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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911155/differential-associations-of-inflammatory-markers-with-insulin-sensitivity-and-secretion-the-prospective-metsim-study
#1
Maria Fizelova, Raimo Jauhiainen, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Alena Stancáková
Context: Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, prospective studies evaluating inflammatory markers as predictors of changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are lacking. Objective: We investigated the associations of glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) with insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, incident type 2 diabetes, hypertension, CVD events, and total mortality in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904775/how-shrub-encroachment-under-climate-change-could-threaten-pollination-services-for-alpine-wildflowers-a-case-study-using-the-alpine-skypilot-polemonium-viscosum
#2
Jessica A Kettenbach, Nicole Miller-Struttmann, Zoë Moffett, Candace Galen
Under climate change, shrubs encroaching into high altitude plant communities disrupt ecosystem processes. Yet effects of encroachment on pollination mutualisms are poorly understood. Here, we probe potential fitness impacts of interference from encroaching Salix (willows) on pollination quality of the alpine skypilot, Polemonium viscosum. Overlap in flowering time of Salix and Polemonium is a precondition for interference and was surveyed in four extant and 25 historic contact zones. Pollinator sharing was ascertained from observations of willow pollen on bumble bees visiting Polemonium flowers and on Polemonium pistils...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889057/personality-marijuana-norms-and-marijuana-outcomes-among-college-students
#3
Matthew R Pearson, John T P Hustad, Clayton Neighbors, Bradley T Conner, Adrian J Bravo
Based on the high prevalence of marijuana use among college students, we examined distal and proximal antecedents to marijuana-related outcomes in this population. Specifically, we examined three marijuana-related perceptions (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and internalization of college marijuana use culture) as potential mediators of the associations between four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and marijuana-related outcomes (marijuana use, negative marijuana-related consequences)...
August 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883611/genome-wide-association-study-identified-multiple-genetic-loci-on-chilling-resistance-during-germination-in-maize
#4
Guanghui Hu, Zhao Li, Yuncai Lu, Chunxia Li, Shichen Gong, Shuqin Yan, Guoliang Li, Mingquan Wang, Honglei Ren, Haitao Guan, Zhengwei Zhang, Dongling Qin, Mengzhu Chai, Juping Yu, Yu Li, Deguang Yang, Tianyu Wang, Zhiwu Zhang
Maize (Zea mays, L.) cultivation has expanded greatly from tropical to temperate zones; however, its sensitivity to chilling often results in decreased germination rates, weak seedlings with reduced survival rates, and eventually lower yields. We conducted germination tests on the maize-282-diverse-panel (282 inbred lines) under normal (25 °C) and chilling (8 °C) conditions. Three raw measurements of germination were recorded under each condition: 1) germination rate, 2) days to 50% germination, and 3) germination index...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877167/measuring-dispositional-flow-validity-and-reliability-of-the-dispositional-flow-state-scale-2-italian-version
#5
Eleonora F M Riva, Giuseppe Riva, Cosimo Talò, Marco Boffi, Nicola Rainisio, Linda Pola, Barbara Diana, Daniela Villani, Luca Argenton, Paolo Inghilleri
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2), for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. METHOD: In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872731/urbanization-reduces-and-homogenizes-trait-diversity-in-stream-macroinvertebrate-communities
#6
Thomas R Barnum, Donald E Weller, Meghan Williams
More than half the world's population lives in urban areas, so quantifying the effects of urbanization on ecological communities is important for understanding whether anthropogenic stressors homogenize communities across environmental and climatic gradients. We examined the relationship of impervious surface coverage (a marker of urbanization) and the structure of stream macroinvertebrate communities across the state of Maryland and within each of Maryland's three ecoregions: Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Appalachian, which differ in stream geomorphology and community composition...
September 5, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868576/choice-between-delayed-food-and-immediate-opioids-in-rats-treatment-effects-and-individual-differences
#7
Leigh V Panlilio, Maria E Secci, Charles W Schindler, Charles W Bradberry
RATIONALE: Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food...
September 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840853/characterization-of-seal-whisker-morphology-implications-for-whisker-inspired-flow-control-applications
#8
Aidan Rinehart, Vikram Shyam, Wei Zhang
Seals with beaded whiskers, that is the majority of true seals (Phocids), are able to trace even minute disturbance caused by prey fish in the ambient flow using only sensory input from their whiskers. The unique three-dimensional undulating morphology of seal whiskers has been associated with their capability of suppressing vortex-induced vibration and reducing drag. The exceptional hydrodynamic traits of seal whiskers are of great interest in renovating the design of aero-propulsion flow components and high-sensitivity flow sensors...
August 25, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835301/feeding-dried-distillers-grains-with-solubles-to-lactating-beef-cows-impact-of-excess-protein-and-fat-on-post-weaning-progeny-growth-glucose-tolerance-and-carcass-traits
#9
C N Shee, R P Lemenager, J P Schoonmaker
Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a feed high in fat and protein, to lactating beef cows can alter milk production and composition, resulting in improved pre-weaning growth of progeny. This alteration in milk profile may consequently alter the growth and carcass composition of the offspring after weaning. Therefore, Angus×Simmental steers (n=48) whose dams were fed one of two diets supplemented with either DDGS or soybean meal (CON) from calving to mid-lactation were placed in a feedlot to determine the effects of maternal nutrition during lactation on progeny development and carcass composition...
