian Quiroga, Christof Koch, Itzhak Fried, Florian Mormann
Working memory is an essential component of human cognition. Persistent activity related to working memory has been reported in many brain areas, including the inferior temporal and prefrontal cortex [1-8]. The medial temporal lobe (MTL) contains "concept cells" that respond invariantly to specific individuals or places whether presented as images, text, or speech [9, 10]. It is unknown, however, whether the MTL also participates in working memory processes. We thus sought to determine whether human MTL neurons respond to images held in working memory...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316319/epileptic-spasms-in-paediatric-post-traumatic-epilepsy-at-a-tertiary-referral-centre
#3
Jun T Park, Harry T Chugani
To recognize epileptic spasms (ES) as a seizure type after traumatic brain injury (TBI), accidental or non-accidental, in infants and children. In the process, we aim to gain some insight into the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in ES. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed at the Children's Hospital of Michigan from 2002 to 2012. Electronic charts of 321 patients were reviewed for evidence of post-traumatic epilepsy. Various clinical variables were collected including age at TBI, mechanism of trauma, severity of brain injury, electroencephalography/neuroimaging data, and seizure semiology...
March 17, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302757/alteration-of-monoamine-receptor-activity-and-glucose-metabolism-in-paediatric-patients-with-anticonvulsant-induced-cognitive-impairment
#4
Yuankai Zhu, Jianhua Feng, Jianfeng Ji, Haifeng Hou, Lin Chen, Shuang Wu, Qing Liu, Qiong Yao, Peizhen Du, Kai Zhang, Qing Chen, Zexin Chen, Hong Zhang, Mei Tian
A landmark study from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that the assessment of cognitive difficulties in children with epilepsy is timely and imperative. Anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment could influence the quality of life more than seizure itself in patients. Although monoaminergic system is involved in the regulation of cognitive process, its role in anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment remains unclear. Methods: To explore in vivo monoamine receptor binding activity in patients with anticonvulsant-induced cognitive impairment, each patient had PET imaging with both monoamine receptor binding agent, (11)C-N-methylspiperone ((11)C-NMSP), and glucose metabolic agent, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298884/physical-exercise-restores-the-generation-of-newborn-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-epilepsy
#5
Fabricio N Mendonça, Luiz E C Santos, Antônio M Rodrigues, Sérgio Gomes da Silva, Ricardo M Arida, Gilcélio A da Silveira, Fulvio A Scorza, Antônio-Carlos G Almeida
Neurogenesis impairment is associated with the chronic phase of the epilepsy in humans and also observed in animal models. Recent studies with animal models have shown that physical exercise is capable of improving neurogenesis in adult subjects, alleviating cognitive impairment and depression. Here, we show that there is a reduction in the generation of newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of adult rats subjected to a chronic model of epilepsy during the postnatal period of brain development. We also show that the physical exercise was capable to restore the number of newborn granule cells in this animals to the level observed in the control group...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298846/menkes-disease-and-response-to-copper-histidine-an-indian-case-series
#6
Sangeetha Yoganathan, Sniya Valsa Sudhakar, Gautham Arunachal, Maya Thomas, Annadurai Subramanian, Renu George, Sumita Danda
BACKGROUND: Menkes disease (MD) is an X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in ATP7A gene. Depending on the residual ATP7A activity, manifestation may be classical MD, occipital horn syndrome, or distal motor neuropathy. Neurological sparing is expected in female carriers. However, on rare occasions, females may manifest with classical clinical phenotype due to skewed X-chromosome inactivation, X-autosome translocation, and XO genotype. Here, we describe a small series of probands with MD and their response to copper histidine therapy...
January 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295155/antecedents-and-neuroimaging-patterns-in-cerebral-palsy-with-epilepsy-and-cognitive-impairment-a-population-based-study-in-children-born-at-term
#7
Kristina Ahlin, Bo Jacobsson, Staffan Nilsson, Kate Himmelmann
INTRODUCTION: Antecedents of accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy (CP) and their relation to neuroimaging patterns need to be explored. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A population-based study of 309 children with CP born at term in 1983-1994. Pre-, intra- and postpartum variables previously studied as antecedents of CP type and motor severity were analysed in children with CP and cognitive impairment and/or epilepsy, and in children with CP without these accompanying impairments...
