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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933022/emotional-empathy-and-facial-mimicry-for-static-and-dynamic-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-disgust
#1
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929658/executive-function-index-efi-performance-in-nonclinical-individuals-with-high-levels-of-autistic-traits
#2
F R Ferraro, R Hansen, L Deling
This study examined the ability of the Executive Function Index (EFI) to detect differences in executive functioning amongst participants with varying levels of subclinical autistic symptoms as quantified by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (ASQ). Participants were a nonclinical college subject sample classified as displaying either Low (0-15 ASQ score, n = 182) ASQ traits or High (16 or higher ASQ score, n = 91) ASQ traits. Participants were given the ASQ (Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) and the EFI (Spinella, 2005 )...
December 8, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928042/unexpected-high-vulnerability-of-functions-in-wilderness-areas-evidence-from-coral-reef-fishes
#3
Stéphanie D'agata, Laurent Vigliola, Nicholas A J Graham, Laurent Wantiez, Valeriano Parravicini, Sébastien Villéger, Gerard Mou-Tham, Philippe Frolla, Alan M Friedlander, Michel Kulbicki, David Mouillot
High species richness is thought to support the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions and services under changing environments. Yet, some species might perform unique functional roles while others are redundant. Thus, the benefits of high species richness in maintaining ecosystem functioning are uncertain if functions have little redundancy, potentially leading to high vulnerability of functions. We studied the natural propensity of assemblages to be functionally buffered against loss prior to fishing activities, using functional trait combinations, in coral reef fish assemblages across unfished wilderness areas of the Indo-Pacific: Chagos Archipelago, New Caledonia and French Polynesia...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926438/exploring-individual-differences-in-task-switching-persistence-and-other-personality-traits-related-to-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function
#4
A Umemoto, C B Holroyd
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015)...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924707/interindividual-differences-in-chemosensory-perception-toward-a-better-understanding-of-perceptual-ratings-during-chemical-exposures
#5
Marlene Pacharra, Stefan Kleinbeck, Michael Schäper, Stephanie A Juran, Kathrin Hey, Meinolf Blaszkewicz, Marie-Louise Lehmann, Klaus Golka, Christoph van Thriel
Perceptions that arise from stimulation of olfactory and trigeminal receptors in the nasal cavity guide the evaluation of chemical environment in humans. Strong interindividual differences in these assessments may be attributed to nonsensory factors such as gender, anxiety, and chemical sensitivity. Knowledge regarding the influence of these factors originates mainly from basic odor research using short-term exposure scenarios. In situations with continuous chemical exposures-common in the working environment-their impact is less clear...
2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918538/variation-in-the-flowering-gene-self-pruning-5g-promotes-day-neutrality-and-early-yield-in-tomato
#6
Sebastian Soyk, Niels A Müller, Soon Ju Park, Inga Schmalenbach, Ke Jiang, Ryosuke Hayama, Lei Zhang, Joyce Van Eck, José M Jiménez-Gómez, Zachary B Lippman
Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917106/reward-sensitivity-enhances-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-activation-during-free-choice
#7
Catherine Cho, David V Smith, Mauricio R Delgado
Expressing one's preference via choice can be rewarding, particularly when decisions are voluntarily made as opposed to being forced. An open question is whether engaging in choices involving rewards recruits distinct neural systems as a function of sensitivity to reward. Reward sensitivity is a trait partly influenced by the mesolimbic dopamine system, which can impact an individual's neural and behavioral response to reward cues. Here, we investigated how reward sensitivity contributes to neural activity associated with free and forced choices...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#8
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHOD: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907262/potential-breeding-distributions-of-u-s-birds-predicted-with-both-short-term-variability-and-long-term-average-climate-data
#9
Brooke L Bateman, Anna M Pidgeon, Volker C Radeloff, Curtis H Flather, Jeremy VanDerWal, H Resit Akçakaya, Wayne E Thogmartin, Thomas P Albright, Stephen J Vavrus, Patricia J Heglund
Climate conditions, such as temperature or precipitation, averaged over several decades strongly affect species distributions, as evidenced by experimental results and a plethora of models demonstrating statistical relations between species occurrences and long-term climate averages. However, long-term averages can conceal climate changes that have occurred in recent decades and may not capture actual species occurrence well because the distributions of species, especially at the edges of their range, are typically dynamic and may respond strongly to short-term climate variability...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901297/climate-change-alters-the-reproductive-phenology-and-investment-of-a-lacustrine-fish-the-three-spine-stickleback
#10
Rachel A Hovel, Stephanie M Carlson, Thomas P Quinn
High-latitude lakes are particularly sensitive to the effects of global climate change, demonstrating earlier ice breakup, longer ice-free seasons, and increased water temperatures. Such physical changes have implications for diverse life-history traits in taxa across entire lake food webs. Here, we use a five-decade time series from an Alaskan lake to explore effects of climate change on growth and reproduction of a widely distributed lacustrine fish, the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We used multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) models to describe trends in the mean length for multiple size classes and to explore the influence of physical (date of ice breakup, surface water temperature) and biological (density of con- and heterospecifics) factors...
