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high sensitivity trait

Mingyan Li, Weihua Guo, Ning Du, Zhenwei Xu, Xiao Guo
Light and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are among the important environmental factors influencing plant growth and forest regeneration. We used Quercus acutissima, a dominant broadleaf tree species native to the deciduous forests of Northern China, to study the combined effects of light exposure and N addition on leaf physiology and individual plant growth. In the greenhouse, we exposed Quercus acutissima seedlings to one of two light conditions (8% and 80% of full irradiation) and one of three N treatments (0, 6, and 12 g N m-2 y-1)...
2018: PloS One
David J Cottrell, Alex Wright-Hughes, Michelle Collinson, Paula Boston, Ivan Eisler, Sarah Fortune, Elizabeth H Graham, Jonathan Green, Allan O House, Michael Kerfoot, David W Owens, Eirini-Christina Saloniki, Mima Simic, Sandy Tubeuf, Amanda J Farrin
BACKGROUND: Self-harm in adolescents is common and repetition rates high. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of family therapy (FT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU). DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised controlled trial of FT compared with TAU. Participants and therapists were aware of treatment allocation; researchers were blind to allocation...
March 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
L M Cavole, L G Cardoso, M S Almeida, M Haimovici
Uncertainty regarding the age determination of the Brazilian codling Urophycis brasiliensis has hampered its stock assessment. Transverse sections of otoliths displayed up to seven (in males) and 12 (in females) alternate opaque and translucent bands that could not be conclusively validated as annuli, resulting in unrealistically high ages of first maturity (A50 ) (A50male  = 4·5 years and A50female  = 6 years). Therefore, growth was described by the von Bertalanffy (VB) model using an alternative approach that combined microstructure data (daily growth increments) and a fixed asymptotic total length (L∞ )...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Liu Lele, Du Ning, Pei Cuiping, Guo Xiao, Guo Weihua
Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity is thought to play an important role in the adaption of plant populations to heterogeneous habitat conditions, and yet the importance of epigenetic variation as a mechanism of adaptive plasticity in natural plant populations still merits further research. In this study, we investigated populations of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (Chinese chastetree) from adjacent habitat types at seven sampling sites. Using several functional traits, we detected a significant differentiation between habitat types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mathieu Santonja, Laura Pellan, Christophe Piscart
Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Evelien Platje, Stephan C J Huijbregts, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Arne Popma, Maaike Cima, Hanna J T Swaab
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are thought to characterize children exhibiting persistent and severe conduct problems (CPs). Reward and punishment sensitivity have often been investigated, yet executive function problems have mostly been studied in adults. Moreover, the level of co-occurring CPs is important to take into account. Therefore, the current study investigated differences in reward responsivity, punishment sensitivity, and executive functioning (EF) between four subgroups of general community boys ( N = 346, Mage = 14...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Garikoitz Legarda, David Ruano-Rosa, Paloma Pizarro-Tobías, Antonio Valverde-Corredor, José L Niqui, Juan C Triviño, Amalia Roca, Jesús Mercado-Blanco
The use of biological control agents (BCA), alone or in combination with other management measures, has gained attention over the past decades, driven by the need to seek for sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives to confront plant pathogens. The rhizosphere of olive ( Olea europaea L.) plants is a source of bacteria with potential as biocontrol tools against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. A collection of bacterial isolates from healthy nursery-produced olive (cultivar Picual, susceptible to VWO) plants was generated based on morphological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, chemical sensitivities, and on their in vitro antagonistic activity against several olive pathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stefano Cinque, Francesca Zoratto, Anna Poleggi, Damiana Leo, Luca Cerniglia, Silvia Cimino, Renata Tambelli, Enrico Alleva, Raul R Gainetdinov, Giovanni Laviola, Walter Adriani
Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Gaia Olivo, Francesco Latini, Lyle Wiemerslage, Elna-Marie Larsson, Helgi B Schiöth
Background : Neurovascular coupling is associated with white matter (WM) structural integrity, and it is regulated by specific subtypes of dopaminergic receptors. An altered activity of such receptors, highly expressed in reward-related regions, has been reported in carriers of obesity-risk alleles of the fat mass and obesity associated ( FTO ) gene. Among the reward-related regions, the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens are particularly vulnerable to blood pressure dysregulation due to their peculiar anatomo-vascular characteristics, and have been consistently reported to be altered in early-stage obesity...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stephan F Miedl, Jens Blechert, Adrian Meule, Anna Richard, Frank H Wilhelm
Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs...
