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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352556/what-causes-psychosis-an-umbrella-review-of-risk-and-protective-factors
#1
Joaquim Radua, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, John P A Ioannidis, Abraham Reichenberg, Nacharin Phiphopthatsanee, Taha Amir, Hyi Yenn Thoo, Dominic Oliver, Cathy Davies, Craig Morgan, Philip McGuire, Robin M Murray, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio-demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343265/rnase-if-treated-quantitative-pcr-for-dsrna-quantitation-of-rnai-trait-in-genetically-modified-crops
#2
Po-Hao Wang, Greg Schulenberg, Shannon Whitlock, Andrew Worden, Ning Zhou, Stephen Novak, Wei Chen
BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been widely used to knockdown target genes via post-transcriptional silencing. In plants, RNAi is used as an effective tool with diverse applications being developed such as resistance against insects, fungi, viruses, and metabolism manipulation. To develop genetically modified (GM) RNAi traits for insect control, a transgene is created and composed of an inversely-repeated sequence of the target gene with a spacer region inserted between the repeats...
January 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339970/a-new-image-based-tool-for-the-high-throughput-phenotyping-of-pollen-viability-evaluation-of-inter-and-intra-cultivar-diversity-in-grapevine
#3
Javier Tello, María Ignacia Montemayor, Astrid Forneck, Javier Ibáñez
Background: Low pollen viability may limit grapevine yield under certain conditions, causing relevant economic losses to grape-growers. It is usually evaluated by the quantification of the number of viable and non-viable pollen grains that are present in a sample after an adequate pollen grain staining procedure. Although the manual counting of both types of grains is the simplest and most sensitive approach, it is a laborious and time-demanding process. In this regard, novel image-based approaches can assist in the objective, accurate and cost-effective phenotyping of this trait...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336039/pollen-germination-and-in-vivo-fertilization-in-response-to-high-temperature-during-flowering-in-hybrid-and-inbred-rice
#4
Wanju Shi, Xiang Li, Ralf C Schmidt, Paul C Struik, Xinyou Yin, S V Krishna Jagadish
High temperature during flowering in rice causes spikelet sterility and is a major threat to rice productivity in tropical and subtropical regions, where hybrid rice development is increasingly contributing to sustain food security. However, the sensitivity of hybrids to increasing temperature and physiological responses in terms of dynamic fertilization processes are unknown. To address these questions, several promising hybrids and inbreds were exposed to control and high day-time temperature (HDT) in Experiment 1 and hybrids having contrasting heat tolerance were selected for Experiment 2 for further physiological investigation under high day and night temperature treatments...
January 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324299/boys-with-conduct-problems-and-callous-unemotional-traits-neural-response-to-reward-and-punishment-and-associations-with-treatment-response
#5
Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Jeffrey D Burke, Rolf Loeber, Dustin A Pardini
Abnormalities in reward and punishment processing are implicated in the development of conduct problems (CP), particularly among youth with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. However, no studies have examined whether CP children with high versus low CU traits exhibit differences in the neural response to reward and punishment. A clinic-referred sample of CP boys with high versus low CU traits (ages 8-11; n = 37) and healthy controls (HC; n = 27) completed a fMRI task assessing reward and punishment processing...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321239/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-the-pseudofungus-hyphochytrium-catenoides
#6
Guy Leonard, Aurélie Labarre, David S Milner, Adam Monier, Darren Soanes, Jeremy G Wideman, Finlay Maguire, Sam Stevens, Divya Sain, Xavier Grau-Bové, Arnau Sebé-Pedrós, Jason E Stajich, Konrad Paszkiewicz, Matthew W Brown, Neil Hall, Bill Wickstead, Thomas A Richards
Eukaryotic microbes have three primary mechanisms for obtaining nutrients and energy: phagotrophy, photosynthesis and osmotrophy. Traits associated with the latter two functions arose independently multiple times in the eukaryotes. The Fungi successfully coupled osmotrophy with filamentous growth, and similar traits are also manifested in the Pseudofungi (oomycetes and hyphochytriomycetes). Both the Fungi and the Pseudofungi encompass a diversity of plant and animal parasites. Genome-sequencing efforts have focused on host-associated microbes (mutualistic symbionts or parasites), providing limited comparisons with free-living relatives...
January 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315619/the-roles-of-trauma-exposure-rejection-sensitivity-and-callous-unemotional-traits-in-the-aggressive-behavior-of-justice-involved-youth-a-moderated-mediation-model
#7
Michaela M Mozley, Crosby A Modrowski, Patricia K Kerig
Research has demonstrated an association between childhood trauma exposure and adolescent aggression. This association may be explained by rejection sensitivity, defined as anger, or anxiety in the anticipation of rejection, which can be a consequence of trauma exposure. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits also are associated with trauma exposure and aggressive behavior; however, research has not yet investigated the interactive roles that rejection sensitivity and CU traits play in the relation between trauma exposure and aggression...
