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Loneliness cognitive

Sinead M Kearns, Ann-Marie Creaven
Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios...
October 20, 2016: Personality and Mental Health
Fabien Trémeau, Daniel Antonius, Dolores Malaspina, Donald C Goff, Daniel C Javitt
Social attachment is a biological and affective need. When this need is not met, people experience loneliness. Loneliness is associated with impaired social cognition, and is a risk factor for broad based morbidity across the adult lifespan even after controlling for multiple factors. However, little is known about loneliness in schizophrenia. Eighty-seven non-depressed individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (including 51 inpatients) and 58 control subjects completed the revised UCLA Loneliness scale...
September 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Elliot A Layden, John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stefano F Cappa, Alessandra Dodich, Andrea Falini, Nicola Canessa
Perceived social isolation (PSI), colloquially known as loneliness, is associated with selectively altered attentional, cognitive, and affective processes in humans, but the neural mechanisms underlying these adjustments remain largely unexplored. Behavioral, eye tracking, and neuroimaging research has identified associations between PSI and implicit hypervigilance for social threats. Additionally, selective executive dysfunction has been evidenced by reduced prepotent response inhibition in social Stroop and dichotic listening tasks...
September 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Elizabeth Broadbent
In movies, robots are often extremely humanlike. Although these robots are not yet reality, robots are currently being used in health care, education, and business. Robots provide benefits such as relieving loneliness and enabling communication. Engineers are trying to build robots that look and behave like humans and thus need comprehensive knowledge not only of technology but also of human cognition, emotion, and behavior. This need is driving engineers to study human behavior toward other humans and toward robots, leading to greater understanding of how humans think, feel, and behave in these contexts, including our tendencies for mindless social behaviors, anthropomorphism, uncanny feelings toward robots, and the formation of emotional attachments...
September 14, 2016: Annual Review of Psychology
Charlene L M Lam, Junhong Yu, Tatia M C Lee
The relationship between depression, loneliness, and cognitive functioning among the elderly is not well understood in the literature. In the present study, we tested the moderating influence of depressive symptoms on loneliness and cognitive functioning. We recruited 100 community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. Demographic information, perceived loneliness, depressed mood, and general cognitive status were assessed. Results indicated that married participants reported lower levels of perceived loneliness (t (96) = 2...
September 7, 2016: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
Jason Fanning, Michael Mackenzie, Sarah Roberts, Ines Crato, Diane Ehlers, Edward McAuley
BACKGROUND: A considerable portion of daily thought is spent in mind wandering. This behavior has been related to positive (eg, future planning, problem solving) and negative (eg, unhappiness, impaired cognitive performance) outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Based on previous research suggesting future-oriented (ie, prospective) mind wandering may support autobiographical planning and self-regulation, this study examined associations between hourly mind wandering and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and the impact of affect and daily sleep on these relations...
August 31, 2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Johanna Austin, Hiroko H Dodge, Thomas Riley, Peter G Jacobs, Stephen Thielke, Jeffrey Kaye
Loneliness is a common condition in older adults and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, decreased sleep quality, and increased risk of cognitive decline. Assessing loneliness in older adults is challenging due to the negative desirability biases associated with being lonely. Thus, it is necessary to develop more objective techniques to assess loneliness in older adults. In this paper, we describe a system to measure loneliness by assessing in-home behavior using wireless motion and contact sensors, phone monitors, and computer software as well as algorithms developed to assess key behaviors of interest...
2016: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Bernhard Hommel, Armin Kibele
Cognitive and neurocognitive approaches to human healthy aging attribute age-related decline to the biologically caused loss of cognitive-control functions. However, an embodied-cognition approach to aging implies a more interactive view according to which cognitive control emerges from, and relies on a person's active encounters with his or her physical and social environment. We argue that the availability of cognitive-control resources does not only rely on biological processes but also on the degree of active maintenance, that is, on the systematic use of the available control resources...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
B Steunenberg, R C van der Mast, M J Strijbos, S K Inouye, M J Schuurmans
The aim of this study was to investigate, using a mixed-methods design, the added value of a trained Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) volunteer to the quality of hospital care in the Netherlands. The trained volunteers daily stimulate older patients, at risk of a delirium, to eat, to drink, and to exercise, and they provide walking assistance and cognitive stimulation. This study showed that each group appreciated the extra attention and service from the volunteers. The positive effect on feelings of loneliness during the hospital stay was an unexpected outcome...
July 26, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Edo S Jaya, Leonie Ascone, Tania M Lincoln
BACKGROUND: Social adversity is a risk factor for psychosis, but the translating mechanisms are not well understood. This study tests whether the relationship between social adversity and psychosis is mediated by cognitive vulnerability in the form of low perceived social rank, negative schemas related to self and other, and loneliness and whether the putative mediations are specific to psychosis or are largely explained by depression. METHODS: The study was a survey in a community sample (N = 2350) from Germany (n = 786), Indonesia (n = 844), and the United States (n = 720)...
