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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530679/polymorphisms-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-and-overeating-the-intermediary-role-of-endophenotypic-risk-factors
#1
C Davis, K Patte, C Zai, J L Kennedy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OXT) is an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide with strong links to affiliative and prosocial behaviors, and the management of stress. Increases in OXT also tend to decrease food intake, especially of sweet carbohydrates. The social correlates of low OXT levels mesh with the social deficits and stress proneness identified in interpersonal models of overeating, as well as the increased appetite for highly palatable foods typically seen in chronic overeaters...
May 22, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521266/neural-mechanisms-of-reward-processing-associated-with-depression-related-personality-traits
#2
Akina Umemoto, Clay B Holroyd
OBJECTIVE: Although impaired reward processing in depression has been well-documented, the exact nature of that deficit remains poorly understood. To investigate the link between depression and the neural mechanisms of reward processing, we examined individual differences in personality. METHODS: We recorded the electroencephalogram from healthy college students engaged in a probabilistic reinforcement learning task. Participants also completed several personality questionnaires that assessed traits related to reward sensitivity, motivation, and depression...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520791/toxic-and-hormetic-like-effects-of-three-components-of-citrus-essential-oils-on-adult-mediterranean-fruit-flies-ceratitis-capitata
#3
Stella A Papanastasiou, Eleftheria-Maria D Bali, Charalampos S Ioannou, Dimitrios P Papachristos, Kostas D Zarpas, Nikos T Papadopoulos
Plant essential oils (EOs) and a wide range of their individual components are involved in a variety of biological interactions with insect pests including stimulatory, deterrent, toxic and even hormetic effects. Both the beneficial and toxic properties of citrus EOs on the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) have been experimentally evidenced over the last years. However, no information is available regarding the toxic or beneficial effects of the major components of citrus EOs via contact with the adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520775/sex-differences-in-neuromuscular-androgen-receptor-expression-and-sociosexual-behavior-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#4
Eric R Schuppe, Devaleena S Pradhan, Kevin Thonkulpitak, Cathleen Drilling, Michael Black, Matthew S Grober
Androgen signaling, via receptor binding, is critical for regulating the physiological and morphological foundations of male-typical reproductive behavior in vertebrates. Muscles essential for male courtship behavior and copulation are highly sensitive to androgens. Differences in the distribution and density of the androgen receptor (AR) are important for maintaining dimorphic musculature and thus may provide for anatomical identification of sexually selected traits. In Lythrypnus dalli, a bi-directional hermaphroditic teleost fish, both sexes produce agonistic approach displays, but reproductive behavior is sexually dimorphic...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512365/-temperament-risk-factor-for-mental-health-disturbances-in-the-judiciary-staff
#5
Katarzyna Orlak, Jan Tylka
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper was to examine how temperament might moderate the health impact of psychosocial hazards at work and thus to attempt to identify the temperament risk factor in the judiciary staff. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data were collected from 355 court employees, including judges, judicial assistants, court clerks and service workers from criminal, civil, commercial as well as from labor and social insurance divisions. The psychosocial work environment was measured with the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire by Cieślak and Widerszal-Bazyl, temperament with Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory adopted by Hornowska and employee health status was screened with Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire- 28 (GHQ-28) adopted by Makowska and Merecz...
May 16, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507594/pain-threshold-reflects-psychological-traits-in-patients-with-chronic-pain-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Fumie Kato, Tetsuya Abe, Kenji Kanbara, Ikumi Ban, Tadashi Kiba, Sadanobu Kawashima, Yukie Saka, Yasuyuki Mizuno, Mikihiko Fukunaga
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain enhances sensory sensitivity and induces the biased development of psychological traits such as depression and pain catastrophizing, leading to the formation of heterogeneous conditions. Fluctuations in the sensory-related thresholds of non-injured sites (with normal peripheral tissue) in patients with chronic pain are thought to be related to central sensitization. The objectives of this study were to analyze the association between pain tolerance thresholds (PTTs) in non-injured sites and the psychological traits of patients with chronic pain and to evaluate the usefulness of PTT measures in assessments of pathological conditions related to chronic pain...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502843/disentangling-the-effects-of-novelty-valence-and-trait-anxiety-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-amygdala-and-hippocampus-with-high-resolution-7t-fmri
#7
Walker S Pedersen, L Tugan Muftuler, Christine L Larson
The hippocampus and amygdala exhibit sensitivity to stimulus novelty that is reduced in participants with inhibited temperament, which is related to trait anxiety. Although the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is highly connected to the amygdala and is implicated in anxiety, whether the BNST responds to novelty remains unstudied, as well as how trait anxiety may modulate this response. Additionally how novelty, stimulus negativity and trait anxiety interact to affect activity in these areas is also unclear...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501436/identification-of-the-bovine-hsl-gene-expression-profiles-and-its-association-with-fatty-acid-composition-and-fat-deposition-traits
#8
Xibi Fang, Zhihui Zhao, Ping Jiang, Haibin Yu, Hang Xiao, Runjun Yang
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular neutral lipase capable of hydrolysing a variety of esters and is considered to be a candidate gene affecting fat deposition traits. Gene expression profiles of HSL were analysed in various adipose tissues of cattle, and the effect of HSL on lipid metabolism genes was analysed by a PCR array. Novel polymorphisms were identified within the HSL regulatory domain by sequencing, and the relationship between HSL variants and fat deposition traits was analysed. HSL mRNA was highly expressed in the subcutaneous and visceral fat of cattle...
