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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778788/maintaining-dose-intensity-of-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-older-patients-with-breast-cancer
#1
Rahul Ladwa, Timothy Kalas, Shivanshan Pathmanathan, Natasha Woodward, David Wyld, Jasotha Sanmugarajah
INTRODUCTION: Maintaining the relative dose intensity (RDI) of adjuvant chemotherapy at ≥ 85% has been associated with improved treatment outcomes in early-stage breast cancer (ESBC). Increasing evidence has suggested that patients aged ≥ 65 years can maintain the optimal RDI for standard chemotherapy regimens. The present study investigated the RDI of newer adjuvant chemotherapy regimens in this demographic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 281 patients aged ≥ 65 years with a diagnosis of ESBC who had received adjuvant chemotherapy across 3 sites in Queensland, Australia from 2010 to 2015...
April 28, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777823/updated-efficacy-analysis-including-secondary-population-results-for-oak-a-randomized-phase-iii-study-of-atezolizumab-vs-docetaxel-in-patients-with-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
L Fehrenbacher, J von Pawel, K Park, A Rittmeyer, D R Gandara, S Ponce Aix, J-Y Han, S M Gadgeel, T Hida, D L Cortinovis, M Cobo, D M Kowalski, F De Marinis, M Gandhi, B Danner, C Matheny, M Kowanetz, P He, F Felizzi, H Patel, A Sandler, M Ballinger, F Barlesi
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of atezolizumab vs docetaxel as second- or third-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer in the primary (n=850; ITT850) and secondary (n=1225; ITT1225) efficacy populations of the randomized phase III OAK study at an updated data cutoff were assessed. METHODS: Patients received atezolizumab 1200mg or docetaxel 75mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks until loss of clinical benefit or disease progression, respectively...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777452/revision-of-surgical-margin-under-frozen-section-to-achieve-r0-status-on-survival-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Zi Yin, Yu Zhou, Baohua Hou, Tingting Ma, Min Yu, Chuanzhao Zhang, Xin Lu, Zhixiang Jian
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to investigate whether additional resection based on intraoperative frozen section (FS) to a secondary R0(s) status are associated with different long-term survivals in pancreatic cancer patients, comparing to those with R1 or primary R0(p) status. METHODS: A systematic literature search (PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index, Springer-Link, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) was performed to identify all studies published up to June 2017...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777149/stretching-reduces-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-breast-cancer-model
#4
L Berrueta, J Bergholz, D Munoz, I Muskaj, G J Badger, A Shukla, H J Kim, J J Zhao, H M Langevin
There is growing interest in developing non-pharmacological treatments that could boost natural defenses against cancer and contribute to primary and secondary cancer prevention. Recent studies have shown that gentle daily stretching for 10 minutes can reduce local connective tissue inflammation and fibrosis. Because mechanical factors within the stroma can influence the tumor microenvironment, we hypothesized that stretching would reduce the growth of tumors implanted within locally stretched tissues and tested this hypothesis in a mouse orthotopic breast cancer model...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776953/the-landscape-of-actionable-genomic-alterations-in-cell-free-circulating-tumor-dna-from-21-807-advanced-cancer-patients
#5
Oliver A Zill, Kimberly C Banks, Stephen R Fairclough, Stefanie Mortimer, James V Vowles, Reza Mokhtari, David R Gandara, Philip C Mack, Justin I Odegaard, Rebecca J Nagy, Arthur M Baca, Helmy Eltoukhy, Darya I Chudova, Richard B Lanman, AmirAli Talasaz
PURPOSE: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing provides a non-invasive method for obtaining actionable genomic information to guide personalized cancer treatment, but the presence of multiple alterations in circulation related to treatment and tumor heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of the observed variants. Experimental Design: We describe the somatic mutation landscape of 70 cancer genes from cfDNA deep-sequencing analysis of 21,807 patients with treated, late-stage cancers across >50 cancer types...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776716/two-step-senescence-focused-cancer-therapies
#6
REVIEW
Cynthia J Sieben, Ines Sturmlechner, Bart van de Sluis, Jan M van Deursen
Damaged cells at risk of neoplastic transformation can be neutralized by apoptosis or engagement of the senescence program, which induces permanent cell-cycle arrest and a bioactive secretome that is implicated in tumor immunosurveillance. While from an evolutionary perspective senescence is beneficial in that it protects against malignancies, the accumulation of senescent cells in tissues and organs with aging and at sites of various pathologies is largely detrimental. Because induction of senescence in cancer cells is emerging as a therapeutic concept, it will be important to consider these detrimental effects, including tumor-promoting properties that may drive the formation of secondary tumors or cancer relapse...