March 5, 2018: Appetite
Frank E Muller-Karger, Erin Hestir, Christiana Ade, Kevin Turpie, Dar A Roberts, David Siegel, Robert J Miller, David Humm, Noam Izenberg, Mary Keller, Frank Morgan, Robert Frouin, Arnold G Dekker, Royal Gardner, James Goodman, Blake Schaeffer, Bryan A Franz, Nima Pahlevan, Antonio G Mannino, Javier A Concha, Steven G Ackleson, Kyle C Cavanaugh, Anastasia Romanou, Maria Tzortziou, Emmanuel S Boss, Ryan Pavlick, Anthony Freeman, Cecile S Rousseaux, John Dunne, Matthew C Long, Eduardo Klein, Galen A McKinley, Joachim Goes, Ricardo Letelier, Maria Kavanaugh, Mitchell Roffer, Astrid Bracher, Kevin R Arrigo, Heidi Dierssen, Xiaodong Zhang, Frank W Davis, Ben Best, Robert Guralnick, John Moisan, Heidi M Sosik, Raphael Kudela, Colleen B Mouw, Andrew H Barnard, Sherry Palacios, Collin Roesler, Evangelia G Drakou, Ward Appeltans, Walter Jetz
The biodiversity and high productivity of coastal terrestrial and aquatic habitats are the foundation for important benefits to human societies around the world. These globally distributed habitats need frequent and broad systematic assessments, but field surveys only cover a small fraction of these areas. Satellite-based sensors can repeatedly record the visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra that contain the absorption, scattering, and fluorescence signatures of functional phytoplankton groups, colored dissolved matter, and particulate matter near the surface ocean, and of biologically structured habitats (floating and emergent vegetation, benthic habitats like coral, seagrass, and algae)...
March 6, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Young Ho Yun, Eun Kyo Kang, Jihye Lee, Jiyeon Choo, Hyewon Ryu, Hye-Min Yun, Jung Hun Kang, Tae You Kim, Jin-Ah Sim, Yaeji Kim
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to develop and validate an instrument that could be used by patients with cancer to evaluate their quality of palliative care. METHODS: Development of the questionnaire followed the four-phase process: item generation and reduction, construction, pilot testing, and field testing. Based on the literature, we constructed a list of items for the quality of palliative care from 104 quality care issues divided into 14 subscales. We constructed scales of 43 items that only the cancer patients were asked to answer...
March 5, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Zhaozhong Zhu, Verneri Anttila, Jordan W Smoller, Phil H Lee
Advances in recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that pleiotropic effects on human complex traits are widespread. A number of classic and recent meta-analysis methods have been used to identify genetic loci with pleiotropic effects, but the overall performance of these methods is not well understood. In this work, we use extensive simulations and case studies of GWAS datasets to investigate the power and type-I error rates of ten meta-analysis methods. We specifically focus on three conditions commonly encountered in the studies of multiple traits: (1) extensive heterogeneity of genetic effects; (2) characterization of trait-specific association; and (3) inflated correlation of GWAS due to overlapping samples...
2018: PloS One
M Akbari, H Salehi, A Niazi
The main goals of the present study were to screen Iranian common bermudagrasses to find cold-tolerant accessions and evaluate their genetic and morphological variabilities. In this study, 49 accessions were collected from 18 provinces of Iran. One foreign cultivar of common bermudagrass was used as control. Morphological variation was evaluated based on 14 morphological traits to give information about taxonomic position of Iranian common bermudagrass. Data from morphological traits were evaluated to categorize all accessions as either cold sensitive or tolerant using hierarchical clustering with Ward's method in SPSS software...
