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Loneliness cognitive

Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, Parviz Faraji, Robab Faraji, Undine E Lang, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Serge Brand
OBJECTIVE: Whereas several studies have predicted academic achievement (AA) as a function of favorable cognitive factors and low negative emotional functioning (such as depression and anxiety), little is known about its associations with cognitive-emotional states of positive emotional functioning, such as social satisfaction. The present study sought to evaluate associations of AA with dimensions of negative and positive emotional functioning. METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 275 students (mean age, 21...
March 12, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008...
July 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Anton Gollwitzer, Magdalena Wilczynska, Edo S Jaya
Targeting the antecedents of paranoia may be one potential method to reduce or prevent paranoia. For instance, targeting a potential antecedent of paranoia - loneliness - may reduce paranoia. Our first research question was whether loneliness heightens subclinical paranoia and whether negative affect may mediate this effect. Second, we wondered whether this potential effect could be targeted via two interventionist pathways in line with an interventionist-causal model approach: (1) decreasing loneliness, and (2) intervening on the potential mediator - negative affect...
March 1, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Georgia Smith, Hannah Farrimond
Amid fears about the medicalisation of old age, the high prevalence of sleeping medication use in older cohorts is a significant public health concern. Long-term use is associated with a plethora of negative effects, such as cognitive impairment and risk of addiction. However, little is known about the lived experience of older adults using sleeping medication longer term. Episodic interviews lasting approximately 90 minutes were conducted with 15 independently living adults, aged 65-88 years, who were using sedative-hypnotic or tricyclic sleeping medication for more than 11 years on average...
March 1, 2018: Health (London)
Lisa L Sample, Brooke N Cooley, Tusty Ten Bensel
The term sex offender carries expectations that include a continuous level of sexual criminal risk and untreatable mental health conditions that govern sex offending behaviors. These role expectations by the public can socially isolate individuals who have been convicted of a crime and the people who love them. This is likely to contribute to negative self-images that can result in loneliness, isolation, and depression, and, subsequently, contribute to discontinuing support for sex offender's loved ones and reoffending...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Dawn M Guthrie, Jacob G S Davidson, Nicole Williams, Jennifer Campos, Kathleen Hunter, Paul Mick, Joseph B Orange, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Natalie A Phillips, Marie Y Savundranayagam, Walter Wittich
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to understand the added effects of having a sensory impairment (vision and/or hearing impairment) in combination with cognitive impairment with respect to health-related outcomes among older adults (65+ years old) receiving home care or residing in a long-term care (LTC) facility in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using existing data collected with one of two interRAI assessments, one for home care (n = 291,824) and one for LTC (n = 110,578)...
2018: PloS One
Sophie Hauschild, Dorina Winter, Janine Thome, Lisa Liebke, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
INTRODUCTION: Interpersonal problems together with feelings of intense loneliness constitute a core symptom domain in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Mimicry is one social behaviour that serves the forming of social affiliation and building a sense of belonging. In the present study, we investigated whether behavioural mimicry is altered in BPD and whether it is linked to the patient's feeling of loneliness. METHODS: Individuals with BPD (N = 26) and healthy participants (HC, N = 25) performed a finger tapping task with a congruent or incongruent finger movement displayed preceding the presentation of the task relevant stimulus...
January 10, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Haim Hazan, Yaffa Lerman, Vera Shalom, Shlomo Birkenfeld, Rinat Cohen
Loneliness is common among older persons and is associated with adverse health and wellbeing outcomes. We investigated a theory-based intervention that addresses barriers to social contacts and aims at increasing social self-efficacy. Individuals that met pre-assessment criteria of cognitive function, physical health, and loneliness levels were randomly assigned either to the I-SOCIAL intervention that combined both individual and group sessions to address individuals' unique social challenges, or to the control group...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Hui F Foong, Tengku A Hamid, Rahimah Ibrahim, Sharifah A Haron
BACKGROUND: The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. METHODS: The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique...
January 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Paul Mick, Maksim Parfyonov, Walter Wittich, Natalie Phillips, M Kathleen Pichora-Fuller
OBJECTIVE: To determine if hearing loss, vision loss, and dual sensory loss were associated with social network diversity, social participation, availability of social support, and loneliness, respectively, in a population-based sample of older Canadians and to determine whether age or sex modified the associations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included 21 241 participants in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging tracking cohort...
