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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149188/orienting-the-causal-relationship-between-imprecisely-measured-traits-using-gwas-summary-data
#1
Gibran Hemani, Kate Tilling, George Davey Smith
Inference about the causal structure that induces correlations between two traits can be achieved by combining genetic associations with a mediation-based approach, as is done in the causal inference test (CIT). However, we show that measurement error in the phenotypes can lead to the CIT inferring the wrong causal direction, and that increasing sample sizes has the adverse effect of increasing confidence in the wrong answer. This problem is likely to be general to other mediation-based approaches. Here we introduce an extension to Mendelian randomisation, a method that uses genetic associations in an instrumentation framework, that enables inference of the causal direction between traits, with some advantages...
November 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146204/mercury-exposure-and-short-term-consequences-on-physiology-and-reproduction-in-antarctic-petrels
#2
Alice Carravieri, Jérôme Fort, Arnaud Tarroux, Yves Cherel, Oliver P Love, Solène Prieur, Maud Brault-Favrou, Paco Bustamante, Sébastien Descamps
Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant reaching Antarctic environments through atmospheric transport and deposition. Seabirds as meso to top predators can accumulate high quantities of Hg through diet. Reproduction is one of the most sensitive endpoints of Hg toxicity in marine birds. Yet, few studies have explored Hg exposure and effects in Antarctic seabirds, where increasing environmental perturbations challenge animal populations. This study focuses on the Antarctic petrel Thalassoica antarctica from Svarthamaren, Antarctica, where the world's largest breeding population is thought to be in decline...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141188/autistic-traits-modulate-the-activity-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-response-to-female-faces
#3
Yui Murakami, Shinya Sakai, Kenta Takeda, Daisuke Sawamura, Kazuki Yoshida, Takamichi Hirose, Chisa Ikeda, Hiroki Mani, Toru Yamamoto, Ayahito Ito
Previous findings have revealed abnormal visual attention or processing of faces among individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC). However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between autistic traits and neural mechanisms associated with representing facial values. Using fMRI, we investigated the patterns of brain activity in the vmPFC and VS in response to faces of elderly males, elderly females, young males, and young females. During fMRI, subjects with a relatively high autism quotient (high group) and those with a relatively low autism quotient (low group) were presented with a face and asked to rate its pleasantness...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138079/genetic-structure-and-phenotypic-variation-of-anopheles-darlingi-in-northwest-colombia
#4
Mariano Altamiranda-Saavedra, Jan E Conn, Margarita M Correa
This study evaluated the influence of environmental heterogeneity on Anopheles darlingi genetic and morphometric traits at a microgeographic level. Specimens of An. darlingi collected from multiple municipalities in the Colombian malaria endemic region Urabá-Bajo Cauca and Alto Sinú (UCS) were analyzed using 13 microsatellite loci. Spatial genetic structure, population variation and wing geometric morphometric analyses were performed. Microsatellite results showed low genetic differentiation and high gene flow among populations; four highly admixed subpopulations were detected with no particular association to the municipalities...
November 11, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136214/effects-of-dietary-supplemental-bile-acids-on-performance-carcass-characteristics-serum-lipid-metabolites-and-intestinal-enzyme-activities-of-broiler-chickens
#5
Wenqing Lai, Weigang Huang, Bing Dong, Aizhi Cao, Wenjuan Zhang, Juntao Li, Hui Wu, Liying Zhang
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bile acids derived from swine on the growth performance, carcass traits, serum lipid metabolites and intestinal enzyme activities in broiler chickens. Four hundred thirty-two 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks each for 42 d. The experimental treatments received a corn-soybean basal diet containing lard and were as follows: 0 (control), 40 mg, 60 mg, and 80 mg bile acids/kg of diet...
November 9, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136208/mouse-phenome-database-an-integrative-database-and-analysis-suite-for-curated-empirical-phenotype-data-from-laboratory-mice
#6
Molly A Bogue, Stephen C Grubb, David O Walton, Vivek M Philip, Georgi Kolishovski, Tim Stearns, Matthew H Dunn, Daniel A Skelly, Beena Kadakkuzha, Gregg TeHennepe, Govindarajan Kunde-Ramamoorthy, Elissa J Chesler
The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD; https://phenome.jax.org) is a widely used resource that provides access to primary experimental trait data, genotypic variation, protocols and analysis tools for mouse genetic studies. Data are contributed by investigators worldwide and represent a broad scope of phenotyping endpoints and disease-related traits in naïve mice and those exposed to drugs, environmental agents or other treatments. MPD houses individual animal data with detailed, searchable protocols, and makes these data available to other resources via API...