July 22, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Teresa Madeira, Catarina Peixoto-Plácido, Beatriz Goulão, Nuno Mendonça, Violeta Alarcão, Nuno Santos, Rita Machado de Oliveira, Agneta Yngve, Asta Bye, Astrid Bergland, Carla Lopes, Paulo Nicola, Osvaldo Santos, João Gorjão Clara
BACKGROUND: Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
Fabian Lamster, Clara Nittel, Winfried Rief, Stephanie Mehl, Tania Lincoln
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Loneliness is a common problem in patients with schizophrenia, and may be particularly linked with persecutory ideation. Nevertheless, its role as a potential risk factor in the formation and maintenance of persecutory delusions is largely unexplored. METHODS: Loneliness was experimentally manipulated using a false-feedback paradigm in a non-clinical sample (n = 60). Change in state paranoia was compared between the induction of increased loneliness, the induction of reduced loneliness and a control condition...
June 21, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Eva Luger, Thomas Ernst Dorner, Sandra Haider, Ali Kapan, Christian Lackinger, Karin Schindler
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a home-based and volunteer-administered physical training and nutritional intervention program compared with social support intervention on nutritional and frailty status in prefrail and frail community-dwelling older persons. DESIGN: This was a randomized controlled trial in which community-dwelling persons (mean age = 83 years) were recruited and randomly assigned to the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 39) and the social support group (SoSu, n = 41)...
July 1, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jianghong Liu, Xianchen Liu, Xiaopeng Ji, Yingjie Wang, Guoping Zhou, Xinyin Chen
This study examined the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms and their associations with daytime sleepiness, emotional problems, and school performance in Chinese children. Participants included 3979 children (10.99±0.99 years old) from four elementary schools in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, China. Children completed a self-administered questionnaire on sleep behavior and emotional problems, while parents completed the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ). SDB symptoms included 3 items: loud snoring, stopped breathing, and snorting/gasping during sleep...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Emanuela Capotosto, Carmen Belacchi, Simona Gardini, Silvia Faggian, Federica Piras, Vanessa Mantoan, Elisa Salvalaio, Samantha Pradelli, Erika Borella
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) has been shown to have significant benefits in enhancing cognitive functioning and improving the quality of life of people with mild to moderate dementia. The present study examines the efficacy of the Italian version of the therapy (CST-IT). METHODS: Older adults with mild to moderate dementia (n = 39) were randomly assigned to two programs: one group participated in the CST-IT, consisting of 14 sessions (twice a week for 7 weeks) and the active control group took part in alternative general activities...
June 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Beatrice A Popescu
This paper stems from clinical observations and empirical data collected in the therapy room over six years. It investigates the relationship between psychotherapy and philosophical counseling, proposing an integrative model of counseling. During cognitive behavior therapy sessions with clients who turn to therapy in order to solve their clinical issues, the author noticed that behind most of the invalidating symptoms classified by the DSM-5 as depression, anxiety, hypochondriac and phobic complaints, usually lies a lack of existential meaning or existential scope and clients are also tormented by moral dilemmas...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
J E McHugh, R A Kenny, B A Lawlor, A Steptoe, F Kee
OBJECTIVE: Scant evidence is available on the discordance between loneliness and social isolation among older adults. We aimed to investigate this discordance and any health implications that it may have. METHOD: Using nationally representative datasets from ageing cohorts in Ireland (TILDA) and England (ELSA), we created a metric of discordance between loneliness and social isolation, to which we refer as Social Asymmetry. This metric was the categorised difference between standardised scores on a scale of loneliness and a scale of social isolation, giving categories of: Concordantly Lonely and Isolated, Discordant: Robust to Loneliness, or Discordant: Susceptible to Loneliness...
June 1, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Stephen P Becker, Amanda R Withrow, Laura Stoppelbein, Aaron M Luebbe, Paula J Fite, Leilani Greening
BACKGROUND: Although identified as a significant public health concern, few studies have examined correlates of suicide risk in school-aged children. Recent studies show a relation between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms and a range of adverse outcomes linked to suicidal ideation, including depression, emotion dysregulation, lowered self-esteem, and peer problems/social withdrawal, yet no study to date has examined SCT in relation to suicide risk. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that SCT would be associated with suicide risk in a sample of 95 psychiatrically hospitalized children (74% male; 62% black) between the ages of 8 and 12 (M = 10...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Almar A L Kok, Marja J Aartsen, Dorly J H Deeg, Martijn Huisman
BACKGROUND: This study examines to what extent education, occupation and income are associated with the multidimensional process of successful ageing, encompassing trajectories of physical, mental and social functioning in old age. METHODS: We employed 16-year longitudinal data from 2095 participants aged 55-85 years at baseline in the Dutch, nationally representative Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. For 9 indicators of successful ageing, separate Latent Class Growth models were used to identify subgroups of older adults with a 'successful' trajectory...
May 17, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Nancy J Donovan, Qiong Wu, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Gad A Marshall, M Maria Glymour
OBJECTIVE: To examine reciprocal relations of loneliness and cognitive function in older adults. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 8382 men and women, age 65 and older, participating in the US Health and Retirement Study from 1998 to 2010. Participants underwent biennial assessments of loneliness and depression (classified as no, low or high depression) determined by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (8-item version), cognition (a derived memory score based on a word list memory task and proxy-rated memory and global cognitive function), health status and social and demographic characteristics from 1998 to 2010...
May 9, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
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