January 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Ya-Hsin Hsiao, Chih-Hua Chang, Po-Wu Gean
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory and neuronal loss culminating in cognitive impairment that not only affects a person's living ability but also becomes a society's as well as a family's economic burden. AD is the most common form of dementia in older persons. It is expected that the number of people with AD dementia will increase dramatically in the next 30 years, projecting to 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050 worldwide. So far, no sufficient evidence is available to support that any medicine is able to prevent or reverse the progression of the disease...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
Turhan Canli, Lei Yu, Xiaoqing Yu, Hongyu Zhao, Debra Fleischman, Robert S Wilson, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett
Subjective social isolation, loneliness, is associated with poor mental and physical health, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we analyzed loneliness data collected on average 5 years ante-mortem and RNA gene expression at death in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 181 participants in the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP), a longitudinal, prospective cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging. Our analytic protocol controlled for biographical variables (age, sex, education), psychological and health variables (depressive symptoms, interval between assessment and autopsy, slope of cognitive decline, AD pathology, presence of infarcts) and RNA integrity...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Laura O Gallardo, Jose Martín-Albo, Angel Barrasa
Loneliness has been linked to many physical and mental health problems, especially during adolescence. From evolutionary, social needs, and cognitive approaches, this study examined whether emotional repair, relatedness need, and peer-rated indicators of relations behave in predicting loneliness, considering all approaches together. The sample consisted of 373 adolescents measured longitudinally at three time points. Results of a cross-lagged panel design found that, considering all the influences together, relatedness need showed the highest strength to predict loneliness...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
M L Rietman, D L van der A, S H van Oostrom, H S J Picavet, M E T Dollé, H van Steeg, W M M Verschuren, A M W Spijkerman
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies showed a U-shaped association between BMI and (physical) frailty. We studied the association between BMI and physical, cognitive, psychological, and social frailty. Furthermore, the overlap between and prevalence of these frailty domains was examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The Doetinchem Cohort Study is a longitudinal population-based study starting in 1987-1991 examining men and women aged 20-59 with follow-up examinations every 5 yrs...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Julia M Balto, Lara A Pilutti, Robert W Motl
PURPOSE: The prevalence and possible antecedents and correlates of loneliness in multiple sclerosis (MS) was examined. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, comparative study of MS (n = 63) and healthy adults (n = 21). METHODS: Data were collected using self-reports of loneliness and antecedents and correlates and analyzed using inferential statistics. FINDINGS: Those with MS had significantly higher loneliness scores than healthy adults (p < ...
January 3, 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Bret R Rutherford, Katharine Brewster, Justin S Golub, Ana H Kim, Steven P Roose
Recent research has linked age-related hearing loss to impaired performance across cognitive domains and increased risk for dementia diagnosis. The data linking hearing impairment to incident late-life depression are more mixed but suggest that diminished hearing does increase risk for depression. Behavioral mechanisms may explain these associations, such as the withdrawal of older adults from situations in which they may have difficulty hearing and communicating, which may contribute to the development of social isolation, loneliness, and consequent cognitive decline and depression...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Bin Yu, Andrew Steptoe, Kaijun Niu, Po-Wen Ku, Li-Jung Chen
PURPOSE: There is evidence for negative associations between social isolation and loneliness and sleep quality in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent these two factors independently affect sleep quality. This study examined the simultaneous associations of social isolation and loneliness with sleep quality in a longitudinal study of older adults. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study in Taiwan collected in 2000 and 2006, involving a cohort of 639 participants (mean age = 66...
November 30, 2017: Quality of Life Research
R Anuradha, Ruma Dutta, J Dinesh Raja, P Sivaprakasam, Aruna B Patil
Background: Medical education is perceived as being stressful, and a high level of stress may have a negative effect on cognitive functioning and learning of students in a medical school. Objectives: To (a) assess the perceived stress among medical undergraduate students, (b) identify the sources of stress, and (c) find an association of perceived stress with sociodemographic characteristics and various stressors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical undergraduate students in a private medical college in Tamil Nadu...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
R V Rikard, Ronald W Berkowsky, Shelia R Cotten
BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Recent studies show beneficial effects of using ICTs for older adults, particularly in terms of reducing loneliness and depression. However, little is known about the factors that may prevent discontinued ICT use in populations that may be at greater risk, such as those in continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine a range of factors that may influence discontinued (1) ICT use, (2) searching for health information, and (3) searching for general information over time among CCRC residents...
November 9, 2017: Gerontology
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