January 5, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314083/tree-hydraulic-traits-are-co-ordinated-and-strongly-linked-to-climate-of-origin-across-a-rainfall-gradient
#8
Ximeng Li, Chris J Blackman, Brendan Choat, Remko A Duursma, Paul D Rymer, Belinda E Medlyn, David T Tissue
Plant hydraulic traits capture the impacts of drought stress on plant function, yet vegetation models lack sufficient information regarding trait coordination and variation with climate-of-origin across species. Here, we investigated key hydraulic and carbon economy traits of 12 woody species in Australia from a broad climatic gradient, with the aim of identifying the coordination among these traits and the role of climate in shaping cross-species trait variation. The influence of environmental variation was minimized by a common garden approach, allowing us to factor out the influence of environment on phenotypic variation across species...
January 4, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306829/functional-diversity-measures-revealed-impacts-of-non-native-species-and-habitat-degradation-on-species-poor-freshwater-fish-assemblages
#9
Nicole Colin, Sébastien Villéger, Martin Wilkes, Adolfo de Sostoa, Alberto Maceda-Veiga
Trait-based ecology has been developed for decades to infer ecosystem responses to stressors based on the functional structure of communities, yet its value in species-poor systems is largely unknown. Here, we used an extensive dataset in a Spanish region highly prone to non-native fish invasions (15 catchments, N=389 sites) to assess for the first time how species-poor communities respond to large-scale environmental gradients using a taxonomic and functional trait-based approach in riverine fish. We examined total species richness and three functional trait-based indices available when many sites have ≤3 species (specialization, FSpe; originality, FOri and entropy, FEnt)...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304753/high-density-marker-panels-snps-prioritizing-and-accuracy-of-genomic-selection
#10
Ling-Yun Chang, Sajjad Toghiani, Ashley Ling, Sammy E Aggrey, Romdhane Rekaya
BACKGROUND: The availability of high-density (HD) marker panels, genome wide variants and sequence data creates an unprecedented opportunity to dissect the genetic basis of complex traits, enhance genomic selection (GS) and identify causal variants of disease. The disproportional increase in the number of parameters in the genetic association model compared to the number of phenotypes has led to further deterioration in statistical power and an increase in co-linearity and false positive rates...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304732/a-genetic-linkage-map-of-pleurotus-tuoliensis-integrated-with-physical-mapping-of-the-de-novo-sequenced-genome-and-the-mating-type-loci
#11
Wei Gao, Jibin Qu, Jinxia Zhang, Anton Sonnenberg, Qiang Chen, Yan Zhang, Chenyang Huang
BACKGROUND: Pleurotus tuoliensis (Bailinggu) is a commercially cultivated mushroom species with an increasing popularity in China and other Asian countries. Commercial profits are now low, mainly due to a low yield, long cultivation period and sensitivity to diseases. Breeding efforts are thus required to improve agronomical important traits. Developing saturated genetic linkage and physical maps is a start for applying genetic and molecular approaches to accelerate the precise breeding programs...
January 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300823/physiological-basis-of-chilling-tolerance-and-early-season-growth-in-miscanthus
#12
Simon Fonteyne, Hilde Muylle, Peter Lootens, Pavel Kerchev, Wim Van den Ende, Ariane Staelens, Dirk Reheul, Isabel Roldán-Ruiz
Background and Aims: The high productivity of Miscanthus × giganteus has been at least partly ascribed to its high chilling tolerance compared with related C4 crops, allowing for a longer productive growing season in temperate climates. However, the chilling tolerance of M. × giganteus has been predominantly studied under controlled environmental conditions. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to chilling tolerance in the field and their variation in different miscanthus genotypes is largely unexplored...
December 29, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291505/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-heartbeat-perception-implications-for-anxiety
#13
Kenneth Abrams, Kate Cieslowski, Stacey Johnson, Sam Krimmel, Gabby Bierlein-De La Rosa, Kirstie Barton, Pombie Silverman
INTRODUCTION: It is well established that some individuals self-medicate their anxiety with alcohol. Though much evidence exists that alcohol consumption can be negatively reinforcing, there remains uncertainty regarding what mediates the relationship between alcohol and anxiety. An unexplored possibility is that, for some, alcohol impairs interoceptive sensitivity (the ability to accurately perceive one's physiological state), thereby decreasing state anxiety. Consistent with this, highly accurate heartbeat perception is a risk factor both for elevated trait anxiety and anxiety disorders...