August 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833246/increased-contribution-of-wheat-nocturnal-transpiration-to-daily-water-use-under-drought
#10
Eodie Claverie, Felicien Meunier, Mathieu Javaux, Walid Sadok
Increasing evidence suggests that in crops, nocturnal water use could represent 30% of daytime water consumption particularly in semi-arid and arid areas. This raises the questions of whether nocturnal transpiration rates (TRN ) are i) less influenced by drought than daytime TR (TRD ), ii) increased by higher nocturnal vapor pressure deficit (VPDN ) which prevails in such environments, and iii) involved in crop drought tolerance. In this investigation, we addressed those questions by subjecting two wheat genotypes differing in drought tolerance to progressive soil drying under two long-term VPDN regimes imposed under naturally fluctuating conditions...
August 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829642/predation-risk-reverses-the-potential-effects-of-warming-on-plant-herbivore-interactions-by-altering-the-relative-strengths-of-trait-and-density-mediated-interactions
#11
Nathan P Lemoine
Climate warming will initiate numerous changes in ecological community structure and function, and such high-level impacts derive from temperature-driven changes in individual physiology. Specifically, top-down control of plant biomass is sensitive to rising temperatures, but the direction of change depends on a complex interaction between temperature, predation risk, and predator thermal preference. Here, I developed an individual-based optimal foraging model of three trophic levels (primary producers, herbivores, and predators) to examine how warming affects top-down control of primary producers via both trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions (TMII and DMII)...
September 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819125/inflammation-and-bone-mineral-density-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#12
Jian V Huang, C Mary Schooling
Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder leading to an increase in osteoporotic fractures and resulting in significant suffering and disability. Inflammation may contribute to osteoporosis, as it does to many other chronic diseases. We examined whether inflammation is etiologically relevant to osteoporosis, assessed from bone mineral density (BMD), as a new potential target of intervention, or whether it is a symptom/biomarker of osteoporosis. We obtained genetic predictors of inflammatory markers from genome-wide association studies and applied them to a large genome wide association study of BMD...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812603/climate-change-upends-selection-on-ornamentation-in-a-wild-bird
#13
Simon R Evans, Lars Gustafsson
Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons...
January 23, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805606/detection-of-sea-type-%C3%AE-thalassemia-in-embryo-biopsies-by-digital-pcr
#14
Ta-Hsien Lee, Ya-Chiung Hsu, Chia Lin Chang
OBJECTIVE: Accurate and efficient pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on the analysis of single or oligo-cells is needed for timely identification of embryos that are affected by deleterious genetic traits in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the backbone of modern genetic diagnoses, and a spectrum of PCR-based techniques have been used to detect various thalassemia mutations in prenatal diagnosis (PND) and PGD. Among thalassemias, SEA-type α-thalassemia is the most common variety found in Asia, and can lead to Bart's hydrops fetalis and serious maternal complications...
August 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804465/personality-traits-related-to-binge-drinking-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Ana Adan, Diego A Forero, José Francisco Navarro
The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD) or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803978/intraperitoneal-injection-of-d-serine-inhibits-high-fat-diet-intake-and-preference-in-male-mice
#16
Tsutomu Sasaki, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Sho Matsui, Hiromi Yokota-Hashimoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Tadahiro Kitamura
d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs)...
August 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802637/blood-pressure-responses-to-dietary-sodium-association-with-autonomic-cardiovascular-function-in-normotensive-adults
#17
Evan L Matthews, Michael S Brian, David G Edwards, Sean D Stocker, Megan M Wenner, William B Farquhar
Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day(-1)) and 1week of low (20mmol·day(-1)) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS...
August 6, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798918/learning-and-judgment-can-be-affected-by-predisposed-fearfulness-in-laying-hens
#18
Elske N de Haas, Caroline Lee, T Bas Rodenburg
High fearfulness could disrupt learning and likely affects judgment in animals, especially when it is part of an animals' personality, i.e., trait anxiety. Here, we tested whether high fearfulness affects discrimination learning and judgment bias (JB) in laying hens. Based on the response to an open field at 5 weeks of age, birds were categorized as fearful (FC) by showing no walking or vocalizing or non-fearful (NFC) by showing walking and vocalizing. At adult age, birds (n = 24) were trained in a go-go task to discriminate two cues (white or black) with a small or large reward...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794436/current-limitations-of-global-conservation-to-protect-higher-vulnerability-and-lower-resilience-fish-species
#19
Rita P Vasconcelos, Marisa I Batista, Sofia Henriques
Estuaries are threatened by intense and continuously increasing human activities. Here we estimated the sensitivity of fish assemblages in a set of estuaries distributed worldwide (based on species vulnerability and resilience), and the exposure to cumulative stressors and coverage by protected areas in and around those estuaries (from marine, estuarine and freshwater ecosystems, due to their connectivity). Vulnerability and resilience of estuarine fish assemblages were not evenly distributed globally and were driven by environmental features...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782584/self-construal-differences-in-neural-responses-to-negative-social-cues
#20
Belinda J Liddell, Kim L Felmingham, Pritha Das, Thomas J Whitford, Gin S Malhi, Eva Battaglini, Richard A Bryant
Cultures differ substantially in representations of the self. Whereas individualistic cultural groups emphasize an independent self, reflected in processing biases towards centralized salient objects, collectivistic cultures are oriented towards an interdependent self, attending to contextual associations between visual cues. It is unknown how these perceptual biases may affect brain activity in response to negative social cues. Moreover, while some studies have shown that individual differences in self-construal moderate cultural group comparisons, few have examined self-construal differences separate to culture...
August 3, 2017: Biological Psychology
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