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Neonatal acute renal failure

Kathryn J Sharma, Tania F Esakoff, Alyson Guillet, Richard M Burwick, Aaron B Caughey
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adverse outcomes were more common in late preterm pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and growth restriction compared to those affected by preeclampsia alone. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 8,927 singleton pregnancies with preeclampsia. Pregnancies with small for gestational age (SGA) neonates (birthweight <10(th) percentile) were compared to those appropriate for gestational age (AGA) neonates. Maternal outcomes included cesarean delivery (CD) rate, CD for fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormalities, abruption, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), maternal transfusion, acute renal failure, and peripartum cardiomyopathy...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Malcolm G Coulthard
Most babies with chronic renal failure are identified antenatally, and over half that are treated with peritoneal dialysis receive kidney transplants before school age. Most infants that develop acute renal failure have hypotension following cardiac surgery, or multiple organ failure. Sometimes the falls in glomerular filtration and urine output are physiological and reversible, and sometimes due to kidney injury, but (illogically) it is now common to define them all as having 'acute kidney injury'. Contrary to widespread opinion, careful interpretation of the plasma creatinine concentrations can provide sensitive evidence of early acute renal failure...
September 25, 2016: Early Human Development
Guoyan Liu, Xiaobin Shang, Bibo Yuan, Cha Han, Yingmei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience with the diagnosis and management of acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). STUDY DESIGN: The medical records of pregnant women with AFLP were reviewed for symptoms, laboratory findings, treatment, and maternal and fetal outcomes during a 10-year period between January 2003 and December 2013. RESULTS: During the study period 15 women had AFLP as their discharge diagnosis. The mean gestational age at onset was 36 ± 1 weeks...
May 2016: Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Alexandra Bruel, Jean-Christophe Rozé, Marie-Pierre Quere, Cyril Flamant, Marion Boivin, Gwenaëlle Roussey-Kesler, Emma Allain-Launay
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe complication of prematurity, with currently unknown consequences for renal function in childhood. The objective of this study was to search for signs of reduced nephron number in children aged 3-10 years who had been born preterm with neonatal AKI and compare this group to control children. METHODS: IRENEO was a prospective, controlled study conducted in 2013 in Nantes University Hospital. Children who were born at less than 33 weeks gestational age (GA) and included in the LIFT cohort were eligible for entry...
June 22, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Carole Harbulot, Stéphanie Paquay, Imen Dorboz, Samia Pichard, Agnès Bourillon, Jean-François Benoist, Claude Jardel, Hélène Ogier de Baulny, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Manuel Schiff
BACKGROUND: MEGDEL (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder associated with recessive mutations in SERAC1. OBJECTIVES: To report transient neonatal renal findings in MEGDEL syndrome. RESULTS: This 7 year-old girl was the first child of consanguineous Turkish parents. She exhibited an acute neonatal deterioration with severe lactic acidosis and liver failure. Initial evaluation revealed massive polyuria and renal failure with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria...
June 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Xiao Yu Tian, Wing Tak Wong, Chi Wai Lau, Yi-Xiang Wang, Wai San Cheang, Jian Liu, Ye Lu, Huihui Huang, Yin Xia, Zhen Yu Chen, Chuen-Shing Mok, Chau-Ming Lau, Yu Huang
Melamine incident, linked to nephrotoxicity and kidney stone in infants previously exposed to melamine-contaminated milk products, was unprecedentedly grave in China in 2008 as little was known about the mechanistic process leading to renal dysfunction in affected children. This study investigates whether neonatal ingestion of melamine leads to renal and vascular dysfunction in adulthood; and whether ingestion of melamine in pregnant rats leads to renal dysfunction in their offspring. A combination of approaches employed includes functional studies in rat renal arteries, renal blood flow measurement by functional magnetic resonance imaging, assay for pro-inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, and detection of plasma and renal melamine...
2016: Scientific Reports
G Stefanov, B L Puppala, G Pais, A Gulati
BACKGROUND: Renal failure is common in the NICU; Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) occurs in 8-24% of admissions. Although AKI is preventable with early diagnosis, no reliable AKI biomarkers exist. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in renal pathogenesis, and elevated urinary ET-1 (uET-1) levels may correlate with progression of renal dysfunction. The study objectives were to determine whether uET-1 levels correlate with renal function parameters and/or fetal growth restriction, and if uET-1 is a potential neonatal AKI biomarker...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
Brandon W Kirkland, Jacob Wilkes, David K Bailly, Susan L Bratton
OBJECTIVES: Recent analyses show higher mortality at low-volume centers providing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We sought to identify factors associated with center volume and mortality to explain survival differences and identify areas for improvement. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients admitted to children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database and supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure from 2003 to 2014...
August 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Rajesh Pandey, Ritchie George Koshy, Joleen Dako
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) are known to cause fetopathies, and acute kidney injury in Neonates. It is important to monitor neonates on ACEI to prevent severe rebound hypotension, as well as an acute renal impairment or failure followed by acute renal failure.