November 30, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899327/novel-application-of-species-richness-estimators-to-predict-the-host-range-of-parasites
#11
David M Watson, Kirsty V Milner, Andrea Leigh
Host range is a critical life history trait of parasites, influencing prevalence, virulence and ultimately determining their distributional extent. Current approaches to measure host range are sensitive to sampling effort, the number of known hosts increasing with more records. Here, we develop a novel application of results-based stopping rules to determine how many hosts should be sampled to yield stable estimates of the number of primary hosts within regions, then use species richness estimation to predict host ranges of parasites across their distributional ranges...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895292/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-like-traits-and-distractibility-in-the-visual-periphery
#12
Maria Panagiotidi, Paul G Overton, Tom Stafford
We examined the performance of nonclinical subjects with high and low levels of self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like traits in a novel distractibility paradigm with far peripheral visual distractors, the likely origin of many distractors in everyday life. Subjects were tested on a Sustained Attention to Response Task with distractors appearing before some of the target or nontarget stimuli. When the distractors appeared 80 ms before the targets or nontargets, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits were less affected in their reaction times than those with lower levels...
November 28, 2016: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887921/non-invasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-thalassemias-using-maternal-plasma-cell-free-dna
#13
REVIEW
Irena Hudecova, Rossa W K Chiu
Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) using maternal plasma cell free DNA has already reshaped the existing prenatal care system for pregnancies screened for common chromosomal aneuploidies. On the other hand, much progress has been made in developing NIPT for monogenic diseases. Thalassemia served as a disease model to develop strategies for NIPT of monogenic traits. One approach focuses on the detection or exclusion of paternally inherited fetal mutations that are absent from the mother's genome. The assessment of maternally inherited mutations in maternal plasma requires the use of highly sensitive DNA quantification techniques...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886731/social-capital-friendship-networks-and-youth-unemployment
#14
Martin Hällsten, Christofer Edling, Jens Rydgren
Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883199/hepcidin-detects-iron-deficiency-in-sri-lankan-adolescents-with-a-high-burden-of-hemoglobinopathy-a-diagnostic-test-accuracy-study
#15
Katherine Wray, Angela Allen, Emma Evans, Chris Fisher, Anuja Premawardhena, Lakshman Perera, Rexan Rodrigo, Gayan Goonathilaka, Lebbe Ramees, Craig Webster, Andrew E Armitage, Andrew M Prentice, David J Weatherall, Hal Drakesmith, Sant-Rayn Pasricha
Anemia affects over 800 million women and children globally. Measurement of hepcidin as an index of iron status shows promise, but its diagnostic performance where hemoglobinopathies are prevalent is unclear. We evaluated the performance of hepcidin as a diagnostic test of iron deficiency in adolescents across Sri Lanka. We selected 2273 samples from a nationally representative cross-sectional study of 7526 secondary schoolchildren across Sri Lanka and analyzed associations between hepcidin and participant characteristics, iron indices, inflammatory markers and hemoglobinopathy states...
