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high sensitivity trait

Eefje S Poppelaars, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg, Melle J W van der Molen
Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between frontal delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (14-30 Hz) oscillations has been suggested as a candidate neural correlate of social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Prior studies have used amplitude-amplitude correlation (AAC) as a CFC measure and hypothesized it as a candidate neural mechanism of affective control. However, using this metric has yielded inconsistent results regarding the direction of CFC, and the functional significance of coupling strength is uncertain...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Kaiwen Ivy Liu, Muhammad Nadzim Bin Ramli, Norfala-Aliah Binte Sutrisnoh, Meng How Tan
Genome editing using programmable DNA endonucleases enables the engineering of eukaryotic cells and living organisms with desirable properties or traits. Among the various molecular scissors that have been developed to date, the most versatile and easy-to-use family of nucleases derives from CRISPR-Cas, which exists naturally as an adaptive immune system in bacteria. Recent advances in the CRISPR-Cas technology have expanded our ability to manipulate complex genomes for myriad biomedical and biotechnological applications...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
R Noordam, C H Oudt, M M Bos, R A J Smit, D van Heemst
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) remains unclear. We investigated the associations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration with T2D and glycemic traits using two-sample Mendelian Randomization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used publically available summary-statistics data from genome-wide association studies on T2D (DIAGRAM: 12 171 cases; 56 862 controls) and glycemic traits (MAGIC: 46 186 participants without diabetes mellitus)...
March 26, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
James Liu, John Scira, Simone Donaldson, Nina Kajiji, Gordon H Dash, S Tiffany Donaldson
Evidence-based research has revealed how physiological and emotional responses to acute stress are adaptive. However, under conditions of unpredictable or protracted stress, health and drug vulnerability can be compromised. In this study, we examined anxiety-like behavioral responses of 4th generation adolescent male and female Long Evans rats selectively bred for high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior when housed in an isolated environment (IE) versus a social environment (SE). After 35 days in IE or SE, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected with amphetamine (AMPH: 0...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Katharina Mausolf, Werner Härdtle, Kirstin Jansen, Benjamin M Delory, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner, Vicky M Temperton, Goddert von Oheimb, Andreas Fichtner
Climate change can impact forest ecosystem processes via individual tree and community responses. While the importance of land-use legacies in modulating these processes have been increasingly recognised, evidence of former land-use mediated climate-growth relationships remain rare. We analysed how differences in former land-use (i.e. forest continuity) affect the growth response of European beech to climate extremes. Here, using dendrochronological and fine root data, we show that ancient forests (forests with a long forest continuity) and recent forests (forests afforested on former farmland) clearly differ with regard to climate-growth relationships...
May 10, 2018: Oecologia
Benjamin R Coyac, Guillaume Falgayrac, Guillaume Penel, Alain Schmitt, Thorsten Schinke, Agnès Linglart, Marc D McKee, Catherine Chaussain, Claire Bardet
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a skeletal disorder arising from mutations in the PHEX gene, transmitted in most cases as an X-linked dominant trait. PHEX deficiency leads to renal phosphate wasting and hypophosphatemia, as well as impaired mineralization of bone and dentin, resulting in severe skeletal and dental complications. Dentin mineralization defects appear as characteristic, large interglobular spaces resulting from the lack of fusion of calculospherites in the circumpulpal region during the mineralization process...
December 2018: Connective Tissue Research
Lana Žigić Antić, Sandra Nakić Radoš, Nataša Jokić-Begić
INTRODUCTION: Fear of childbirth (FOC) has been mostly studied in peripartum women; however, it can be present in non-pregnant young women, and the question is whether it occurs even before pregnancy planning. OBJECTIVE: (1) to determine the prevalence of clinically significant FOC in non-pregnant female students, and (2) to investigate the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS), trait anxiety, childbirth pain expectancy, and sources of birth knowledge for FOC. METHODS: Non-pregnant female students (N = 374) from different study programmes (health studies, social sciences and humanities, and biotechnical studies) participated in the study...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Tamás Molnár, Adrienn Csuvár, Ildikó Benedek, Marcell Molnár, Péter Kabai
Genetic selection for body size during domestication of animal species can inadvertently affect a number of physiological and behavioural traits. The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that domestication in an artificial environment lacking predators and providing abundant resources prefers proactive individuals with strong feeding motivation, high levels of aggression and risk taking, with low hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness. In the present experiment we weaned fingerling pike-perch from live feed and habituated them to formulated feed...