March 12, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293314/clinical-spectrum-of-cerebral-palsy-and-associated-disability-in-south-egypt-a-local-survey-study
#8
Osama Abas, Faten Abdelaziem, Ayman Kilany
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor disability in children with a prevalence of 2-10/1,000 live births in the developing areas. AIM: The epidemiology, clinical picture, and associated comorbidities in CP have been extensively studied in high-resource countries, but in low-resource areas, including Africa, those studies are still lacking. METHODS: Cerebral palsy cases were prospectively recruited from every physiotherapy centre in Bani-Mazar city, Egypt, in a cross-sectional study from May 2015 to November 2015...
March 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287071/auditory-seizures-in-autoimmune-epilepsy-a-case-with-anti-thyroid-antibodies
#9
Claudia Varrasi, Domizia Vecchio, Luca Magistrelli, Gionata Strigaro, Laura Tassi, Roberto Cantello
In its classic presentation, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an acute-subacute complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with cognitive impairment, hallucinations, myoclonus, tremor or ataxia, associated with elevated anti-thyroid antibodies. Corticoids and immunotherapy are dramatically effective. However, in some cases, not all the associated features are presented and this delays diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We describe a man with abrupt onset of recurrent auditory seizures resulting in refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus...
March 8, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284559/epilepsy-and-cognition-a-bidirectional-relationship
#10
REVIEW
Christoph Helmstaedter, Juri-Alexander Witt
Cognitive comorbidities are very common in epilepsy and often seen as secondary to epilepsy or caused by epilepsy. The implicit and sometimes explicit assumption is that epilepsy (i.e. having seizures) damages the brain and thus leads to functional deterioration and behavioral alterations. This article highlights the historical background surrounding this viewpoint which is characterized by old reports on 'epileptic dementia' and the fact that most cognitive research in chronic epilepsies is done retrospectively...
March 1, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281492/comorbidities-of-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
H V Srinivas, Urvashi Shah
In epilepsy management, control of seizures is the prime objective. However, the quality of life is affected by comorbid conditions that include the neurological, neuropsychiatric, and neurobehavioural disorders. These are not only reactive processes to a chronic condition but also have a bidirectional relationship, sharing common underlying pathogenesis. This article besides addressing these issues also explores the therapeutic management. A systematic search of PubMed from Jan 2006 to August 2016 was undertaken using the terms "comorbidities" and "epilepsy...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276064/instruction-manual-for-the-ilae-2017-operational-classification-of-seizure-types
#12
Robert S Fisher, J Helen Cross, Carol D'Souza, Jacqueline A French, Sheryl R Haut, Norimichi Higurashi, Edouard Hirsch, Floor E Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Solomon L Moshé, Jukka Peltola, Eliane Roulet Perez, Ingrid E Scheffer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ernest Somerville, Michael Sperling, Elza Márcia Yacubian, Sameer M Zuberi
This companion paper to the introduction of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types provides guidance on how to employ the classification. Illustration of the classification is enacted by tables, a glossary of relevant terms, mapping of old to new terms, suggested abbreviations, and examples. Basic and extended versions of the classification are available, depending on the desired degree of detail. Key signs and symptoms of seizures (semiology) are used as a basis for categories of seizures that are focal or generalized from onset or with unknown onset...
March 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276060/operational-classification-of-seizure-types-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-position-paper-of-the-ilae-commission-for-classification-and-terminology
#13
Robert S Fisher, J Helen Cross, Jacqueline A French, Norimichi Higurashi, Edouard Hirsch, Floor E Jansen, Lieven Lagae, Solomon L Moshé, Jukka Peltola, Eliane Roulet Perez, Ingrid E Scheffer, Sameer M Zuberi
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) presents a revised operational classification of seizure types. The purpose of such a revision is to recognize that some seizure types can have either a focal or generalized onset, to allow classification when the onset is unobserved, to include some missing seizure types, and to adopt more transparent names. Because current knowledge is insufficient to form a scientifically based classification, the 2017 Classification is operational (practical) and based on the 1981 Classification, extended in 2010...