November 24, 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879129/on-drug-resistance-and-metronomic-chemotherapy-a-mathematical-modeling-and-optimal-control-approach
#16
Urszula Ledzewicz, Shuo Wang, Heinz Schattler, Nicolas Andre, Marie Amelie Heng, Eddy Pasquier
Effects that tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance have on the structure of chemotherapy protocols are discussed from a mathematical modeling and optimal control point of view. In the case when two compartments consisting of sensitive and resistant cells are considered, optimal protocols consist of full dose chemotherapy as long as the relative proportion of sensitive cells is high. When resistant cells become more dominant, optimal controls switch to lower dose regimens defined by so-called singular controls...
February 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873067/effectiveness-of-baseline-corticosterone-as-a-monitoring-tool-for-fitness-a-meta-analysis-in-seabirds
#17
Graham H Sorenson, Cody J Dey, Christine L Madliger, Oliver P Love
Many ecosystems have experienced anthropogenically induced changes in biodiversity, yet predicting these patterns has been difficult. Recently, individual behavioural and physiological measures have been proposed as more rapid links between environmental variation and fitness compared to demographics. Glucocorticoid hormones have received much attention given that they mediate energetic demands, metabolism, and foraging behaviour. However, it is currently unclear whether glucocorticoids can reliably predict environmental and fitness-related traits and whether they may be useful in specific groups of taxa...
November 22, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866225/characterization-of-a-common-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-high-tillering-dwarf-mutant
#18
Tao Xu, Nengfei Bian, Mingxing Wen, Jin Xiao, Chunxia Yuan, Aizhong Cao, Shouzhong Zhang, Xiue Wang, Haiyan Wang
A novel high-tillering dwarf mutant in common wheat Wangshuibai was characterized and mapped to facilitate breeding for plant height and tiller and the future cloning of the causal gene. Tiller number and plant height are two major agronomic traits in cereal crops affecting plant architecture and grain yield. NAUH167, a mutant of common wheat landrace Wangshuibai induced by ethylmethyl sulfide (EMS) treatment, exhibits higher tiller number and reduced plant height. Microscope observation showed that the dwarf phenotype was attributed to the decrease in the number of cells and their length...
November 19, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860503/disentangling-genetic-and-prenatal-maternal-effects-on-offspring-size-and-survival
#19
Joel L Pick, Christina Ebneter, Pascale Hutter, Barbara Tschirren
Organizational processes during prenatal development can have long-term effects on an individual's phenotype. Because these early developmental stages are sensitive to environmental influences, mothers are in a unique position to alter their offspring's phenotype by differentially allocating resources to their developing young. However, such prenatal maternal effects are difficult to disentangle from other forms of parental care, additive genetic effects, and/or other forms of maternal inheritance, hampering our understanding of their evolutionary consequences...
December 2016: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858853/genome-wide-linkage-analysis-and-regional-fine-mapping-identified-variants-in-the-ryr3-gene-as-a-novel-quantitative-trait-locus-for-circulating-adiponectin-in-chinese-population
#20
Yi-Cheng Chang, Yen-Feng Chiu, Chih-Tsueng He, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ming-Wei Lin, Todd B Seto, Themistocles Assimes, Yuh-Shan Jou, Lynn Su, Wei-Jei Lee, Po-Chu Lee, Shu-Huei Tsai, Lee-Ming Chuang
Adiponectin is adipocyte-secreted cytokine with potent insulin-sensitizing action in peripheral tissues. The heritability of plasma adiponectin is high in Han Chinese population.To identify genetic loci influencing plasma adiponectin levels in Chinese population, we performed a genome-wide linkage scan in 1949 Chinese participants of the Stanford Asia-Pacific Program for Hypertension and Insulin Resistance family study and mapped a quantitative trail locus located on chromosome 15 at 31 cM (logarithm of odds = 3...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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