November 10, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130150/predictors-of-adverse-psychological-experiences-surrounding-genome-wide-profiling-for-disease-risk
#7
K M Broady, K E Ormond, E J Topol, N J Schork, Cinnamon S Bloss
This study aimed to identify predictors of adverse psychological experiences among direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic test consumers. We performed a secondary analysis on data from the Scripps Genomic Health Initiative (SGHI), which studied 2037 individuals tested with commercially available tests yielding personalized risk estimates for 23 common, genetically complex diseases. As part of the original study, the participants completed baseline and follow-up survey measures assessing demographics, personal and family health history, attitudes toward genetic testing, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), test-related distress (Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)), and reactions to receipt of results...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126027/strong-differences-between-two-congeneric-species-in-sensitivity-to-pesticides-in-a-warming-world
#8
Lin Op de Beeck, Julie Verheyen, Robby Stoks
To predict the impact of pesticides in a warming world we need to know how species differ in the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming. Trait-based approaches have been successful in identifying the 'pace of life' and body size as predictors of sensitivity to pesticides among distantly related species. However, it remains to be tested whether these traits allow predicting differences in sensitivity to pesticides between closely related species, and in the strength of the interaction pathways between pesticides and warming...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121555/the-relationship-between-adhd-traits-and-sensory-sensitivity-in-the-general-population
#9
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
Preliminary studies in children and adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) report both hypo-responsiveness and hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli, as well as problems modulating sensory input. As it has been suggested that those with ADHD exist at the extreme end of a continuum of ADHD traits, which are also evident in the general population, we investigated the link between ADHD and sensory sensitivity in the general population. Two online questionnaires measuring ADHD traits and sensory responsivity across various sensory domains were administered to 234 participants...
October 25, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121209/genomic-environment-impacts-color-vision-evolution-in-a-family-with-visually-based-sexual-selection
#10
Benjamin A Sandkam, Jeffrey B Joy, Corey T Watson, Felix Breden
Many models of evolution by sexual selection predict a co-evolution of sensory systems and mate preferences, but the genomic architecture (number and arrangement of contributing loci) underlying these characters could constrain this co-evolution. Here we examine how the genomic organization and evolution of the opsin genes (responsible for tuning color vision) can influence the evolutionary trajectory of sexually selected traits across 15 species in the family Poeciliidae, which includes classic systems for studies of color-mediated sexual selection such as guppies, swordtails and mollies...
November 7, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116179/breeding-and-study-of-two-new-photoperiod-and-thermo-sensitive-genic-male-sterile-lines-of-polyploid-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#11
Xianhua Zhang, Bo Zuo, Zhaojian Song, Wei Wang, Yuchi He, Yuhua Liu, Detian Cai
Male sterile lines play an important role in the utilization of heterosis. To explore and exploit the heterosis of polyploid hybrid rice, two photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines of polyploid rice, PS006 and PS012, were bred via chromosome doubling, complex hybridization and self-breeding. The characteristics of these two lines, including the agronomic traits, growth, development, fertility transformation and combining ability, were investigated. Both lines had good agronomic characteristics and flowering habits, a high outcrossing rate, obvious fertility alterations and good combining abilities...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115920/genome-wide-association-mapping-of-resistance-to-a-brazilian-isolate-of-sclerotinia-sclerotiorum-in-soybean-genotypes-mostly-from-brazil
#12
Wei Wei, Ana Carolina Oliveira Mesquita, Adriana de A Figueiró, Xing Wu, Shilpa Manjunatha, Daniel P Wickland, Matthew E Hudson, Fernando C Juliatti, Steven J Clough
BACKGROUND: Sclerotinia Stem Rot (SSR), caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is ubiquitous in cooler climates where soybean crops are grown. Breeding for resistance to SSR remains challenging in crops like soybean, where no single gene provides strong resistance, but instead, multiple genes work together to provide partial resistance. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to dissect the complex genetic architecture of soybean quantitative resistance to SSR and to provide effective molecular markers that could be used in breeding programs...
November 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108857/applying-inbreeding-hybridization-and-mutagenesis-to-improve-oxidative-stress-tolerance-and-longevity-of-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora
#13
Nanette Hope Sumaya, Riddhi Gohil, Christopher Okolo, Temesgen Addis, Verena Doerfler, Ralf-Udo Ehlers, Carlos Molina
Poor shelf-life and sensitivity to environmental stress of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are traits, which deserve attention for improvement. Recently, a strong positive correlation between oxidative stress tolerance and longevity of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora dauer juveniles (DJs) has been reported. In this study, the improvement of H. bacteriophora DJ longevity was achieved by hybridization and mutagenesis. A hybrid pool deriving from two oxidative stress tolerant and long-living parental strains was generated...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107905/warming-and-eutrophication-combine-to-restructure-diatoms-and-dinoflagellates
#14
Wupeng Xiao, Xin Liu, Andrew J Irwin, Edward A Laws, Lei Wang, Bingzhang Chen, Yang Zeng, Bangqin Huang
Temperature change and eutrophication are known to affect phytoplankton communities, but relatively little is known about the effects of interactions between simultaneous changes of temperature and nutrient loading in coastal ecosystems. Here we show that such interaction is key in driving diatom-dinoflagellate dynamics in the East China Sea. Diatoms and dinoflagellates responded differently to temperature, nutrient concentrations and ratios, and their interactions. Diatoms preferred lower temperature and higher nutrient concentrations, while dinoflagellates were less sensitive to temperature and nutrient concentrations, but tended to prevail at low phosphorus and high N:P ratio conditions...