May 4, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Indu Saxena, Varun Shivankur, Manoj Kumar
INTRODUCTION: Early neonates (1-7-day-old) may develop acute kidney injury or acute renal failure due to functional (pre-renal, may be caused by decreased renal perfusion), intrinsic (renal, may be caused by acute insult), or obstructive (due to anatomic urinary tract obstruction) causes. Urinary protein estimation is important for diagnosis, follow-up and prognosis of disease. The Protein Creatinine Ratio (PCR) has been successfully used to establish proteinuria in different types of patients...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kenji Obara, Tsutomu Anraku, Masahiro Ikeda, Shuichi Komatsu, Takaki Mizusawa, Ryo Maruyama, Yoshihiko Tomita
A cecoureterocele is a rare form of ectopic ureterocele that the orifice of the affected ureter is within the bladder, but the cavity of the ureterocele extends beyond the bladder neck into the urethra. We present a case of a newborn boy with a large cecoureterocele with contralateral renal rupture. He required an emergency transurethral incision of the ureterocele for the treatment of acute renal failure and respiratory disorder.
2016: Urologia Internationalis
Jeffrey J Cies, Wayne S Moore, Susan B Conley, Mindy J Dickerman, Christine Small, Dominick Carella, Paul Shea, Jason Parker, Arun Chopra
Pharmacokinetic parameters can be significantly altered for both extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This case report describes the pharmacokinetics of continuous-infusion meropenem in a patient on ECLS with concurrent CRRT. A 2.8-kg, 10-day-old, full-term neonate born via spontaneous vaginal delivery presented with hypothermia, lethargy, and a ~500-g weight loss from birth. She progressed to respiratory failure on hospital day 2 (HD 2) and developed sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and liver failure as a result of disseminated adenoviral infection...
January 2016: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
Behzad Bidadi, Amulya A Nageswara Rao, Dominder Kaur, Shakila P Khan, Vilmarie Rodriguez
Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (NRVT) is a rare thromboembolic complication in the neonatal period, and sequelae from renal dysfunction can cause significant morbidity. The authors retrospectively reviewed 10 patients with NRVT treated at their institution. The majority of the cohort were male (n = 9), preterm (n = 6), and had unilateral NRVT (n = 6). Six patients received thrombolysis and/or anticoagulation, and 4 patients received supportive care only. Two of the 6 patients treated with anticoagulation who had bilateral NRVT and anuria received thrombolysis with low-dose tissue plasminogen activator...
February 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Charles R P George
John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques...
February 2016: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Sean Carter, Abhijit Dixit, Andrew Lunn, Anjum Deorukhkar, Martin Christian
A case is presented of a neonate born at 32 weeks of gestation with intra-uterine growth retardation. The renal scan performed at 31 weeks showed oligohydramnios but normal kidneys. The neonate was oliguric from birth and required early peritoneal dialysis. Her urine showed heavy proteinuria, and the plasma albumin was very low. Post-natal ultrasonography showed large bright kidneys with reduced corticomedullary differentiation but no dysplastia; arterial and venous flow was normal on Doppler ultrasound. The quiz discusses the differential diagnosis with particular reference to whether this picture represents acute kidney injury with expected improvement or chronic kidney disease...
February 18, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Bedangshu Saikia, Neetu Vashisht, Neeraj Gupta, Archna Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in children but it is uncommon in newborns. To our knowledge only five cases have been reported so far (probably underreported). The known modalities of treatment include transfusion of plasma and plasmapheresis. We report a case of neonatal HUS for whom we performed an exchange transfusion to good effect. CASE DESCRIPTION: A term vaginally born baby, meconium stained and floppy at birth presented with severe anaemia in the first few hours of life...
2016: SpringerPlus
Moira Dwyer, Nathan Peffer, Thomas Fuller, Glenn Cannon
We present the case of an infant who suffered intraperitoneal bladder perforation secondary to routine neonatal circumcision with the Plastibell device. On day-of-life 5, the patient presented with abdominal distention, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe acute renal failure. After removal of a distal meatal obstruction caused by the Plastibell device and open repair of the bladder defect, the patient had an uneventful recovery with rapid return of renal function. Despite the relative safety of the Plastibell, this case underscores the importance of careful device placement, parental education, keen clinical judgment, and prompt intervention when indicated...
March 2016: Urology
Sang Yoon Kim, Sungkyu Cho, Eunseok Choi, Woong-Han Kim
Mixing of autologous blood with priming volume has relatively significant effects on blood composition, especially in low-bodyweight neonates. In an effort to reduce these effects, mini-volume priming (MP) has been applied in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The present study was designed to examine the effect of MP on clinical outcomes of low-bodyweight neonates undergoing open heart surgery.We retrospectively reviewed medical records of low-bodyweight (2.5 kg or less) neonates who underwent open heart surgery in our center from January 2000 to December 2014...
January 2016: Artificial Organs
Giovanni Battista Luciani, Stiljan Hoxha, Salvatore Torre, Alessio Rungatscher, Tiziano Menon, Luca Barozzi, Giuseppe Faggian
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has traditionally been and, for the most part, still is being performed using roller pumps. Use of first-generation centrifugal pumps has yielded controversial outcomes, perhaps due to mechanical properties of the same and the ensuing risk of hemolysis and renal morbidity. Latest-generation centrifugal pumps, using magnetic levitation (ML), exhibit mechanical properties which may have overcome limitations of first-generation devices. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO for cardiac indications in neonates, infants, and children, using standard (SP) and latest-generation ML centrifugal pumps...
January 2016: Artificial Organs
Jens H Westhoff, Burkhard Tönshoff, Sina Waldherr, Johannes Pöschl, Ulrike Teufel, Timm H Westhoff, Alexander Fichtner
BACKGROUND: The G1 cell cycle inhibitors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) have been identified as promising biomarkers for the prediction of adverse outcomes including renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality in critically ill adult patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the prognostic value of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 in neonatal and pediatric AKI for adverse outcome has not been investigated yet...
2015: PloS One
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