December 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282872/psychotic-spectrum-symptoms-cumulative-adversity-exposure-and-substance-use-among-high-risk-girls
#14
Amy E Lansing, Wendy Y Plante, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Shahrokh Golshan, Audrey N Beck
AIM: Psychotic-spectrum symptoms are linked to trauma, substance/alcohol use (SAU), criminality/violence and poor functional outcomes, supporting the need for early detection in vulnerable populations. To better understand high-risk girls' mental health, we assessed: (1) psychotic-spectrum symptoms; (2) cumulative trauma, adversity and loss exposures (C-TALE) and adversity-indicators (symptoms, maladaptive coping, stressor-reactivity); and SAU risk-factors; and (3) relationships among psychotic-spectrum symptoms, adversity-indicators and SAU risk-factors...
December 28, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281983/resource-competition-promotes-tumour-expansion-in-experimentally-evolved-cancer
#15
Tiffany B Taylor, Anastasia V Wass, Louise J Johnson, Phil Dash
BACKGROUND: Tumour progression involves a series of phenotypic changes to cancer cells, each of which presents therapeutic targets. Here, using techniques adapted from microbial experimental evolution, we investigate the evolution of tumour spreading - a precursor for metastasis and tissue invasion - in environments with varied resource supply. Evolutionary theory predicts that competition for resources within a population will select for individuals to move away from a natal site (i...
December 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251701/lower-emergency-general-surgery-egs-mortality-among-hospitals-with-higher-quality-trauma-care
#16
John W Scott, Thomas C Tsai, Pooja U Neiman, Gregory J Jurkovich, Garth H Utter, Adil H Haider, Ali Salim, Joaquim M Havens
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing emergency general surgery (EGS) procedures are up to eight times more likely to die than patients undergoing the same procedures electively. This excess mortality is often attributed to non-modifiable patient factors including comorbidities and physiologic derangements at presentation, leaving few targets for quality improvement. Though the hospital-level traits that contribute to EGS outcomes are not well understood, we hypothesized that facilities with lower trauma mortality would have lower EGS mortality...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250051/successful-establishment-of-plasmids-r1-and-pmv158-in-a-new-host-requires-the-relief-of-the-transcriptional-repression-of-their-essential-rep-genes
#17
José Á Ruiz-Masó, Luis M Luengo, Inmaculada Moreno-Córdoba, Ramón Díaz-Orejas, Gloria Del Solar
Although differing in size, encoded traits, host range, and replication mechanism, both narrow-host-range theta-type conjugative enterobacterial plasmid R1 and promiscuous rolling-circle-type mobilizable streptococcal plasmid pMV158 encode a transcriptional repressor protein, namely CopB in R1 and CopG in pMV158, involved in replication control. The gene encoding CopB or CopG is cotranscribed with a downstream gene that encodes the replication initiator Rep protein of the corresponding plasmid. However, whereas CopG is an auto-repressor that inhibits transcription of the entire copG-repB operon, CopB is expressed constitutively and represses a second, downstream promoter that directs transcription of repA...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249898/optimal-group-testing-designs-for-estimating-prevalence-with-uncertain-testing-errors
#18
Shih-Hao Huang, Mong-Na Lo Huang, Kerby Shedden, Weng Kee Wong
We construct optimal designs for group testing experiments where the goal is to estimate the prevalence of a trait using a test with uncertain sensitivity and specificity. Using optimal design theory for approximate designs, we show that the most efficient design for simultaneously estimating the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity requires three different group sizes with equal frequencies. However, if estimating prevalence as accurately as possible is the only focus, the optimal strategy is to have three group sizes with unequal frequencies...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B, Statistical Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247310/identifying-autism-with-a-brief-and-low-cost-screening-instrument-oera-construct-validity-invariance-testing-and-agreement-between-judges
#19
Cristiane S Paula, Graccielle Rodrigues Cunha, Daniela Bordini, Decio Brunoni, Ana Claudia Moya, Cleonice Alves Bosa, Jair J Mari, Hugo Cogo-Moreira
Simple and low-cost observational-tools to detect symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are still necessary. The OERA is a new assessment tool to screen children eliciting observable behaviors with no substantial knowledge on ASD required. The sample was 99 children aged 3-10: 76 with ASD and 23 without ASD (11/23 had intellectual disability). The 13 remained items exhibited high interrater agreement and high reliability loaded onto a single latent trait. Such model showed excellent fit indices evaluated via confirmatory factor analysis and no item showed differential function in terms of age/sex/IQ...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242556/functional-redundancy-and-sensitivity-of-fish-assemblages-in-european-rivers-lakes-and-estuarine-ecosystems
#20
Nils Teichert, Mario Lepage, Alban Sagouis, Angel Borja, Guillem Chust, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Stéphanie Pasquaud, Rafaela Schinegger, Pedro Segurado, Christine Argillier
The impact of species loss on ecosystems functioning depends on the amount of trait similarity between species, i.e. functional redundancy, but it is also influenced by the order in which species are lost. Here we investigated redundancy and sensitivity patterns across fish assemblages in lakes, rivers and estuaries. Several scenarios of species extinction were simulated to determine whether the loss of vulnerable species (with high propensity of extinction when facing threats) causes a greater functional alteration than random extinction...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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