March 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#14
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FS), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273610/efficacy-of-a-ketogenic-diet-in-resistant-myoclono-astatic-epilepsy-a-french-multicenter-retrospective-study
#15
Elodie Stenger, Mickael Schaeffer, Claude Cances, Jacques Motte, Stéphane Auvin, Dorothée Ville, Hélène Maurey, Rima Nabbout, Anne de Saint-Martin
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that the early introduction of a ketogenic diet (KD) could improve seizure control in myoclono-astatic epilepsy (MAE). This multicenter study sought to identify the benefits of KD use on seizure control and epilepsy and on developmental outcomes in children with resistant MAE. METHODS: Fifty children who were diagnosed with severe MAE in the French network of Reference Centers for Rare Epilepsies and who were treated with KD between 2000 and 2013 were included in this study...
February 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268683/effect-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-on-neural-adaptation-in-thalamo-cortical-system-in-rats
#16
Tomoyo I Shiramatsu, Rie Hitsuyu, Kenji Ibayashi, Ryohei Kanzaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapy on medically refractory epilepsy, and recently reported to improve cognitive function including learning and memory. The thalamo-cortical system may underlie such VNS-induced cognitive improvements. Thus, the present study targeted the auditory cortex and thalamus in rats, and investigated whether and how VNS modulates stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) of the neural activity in these nuclei. A depth electrode array recorded auditory evoked potentials from the auditory thalamus and cortex under an oddball paradigm either with or without VNS...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268498/phase-amplitude-coupling-analysis-for-seizure-evolvement-using-hilbert-huang-transform
#17
Hanyue Zhou, Ying Li, Yue-Loong Hsin, Wentai Liu
Recent studies show that the phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) may play a functional role in information processing and cognition. The conventional method for PAC analysis is implemented by using Fourier-based filters, which assumes the signal is stationary and linear. However, as biological signals are nonstationary and nonlinear, this method introduces inaccuracy. To solve this problem, a new method based on Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) is proposed in this paper, and is applied to analyze intracranial signals from two epilepsy patients...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267150/ablation-of-neuropsin-neuregulin-1-signaling-imbalances-erbb4-inhibitory-networks-and-disrupts-hippocampal-gamma-oscillation
#18
M Kawata, S Morikawa, S Shiosaka, H Tamura
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are pivotal for the processing of information in healthy brain, whereas the coordination of these functions is seriously disrupted in diseased brain. How these interneurons in the hippocampus participate in pathological functions remains unclear. We previously reported that neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, which is actuated by neuropsin, is important for coordinating brain plasticity. Neuropsin cleaves mature NRG1 (bound to extracellular glycosaminoglycans) in response to long-term potentiation or depression, liberating a soluble ligand that activates its receptor, ErbB4...
March 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266344/epilepsy-at-the-prodromal-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Benjamin Cretin, Nathalie Philippi, Laure Dibitonto, Frédéric Blanc
This review provides a clinically grounded description of the links between epilepsy and early common neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular cognitive impairment, fronto-temporal lobar degeneration). It shows that epilepsy does not only concern demented patients displaying convulsive seizures (whether focal or generalized) and obvious atrophy on brain imaging. On the contrary, unprovoked seizures and epilepsy - commonly involving the temporal lobe - are now reported at the prodromal stages of these diseases, when cognitive complaints are mild or even minimal and brain imaging inconstantly abnormal...
March 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262662/epilepsy-and-intellectual-disability-linked-protein-shrm4-interaction-with-gababrs-shapes-inhibitory-neurotransmission
#20
Jonathan Zapata, Edoardo Moretto, Saad Hannan, Luca Murru, Anna Longatti, Davide Mazza, Lorena Benedetti, Matteo Fossati, Christopher Heise, Luisa Ponzoni, Pamela Valnegri, Daniela Braida, Mariaelvina Sala, Maura Francolini, Jeffrey Hildebrand, Vera Kalscheuer, Francesca Fanelli, Carlo Sala, Bernhard Bettler, Silvia Bassani, Trevor G Smart, Maria Passafaro
Shrm4, a protein expressed only in polarized tissues, is encoded by the KIAA1202 gene, whose mutations have been linked to epilepsy and intellectual disability. However, a physiological role for Shrm4 in the brain is yet to be established. Here, we report that Shrm4 is localized to synapses where it regulates dendritic spine morphology and interacts with the C terminus of GABAB receptors (GABABRs) to control their cell surface expression and intracellular trafficking via a dynein-dependent mechanism. Knockdown of Shrm4 in rat severely impairs GABABR activity causing increased anxiety-like behaviour and susceptibility to seizures...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
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