May 15, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776444/mediastinal-staging-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-by-endobronchial-and-endoscopic-ultrasonography-with-or-without-additional-surgical-mediastinoscopy-mediastrial-study-protocol-of-a-multicenter-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Jelle E Bousema, Marcel G W Dijkgraaf, Nicole E Papen-Botterhuis, Hermien W Schreurs, Jos G Maessen, Erik H van der Heijden, Willem H Steup, Jerry Braun, Valentin J J M Noyez, Fieke Hoeijmakers, Naomi Beck, Martijn van Dorp, Niels J M Claessens, Birgitta I Hiddinga, Johannes M A Daniels, David J Heineman, Harmen R Zandbergen, Ad F T M Verhagen, Paul E van Schil, Jouke T Annema, Frank J C van den Broek
BACKGROUND: In case of suspicious lymph nodes on computed tomography (CT) or fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), advanced tumour size or central tumour location in patients with suspected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Dutch and European guidelines recommend mediastinal staging by endosonography (endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)) with sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes. If biopsy results from endosonography turn out negative, additional surgical staging of the mediastinum by mediastinoscopy is advised to prevent unnecessary lung resection due to false negative endosonography findings...
May 18, 2018: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776024/simple-and-universal-model-for-electron-impact-ionization-of-complex-biomolecules
#8
Hong Qi Tan, Zhaohong Mi, Andrew A Bettiol
We present a simple and universal approach to calculate the total ionization cross section (TICS) for electron impact ionization in DNA bases and other biomaterials in the condensed phase. Evaluating the electron impact TICS plays a vital role in ion-beam radiobiology simulation at the cellular level, as secondary electrons are the main cause of DNA damage in particle cancer therapy. Our method is based on extending the dielectric formalism. The calculated results agree well with experimental data and show a good comparison with other theoretical calculations...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775808/phase-ii-study-of-maintenance-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc
#9
Shirish M Gadgeel, Nathan A Pennell, Mary Jo Fidler, Balazs Halmos, Philip Bonomi, James Stevenson, Bryan Schneider, Ammar Sukari, Jaclyn Ventimiglia, Wei Chen, Cathy Galasso, Antoinette Wozniak, Julie Boerner, Gregory P Kalemkerian
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of maintenance pembrolizumab in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, after treatment with platinum/etoposide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Extensive-stage SCLC patients with a response or stable disease following induction chemotherapy were eligible. Pembrolizumab at a dose of 200 mg IV every 3 weeks was initiated within 8 weeks of the last cycle of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study was progression-free survival (PFS) from study registration, with overall survival (OS) as a key secondary endpoint...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775807/fir-efficacy-safety-and-biomarker-analysis-of-a-phase-ii-open-label-study-of-atezolizumab-in-pd-l1-selected-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
David R Spigel, Jamie E Chaft, Scott Gettinger, Bo H Chao, Luc Dirix, Peter Schmid, Laura Q M Chow, Rodney J Hicks, Larry Leon, Jill Fredrickson, Marcin Kowanetz, Alan Sandler, Roel Funke, Naiyer A Rizvi
INTRODUCTION: The FIR phase II study (NCT01846416) evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) atezolizumab in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by tumor cell (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cell (IC) PD-L1 expression. METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 TC2/3 (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of TC) or IC2/3 tumors (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of IC; determined by SP142 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay) with paired fresh and archival histology samples were recruited into Cohort 1 (chemotherapy-naïve/>6 months between adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence), Cohort 2 (≥ second-line without brain metastases), or Cohort 3 (≥ second-line with treated brain metastases)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775456/maternal-obesogenic-diet-induces-endometrial-hyperplasia-an-early-hallmark-of-endometrial-cancer-in-a-diethylstilbestrol-mouse-model
#11
Theresa O Owuor, Michaela Reid, Lauren Reschke, Ian Hagemann, Suellen Greco, Zeel Modi, Kelle H Moley
Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774608/virion-like-membrane-breaking-nanoparticles-with-tumor-activated-cell-and-tissue-dual-penetration-conquer-impermeable-cancer
#12
Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yachao Li, Cheng Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Poor drug penetration into tumor cells and tissues is a worldwide difficulty in cancer therapy. A strategy is developed for virion-like membrane-breaking nanoparticles (MBNs) to smoothly accomplish tumor-activated cell-and-tissue dual-penetration for surmounting impermeable drug-resistant cancer. Tailor-made dendritic arginine-rich peptide prodrugs are designed to mimic viral protein transduction domains and globular protein architectures. Attractively, these protein mimics self-assemble into virion-like nanoparticles in aqueous solution, having highly ordered secondary structure...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774117/investigation-of-tumor-tumor-interactions-in-a-double-human-cervical-carcinoma-xenograft-model-in-nude-mice
#13
Barbara Mertens, Tatiane Cristina de Araujo Nogueira, Dimitrios Topalis, Ruzena Stranska, Robert Snoeck, Graciela Andrei