2018: PloS One
Emily B Sessa, Sally M Chambers, Daijiang Li, Lauren Trotta, Lorena Endara, J Gordon Burleigh, Benjamin Baiser
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Many ecological and evolutionary processes shape the assembly of organisms into local communities from a regional pool of species. We analyzed phylogenetic and functional diversity to understand community assembly of the ferns of Florida at two spatial scales. METHODS: We built a phylogeny for 125 of the 141 species of ferns in Florida using five chloroplast markers. We calculated mean pairwise dissimilarity (MPD) and mean nearest taxon distance (MNTD) from phylogenetic distances and functional trait data for both spatial scales and compared the results to null models to assess significance...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Botany
Shijuan Yan, Wenjie Huang, Jiadong Gao, Hua Fu, Jun Liu
Seed storability is an important trait for crop breeding, however, the mechanism underlying seed storability remains largely unknown. Here, a mass spectrometry-based comparative metabolomic study was performed for rice seeds before and after 24-month natural storage between two hybrid rice cultivars, IIYou 998 (IIY) with low storability and BoYou 998 (BY) with relative high storability. A total of 48 metabolites among 90 metabolite peaks detected were conclusively identified, and most of them are involved in the primary metabolism...
May 1, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Katharina Bey, Inga Meyhöfer, Leonhard Lennertz, Rosa Grützmann, Stephan Heinzel, Christian Kaufmann, Julia Klawohn, Anja Riesel, Ulrich Ettinger, Norbert Kathmann, Michael Wagner
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) show dysfunctions of the fronto-striatal circuitry, which imply corresponding oculomotor deficits including smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM). However, evidence for a deficit in SPEM is inconclusive, with some studies reporting reduced velocity gain while others did not find any SPEM dysfunctions in OCD patients. Interestingly, psychosis-like traits have repeatedly been linked to both OCD and impaired SPEM. Here, we examined a large sample of n = 168 patients with OCD, n = 93 unaffected first-degree relatives and n = 171 healthy control subjects to investigate whether elevated levels of schizotypy and SPEM deficits represent potential endophenotypes of OCD...
May 2, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Chao Wang, Shengzhou Wang, Hongyan Chen, Daru Lu
Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with a high incidence in China. Though conventional newborn hearing screening program has been widely adopted, gene detection can significantly improve the means of early discovering genetic risk factors. Thus, simple and efficient methods with higher sensitivity and lower cost for detecting hotspot mutations of hearing loss are urgently requested. Here we established a mutation detection system based on multiple fluorescent probe technique, which can detect and genotype nine hotspot mutations of four prominent hearing loss-related genes in two reactions on a four-channel real-time PCR instrument, including GJB2 (rs750188782, rs80338943, rs1110333204, and rs80338939), GJB3 (rs74315319), SLC26A4 (rs111033313 and rs121908362), and mtDNA 12S rRNA (rs267606617 and rs267606619)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Megha Padi, John Quackenbush
Complex traits and diseases like human height or cancer are often not caused by a single mutation or genetic variant, but instead arise from functional changes in the underlying molecular network. Biological networks are known to be highly modular and contain dense "communities" of genes that carry out cellular processes, but these structures change between tissues, during development, and in disease. While many methods exist for inferring networks and analyzing their topologies separately, there is a lack of robust methods for quantifying differences in network structure...
2018: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
Luke M Evans, Rasool Tahmasbi, Scott I Vrieze, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Sayantan Das, Steven Gazal, Douglas W Bjelland, Teresa R de Candia, Michael E Goddard, Benjamin M Neale, Jian Yang, Peter M Visscher, Matthew C Keller
Multiple methods have been developed to estimate narrow-sense heritability, h2 , using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unrelated individuals. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these methods has not yet been performed, leading to confusion and discrepancy in the literature. We present the most thorough and realistic comparison of these methods to date. We used thousands of real whole-genome sequences to simulate phenotypes under varying genetic architectures and confounding variables, and we used array, imputed, or whole genome sequence SNPs to obtain 'SNP-heritability' estimates...