May 6, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499007/shifts-in-microbial-trophic-strategy-explain-different-temperature-sensitivity-of-co2-flux-under-constant-and-diurnally-varying-temperature-regimes
#9
Zhen Bai, Hongtu Xie, Jenny Kao-Kniffin, Baodong Chen, Pengshuai Shao, Chao Liang
Understanding soil CO2 flux temperature sensitivity (Q10) is critical for predicting ecosystem-level responses to climate change. Yet, the effects of warming on microbial CO2 respiration still remain poorly understood under current Earth system models, partly as a result of thermal acclimation of organic matter decomposition. We conducted a 117-day incubation experiment under constant and diurnally-varying temperature treatments based on four forest soils varying in vegetation stand and soil horizon. Our results showed that Q10 was greater under varying than constant temperature regimes...
May 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494262/repositioning-error-pressure-pain-threshold-catastrophizing-and-anxiety-in-adolescents-with-chronic-idiopathic-neck-pain
#10
Sofia Sá, Anabela G Silva
BACKGROUND: Impaired proprioception, increased pain sensitivity, higher levels of anxiety and catastrophizing are present in adults with chronic idiopathic neck pain. Despite the high prevalence of neck pain, studies in adolescents are scarce. OBJECTIVES: The main aim was to compare pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and joint repositioning error (JRE) between adolescents with chronic idiopathic neck pain and adolescents without neck pain. Secondary aims were to compare these groups for catastrophizing and anxiety and to investigate the association between PPTs, JRE and psychosocial variables and pain characteristics...
May 1, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482278/mania-risk-is-characterized-by-an-aberrant-optimistic-update-bias-for-positive-life-events
#11
Sandra Schönfelder, Johanna Langer, Eva Elisa Schneider, Michèle Wessa
BACKGROUND: Early cognitive models of mania posit that a cognitive triad consisting of unrealistically optimistic beliefs about the self, world and future may predispose vulnerable individuals to develop manic symptoms. Hypomanic personality traits (HYP) pose such a vulnerability factor in the etiopathogenesis of mania. METHODS: To test the cognitive tenet of overly optimistic views of the future, 24 individuals with high-HYP and 24 age- and sex-matched controls (low-HYP) performed a belief update paradigm, during which they estimated their personal chances to experience future positive and negative life events...
April 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456581/error-related-oscillatory-activity-is-modulated-by-novelty-seeking-in-the-reward-condition
#12
J Mojsa-Kaja, E Beldzik, A Domagalik, M Gawlowska, T Marek
Behavioural research has revealed the influence of motivation conditions on cognitive task performance and demonstrated that these influences are modulated by temperament factors. Modern neuroimaging methods enable analysis of neuropsychological mechanisms through which individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity may influence cognitive functioning. In the study, fifty-six participants were scored on the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory to assess punishment and reward sensitivity. Then, subjects participated in an EEG experiment using the numerical Stroop task under different motivational conditions...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456149/plasma-chemerin-in-young-untrained-men-association-with-cardio-metabolic-traits-and-physical-performance-and-response-to-intensive-interval-training
#13
Nejmeddine Ouerghi, Mohamed Kacem Ben Fradj, Marwa Khammassi, Moncef Feki, Naziha Kaabachi, Anissa Bouassida
OBJECTIVES: Chemerin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokine thought to decrease insulin sensitivity and increase cardiometabolic risk. This study aimed to assess the association of chemerin with cardiometabolic risk and physical performance and examine its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). METHODS: Eighteen young men have been applied a HIIT program during 8 weeks. Plasma chemerin together with several cardiometabolic factors and physical performance indices were determined before and after the training program...