Tumor-tumor distant interactions within one organism are of major clinical relevance determining clinical outcome. To investigate this poorly understood phenomenon, a double human cervical xenograft model in nude mice was developed. A first tumor was induced subcutaneously by injection of human papillomavirus positive cervical carcinoma cells into the mouse lower right flank and 3 weeks later, animals were challenged with the same tumor cell line injected subcutaneously into the upper left flank. These tumors had no direct physical contact and we found no systemic changes induced by the primary tumor affecting the growth of a secondary tumor...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774114/breast-cancer-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-programmes-carried-out-by-local-government-units-in-poland-in-2009-2014
#14
Anna Augustynowicz, Aleksandra Czerw, Mariola Borowska, Adam Fronczak, Andrzej Deptała
Background: In 2014 the standardised incidence rate for breast cancer in Poland reached 51.6/100,000, while the mortality rate reached 14.8/100,000. The incidence rate for breast cancer in the EU was 106.6/100,000, the mortality rate - 22.4/100,000. In 2014 the incidence rate for cervical cancer in Poland was 8.8/100,000, the mortality rate - 4.5/100,000. The incidence rate in the EU was 11.3/100,000 and the mortality rate - 3.7/100,000. Objective: The aim of the paper was to establish the number of health policy programmes concerned with breast cancer and cervical cancer in women carried out in 2009-2014 by local government units, with specification of the type of programme, type of local government units that carried out the programmes and the costs of implementation of the programmes...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774063/dual-target-gene-therapy-to-eml4-alk-nsclc-by-a-gold-nanoshell-based-system
#15
Siwen Li, Yuxi Liu, Yalan Rui, Liping Tang, Samuel Achilefu, Yueqing Gu
Although EML4-ALK transforming fusion gene is represented in only 8% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, its expression is partly responsive for the failure of current NSCLC treatments. Preventing secondary mutation of the ALK protein through direct gene manipulation could overcome NSCLC drug resistance. Method: In this study, we developed a gold nanoshell (HAuNs) drug carrier for delivery and selective photo-thermal release of genes that target ALK and microRNA-301 in NSCLC. Additionally, the densely-coated nanoshell adsorbed high amounts of the positively-charged anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), generating an exciting multidimensional treatment strategy that includes gene-, thermal- and chemo- therapy...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773570/hdna2-nuclease-helicase-promotes-centromeric-dna-replication-and-genome-stability
#16
Zhengke Li, Bochao Liu, Weiwei Jin, Xiwei Wu, Mian Zhou, Vincent Wenzhe Liu, Ajay Goel, Zhiyuan Shen, Li Zheng, Binghui Shen
DNA2 is a nuclease/helicase that is involved in Okazaki fragment maturation, replication fork processing, and end resection of DNA double-strand breaks. Similar such helicase activity for resolving secondary structures and structure-specific nuclease activity are needed during DNA replication to process the chromosome-specific higher order repeat units present in the centromeres of human chromosomes. Here, we show that DNA2 binds preferentially to centromeric DNA The nuclease and helicase activities of DNA2 are both essential for resolution of DNA structural obstacles to facilitate DNA replication fork movement...
May 17, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772645/anticancer-activity-of-euplotin-c-isolated-from-the-marine-ciliate-euplotes-crassus-against-human-melanoma-cells
#17
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772118/proms-for-pain-in-adult-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-of-measurement-properties
#18
REVIEW
Asma A Abahussin, Robert M West, David C Wong, Lucy E Ziegler
CONTEXT: Pain is one of the most devastating symptoms for cancer patients. One-third of patients who experience pain do not receive effective treatment. A key barrier to effective pain management is lack of routine measurement and monitoring of pain. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are recommended for measuring cancer pain. However, evidence to guide the selection of the most appropriate measure to identify and monitor cancer pain is limited. A systematic review of measurement properties of PROMs for pain in cancer patients is needed to identify the best validated measure for adoption to an electronic platform...
May 17, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772085/ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-hsp90-monitored-time-resolved-and-label-free-towards-a-conformational-activity-screening-for-drug-discovery
#19
Jörn Güldenhaupt, Marta Amaral, Carsten Kötting, Djordje Musil, Jonas Schartner, Matthias Frech, Klaus Gerwert
A detailed investigation of protein-ligand interactions is crucial during the early drug discovery process. However, most available techniques lack either structural or temporal resolution. In contrast, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy can monitor protein-ligand interactions label-free with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here we immobilize as example the heat shock protein HSP90 on an ATR-crystal. This protein is an important molecular target for drugs against several diseases including cancer. With our novel approach we investigated a ligand induced secondary structural change...
May 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771903/incidence-demographics-and-surgical-outcomes-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-diagnosed-in-northland-new-zealand
#20
Brodie M Elliott, Benjamin R Douglass, Daniel McConnell, Blair Johnson, Christopher Harmston
AIM: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most commonly diagnosed and most costly cancer in Australasia. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) accounts for approximately 25% of NMSC. Despite this, reporting of cSCC is not mandatory in Australasia. This creates difficulties in planning, resourcing and improving outcomes in cSCC. Previous studies in New Zealand have lacked data on ethnicity. The aim of this study was to define the incidence and demographics of cSCC diagnosed in Northland, New Zealand, including data on ethnicity...
May 18, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
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