April 26, 2018: Nature Genetics
Franziska Rudzik, Laurie Thiesse, Reto Pieren, Jean Marc Wunderli, Mark Brink, Maria Foraster, Harris Héritier, Ikenna C Eze, Corrado Garbazza, Danielle Vienneau, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Martin Röösli, Christian Cajochen
Study Objectives: Night-time transportation noise elicits awakenings, sleep-stage changes, and electro-encephalographic (EEG) arousals. Here, we investigated the potential sleep-protective role of sleep spindles on noise-induced sleep alterations. Methods: Twenty-six young (19-33 years, 12 women) and 18 older (52-70 years, 9 women) healthy volunteers underwent a repeated measures polysomnographic six-day laboratory study. Participants spent one noise-free baseline night, followed by four transportation noise exposure nights (road traffic or railway noise; continuous or intermittent: average sound levels of 45 dB, maximum sound levels of 50-62 dB), and one noise-free recovery night...
April 25, 2018: Sleep
Adam M Bayless, Ryan W Zapotocny, Derrick J Grunwald, Kaela K Amundson, Brian W Diers, Andrew F Bent
N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) and α-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) are essential eukaryotic housekeeping proteins that cooperatively function to sustain vesicular trafficking. The "resistance to Heterodera glycines 1" ( Rhg1 ) locus of soybean ( Glycine max ) confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode, a highly damaging soybean pest. Rhg1 loci encode repeat copies of atypical α-SNAP proteins that are defective in promoting NSF function and are cytotoxic in certain contexts. Here, we discovered an unusual NSF allele ( Rhg1 -associated NSF on chromosome 07; NSF RAN07 ) in Rhg1 + germplasm...
April 25, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Juan Pablo Zubimendi, Andrea Martinatto, Maria Pía Valacco, Silvia Moreno, Carlos Santiago Andreo, María Fabiana Drincovich, Marcos Ariel Tronconi
Arabidopsis thaliana possesses two fumarase genes (FUM), AtFUM1 (At2g47510) encoding for the mitochondrial Krebs cycle-associated enzyme and AtFUM2 (At5g50950) for the cytosolic isoform required for fumarate massive accumulation. Here, the comprehensive biochemical studies of AtFUM1 and AtFUM2 shows that they are active enzymes with similar kinetic parameters but differential regulation. For both enzymes, fumarate hydratase (FH) activity is favored over the malate dehydratase (MD) activity; however, MD is the most regulated activity with several allosteric activators...
April 24, 2018: FEBS Journal
Margarita Stritzler, Pagano Elba, Carolina Berini, Cristina Gomez, Nicolás Ayub, Gabriela Soto
Alfalfa, usually known as the "Queen of Forages", is the main source of vegetable protein to meat and milk production systems worldwide. This legume is extremely rich in proteins due to its highly efficient symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing strains. In the last years, alfalfa culture has been displaced to saline environments by other important crops, including major cereals, a fact that has reduced its biomass production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this short communication, we report the high forage production and nutrient quality of alfalfa under saline conditions by alfalfa transformation with the AtNHX1 Na+ /H+ antiporter and inoculation with the stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing strain Sinorhizobium meliloti B401...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Julia Schulte-Braucks, Anja Baethge, Christian Dormann, Tim Vahle-Hinz
We proposed that effects of illegitimate tasks, which comprise unreasonable and unnecessary tasks, on self-esteem and counterproductive work behavior (CWB) are enhanced among employees who are highly sensitive to injustice. CWB was further proposed to be a moderating coping strategy, which restores justice and buffers the detrimental effects of illegitimate tasks on self-esteem. In this study, 241 employees participated in a diary study over five workdays and a follow-up questionnaire one week later. Daily effects were determined in multilevel analyses: Unreasonable tasks decreased self-esteem and increased CWB the same day, especially among employees high in trait justice sensitivity...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Yanning Tan, Xuewu Sun, Baohua Fang, Dong Yu, Zhizhong Sun, Weiping Wang, Xiabing Sheng, Xiaolin Yin, Ling Liu, Yongfei Zhang, Meijuan Duan, Dingyang Yuan
A maintainer line of 3-line hybrid rice commonly presents a certain genetic distance to a 2-line restorer line, but in many cases, 2-line restorer lines present defects upon recovery of the object cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line of the maintainer line, which impedes the utilization of their heterosis. Here, we report a strategy and an example of converting a maintainer into a photoperiod/temperature-sensitive genic male sterile (P/TGMS) line with an almost identical genetic background, thus maximizing the heterosis...
2018: Molecular Breeding: New Strategies in Plant Improvement
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