February 15, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447304/self-report-and-brain-indicators-of-impaired-emotion-regulation-in-the-broad-autism-spectrum
#14
Kristel De Groot, Jan W Van Strien
Although not used as a diagnostic criterion, impaired emotion regulation is frequently observed in autism. The present study examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies in individuals scoring low or high on autistic traits. In addition, the late positive potential, which is sensitive to emotional arousal, was used to examine the effect of one strategy, reappraisal. Reporting more autistic traits was related to using more maladaptive and fewer adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Across both groups, no attenuation of the late positive potential during downregulation of unpleasant pictures was found, possibly because of the used valence-changing reappraisal operationalisation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446919/high-nitrogen-supply-induces-physiological-responsiveness-to-long-photoperiod-in-barley
#15
Jian Zeng, Huajin Sheng, Yang Liu, Yao Wang, Yi Wang, Houyang Kang, Xing Fan, Lina Sha, Shu Yuan, Yonghong Zhou
Photoperiod and nutrient nitrogen (N) supply influence the growth, development, and productivity of crops. This study examined the physiological, biochemical, and morpho-anatomical traits of NA5 and NA9, two barley cultivars with contrasting photoperiod lengths, under the combined treatment of photoperiod regime and N supply. Under long photoperiod, high N supply decreased net photosynthesis; decreased chlorophyll a and chlorophyll a/b; decreased ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities; decreased ascorbate, glutathione, soluble protein, and soluble sugar; destroyed mesophyll cell integrity; and increased [Formula: see text], malondialdehyde, and proline in both NA5 and NA9...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446693/lipid-consumption-in-coral-larvae-differs-among-sites-a-consideration-of-environmental-history-in-a-global-ocean-change-scenario
#16
Emily B Rivest, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Tung-Yung Fan, Hsing-Hui Li, Gretchen E Hofmann
The success of early life-history stages is an environmentally sensitive bottleneck for many marine invertebrates. Responses of larvae to environmental stress may vary due to differences in maternal investment of energy stores and acclimatization/adaptation of a population to local environmental conditions. In this study, we compared two populations from sites with different environmental regimes (Moorea and Taiwan). We assessed the responses of Pocillopora damicornis larvae to two future co-occurring environmental stressors: elevated temperature and ocean acidification...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443121/hormonal-and-nutritional-features-in-contrasting-rootstock-mediated-tomato-growth-under-low-phosphorus-nutrition
#17
Cristina Martínez-Andújar, Juan M Ruiz-Lozano, Ian C Dodd, Alfonso Albacete, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea
Grafting provides a tool aimed to increase low-P stress tolerance of crops, however, little is known about the mechanism (s) by which rootstocks can confer resistance to P deprivation. In this study, 4 contrasting groups of rootstocks from different genetic backgrounds (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and introgression and recombinant inbred lines derived from the wild relatives S. pennellii and S. pimpinellifolium) were grafted to a commercial F1 hybrid scion and cultivated under control (1 mM, c) and P deficient (0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429189/using-time-perception-to-explore-implicit-sensitivity-to-emotional-stimuli-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Catherine R G Jones, Anna Lambrechts, Sebastian B Gaigg
Establishing whether implicit responses to emotional cues are intact in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to ascertaining why their emotional understanding is compromised. We used a temporal bisection task to assess for responsiveness to face and wildlife images that varied in emotional salience. There were no significant differences between an adult ASD and comparison group, with both showing implicit overestimation of emotional stimuli. Further, there was no correlation between overestimation of emotional stimuli and autistic traits in undergraduate students...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425737/time-varying-and-time-invariant-dimensions-of-depression-in-children-and-adolescents-implications-for-cross-informant-agreement
#19
David A Cole, Joan M Martin, Farrah M Jacquez, Jane M Tram, Rachel Zelkowitz, Elizabeth A Nick, Jason D Rights
The longitudinal structure of depression in children and adolescents was examined by applying a Trait-State-Occasion structural equation model to 4 waves of self, teacher, peer, and parent reports in 2 age groups (9 to 13 and 13 to 16 years old). Analyses revealed that the depression latent variable consisted of 2 longitudinal factors: a time-invariant dimension that was completely stable over time and a time-varying dimension that was not perfectly stable over time. Different sources of information were differentially sensitive to these 2 dimensions...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421105/nitrate-a-crucial-signal-during-lateral-roots-development
#20
REVIEW
Cui-Hui Sun, Jian-Qiang Yu, Da-Gang Hu
Root plasticity is an important trait for plants to forage nutrient and adapt to survival in a complicated environment. Lateral roots (LRs) are generally more sensitive than primary roots in response to changing environmental conditions. As the main source of nitrogen for most higher plants, nitrate acting as a signal has received great attention in the regulation of LR development. In general, there are dual effects including stimulatory and inhibitory of low nitrate on LR development; while high nitrate supply has an inhibitory effect on LR development; nitrate heterogeneity also has a stimulatory effect on LR development in [Formula: see text]- rich zone...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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