February 26, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Bianca Acevedo, Elaine Aron, Sarah Pospos, Dana Jessen
During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Françoise Dellu-Hagedorn, Marion Rivalan, Aurélie Fitoussi, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Several impulse control disorders such as ADHD, mania, personality disorders or substance abuse share common behavioural traits, like impulsiveness, risk-taking or inflexible behaviour. These disorders are treated with drugs targeting dopamine (DA) and/or serotonin (5-HT). However, the patient's monoamine imbalance that these neurotransmitters compensate is unclear. This study aims to investigate the patterns of DA and 5-HT metabolisms at rest within selected brain regions related to inter-individual variability in six main components of impulsivity/compulsivity (anticipatory hyperactivity, premature responses, delay discounting, risk-taking, perseveration, flexibility)...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tanya M Teslovich, Daniel Seung Kim, Xianyong Yin, Alena Stancáková, Anne U Jackson, Matthias Wielscher, Adam Naj, John R B Perry, Jeroen R Huyghe, Heather M Stringham, James P Davis, Chelsea K Raulerson, Ryan P Welch, Christian Fuchsberger, Adam E Locke, Xueling Sim, Peter S Chines, Narisu Narisu, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Vilmundur Gudnason, Solomon K Musani, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Gerard D Schellenberg, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Johanna Kuusisto, Francis S Collins, Michael Boehnke, Markku Laakso, Karen L Mohlke
Comprehensive metabolite profiling captures many highly heritable traits, including amino acid levels, which are potentially sensitive biomarkers for disease pathogenesis. To better understand the contribution of genetic variation to amino acid levels, we performed single variant and gene-based tests of association between nine serum amino acids (alanine, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine) and 16.6 million genotyped and imputed variants in 8,545 non-diabetic Finnish men from the METabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study...
February 21, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
K Boeta-Lopez, J Duran, D Elizondo, E Gonzales, A Rentfro, A E Schwarzbach, S Nair
Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the association of interleukin-6 (IL6) promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800797 (-597 G/A) and rs1800796 (-572 G/C) with obesity or metabolic syndrome in Mexican-Americans. Methods: The rs1800797 and rs1800796 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in Mexican-Americans (n = 437) from South Texas, and results were correlated with measures of obesity and metabolic syndrome including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, liver enzymes, plasma IL6 and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)...
February 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Cátia S E Silva, Marco F L Lemos, Ana M Faria, Ana F Lopes, Susana Mendes, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Sara C Novais
Considered a major environmental concern, ocean acidification has induced a recent research boost into effects on marine biodiversity and possible ecological, physiological, and behavioural impacts. Although the majority of literature indicate negative effects of future acidification scenarios, most studies are conducted for just a few days or weeks, which may be insufficient to detect the capacity of an organism to adjust to environmental changes through phenotypic plasticity. Here, the effects and the capacity of sand smelt larvae Atherina presbyter to cope and recover (through a treatment combination strategy) from short (15 days) and long-term exposure (45 days) to increasing pCO2 levels (control: ~515 μatm, pH = 8...
February 22, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Maria G Corda, Maria A Piludu, Francesco Sanna, Giovanna Piras, Marianna Boi, Fabrizio Sanna, Alberto Fernández Teruel, Osvaldo Giorgi
The Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) outbred rat lines are selected for respectively rapid vs. poor acquisition of active avoidant behavior. Emotional reactivity appears to be the most prominent behavioral difference between the two lines, with RLA rats being more fearful/anxious than their RHA counterparts. Accordingly, here we show that shock-induced inhibition of drinking behavior in the Vogel's test is significantly more pronounced in RLA than RHA rats. Thus, unpunished drinking activity is similar in both lines (38...
February 22, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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