October 24, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100909/trait-anxiety-and-probabilistic-learning-behavioral-and-electrophysiological-findings
#15
Donghong Jiang, Dandan Zhang, Yuming Chen, Zhenhong He, Qiufeng Gao, Ruolei Gu, Pengfei Xu
Anxiety is a negative emotion that affects various aspects of people's daily life. To explain why individuals with high anxiety tend to make suboptimal decisions, we suggest that their learning ability might play an important role. Regarding that anxiety modulates both outcome expectation and attention allocation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the function of feedback learning should be sensitive to individual level of anxiety. However, previous studies that directly examined this hypothesis were scarce...
October 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100650/sweet-and-sensitive-sensory-processing-sensitivity-and-type-1-diabetes
#16
Alon Goldberg, Zaheera Ebraheem, Cynthia Freiberg, Rachel Ferarro, Sharon Chai, Orna Dally Gottfried
OBJECTIVE: Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a recently proposed construct that refers to a genetically influenced tendency to more strongly and deeply process a variety of information. The aim of the study was to examine whether SPS is associated with an autoimmune disease such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 128 adolescents (62 with T1D and 66 comparisons [without autoimmune disease]) and their parents who completed the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) questionnaire, assessing SPS level...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099149/closure-methods-for-laparotomy-incisions-for-preventing-incisional-hernias-and-other-wound-complications
#17
REVIEW
Sunil V Patel, David D Paskar, Richard L Nelson, Satyanarayana S Vedula, Scott R Steele
BACKGROUND: Surgeons who perform laparotomy have a number of decisions to make regarding abdominal closure. Material and size of potential suture types varies widely. In addition, surgeons can choose to close the incision in anatomic layers or mass ('en masse'), as well as using either a continuous or interrupted suturing technique, of which there are different styles of each. There is ongoing debate as to which suturing techniques and suture materials are best for achieving definitive wound closure while minimising the risk of short- and long-term complications...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096235/what-drives-young-children-to-over-imitate-investigating-the-effects-of-age-context-action-type-and-transitivity
#18
Zanna Clay, Harriet Over, Claudio Tennie
Imitation underlies many traits thought to characterize our species, which includes the transmission and acquisition of language, material culture, norms, rituals, and conventions. From early childhood, humans show an intriguing willingness to imitate behaviors, even those that have no obvious function. This phenomenon, known as "over-imitation," is thought to explain some of the key differences between human cultures as compared with those of nonhuman animals. Here, we used a single integrative paradigm to simultaneously investigate several key factors proposed to shape children's over-imitation: age, context, transitivity, and action type...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091779/towards-a-psychopathology-specific-to-substance-use-disorder-should-emotional-responses-to-life-events-be-included
#19
Angelo G I Maremmani, Marco Maiello, Manuel Glauco Carbone, Alessandro Pallucchini, Francesca Brizzi, Iacopo Belcari, Ciro Conversano, Giulio Perugi, Icro Maremmani
INTRODUCTION: The severity of emotional responses to life events (PTSD spectrum) as part of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Substance Use Disorder (SUD) patients has often been considered from a unitary perspective. Light has also been shed on the possible definition of a specific psychopathology of SUD patients. This psychopathology has been proved to be independent of treatment choice, of being active in using substances, of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity and primary substance of abuse (heroin, alcohol, cocaine)...
October 6, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089954/effects-of-drought-heat-and-their-interaction-on-the-growth-yield-and-photosynthetic-function-of-lentil-lens-culinaris-medikus-genotypes-varying-in-heat-and-drought-sensitivity
#20
Akanksha Sehgal, Kumari Sita, Jitendra Kumar, Shiv Kumar, Sarvjeet Singh, Kadambot H M Siddique, Harsh Nayyar
Rising temperatures and drought stress limit the growth and production potential of lentil (Lens culinaris Medikus), particularly during reproductive growth and seed filling. The present study aimed to (i) investigate the individual and combined effects of heat and drought stress during seed filling, (ii) determine the response of lentil genotypes with contrasting heat and drought sensitivity, and (iii) assess any cross tolerance in contrasting genotypes. For this purpose, eight lentil genotypes (two drought-tolerant, two drought-sensitive, two heat-tolerant, two heat-sensitive) were either sown at the normal time (second week of November 2014), when the temperatures at the time of seed filling were below 30/20°C (day/night), or sown late (second week of February 2015) to impose heat stress (temperatures > 30/20°C (day/night) during reproducive growth and seed filling...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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