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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629146/emerging-disparities-in-dietary-sodium-intake-from-snacking-in-the-us-population
#1
Elizabeth K Dunford, Jennifer M Poti, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. OBJECTIVE: To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. METHODS: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515272/racial-disparities-in-neurologic-health-care-access-and-utilization-in-the-united-states
#2
Altaf Saadi, David U Himmelstein, Steffie Woolhandler, Nicte I Mejia
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial and ethnic differences in the utilization of neurologic care across a wide range of neurologic conditions in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2006-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), including information on demographics, patient-reported health conditions, neurology visit rates, and costs. Using diagnostic codes, we identified persons with any self-identified neurologic disorder except back pain, as well as 5 subgroups (Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, cerebrovascular disease, and epilepsy)...
June 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479192/predictors-of-emergency-department-use-in-children-with-persistent-asthma-in-metropolitan-atlanta-georgia
#3
Jeffery M Franklin, Jocelyn R Grunwell, Alice C Bruce, Robin C Smith, Anne M Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are evident among children with asthma in the United States, with non-Hispanic black children at particularly high risk for poor asthma outcomes, including frequent emergency department (ED) use for asthma exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: To compare asthma features in non-Hispanic black vs white children in Atlanta, Georgia, and determine what clinical features predict future ED use for asthma. METHODS: Self-reported black and white children 6 to 17 years of age with persistent asthma treated with controller medications completed medical history questionnaires, lung function testing, aeroallergen sensitization testing, and venipuncture...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464767/heterogeneity-of-type-1-diabetes-the-effect-of-ethnicity
#4
Mustafa Tosur, Maria Jose Redondo
BACKGROUND: Most of the current understanding of type 1 diabetes (T1D) etiology and pathogenesis stemmed from studies conducted in majoritarily Non-Hispanic White (NHW) populations. However, evidence is emerging that unique mechanisms of disease may contribute to the development of T1D in individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the currently available literature on genetic, immunologic, metabolic and clinical characteristics of T1D in Hispanic as compared with NHW individuals...
May 1, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438375/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-pediatric-readmissions-for-common-chronic-conditions
#5
Kavita Parikh, Jay Berry, Matt Hall, Grant M Mussman, Amanda Montalbano, Joanna Thomson, Rustin Morse, Karen M Wilson, Samir S Shah
OBJECTIVE: To compare the timing and magnitude of variation of pediatric readmission rates across race/ethnicity for selected chronic conditions: asthma, diabetes, seizures, migraines, and depression. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of hospitalizations at 48 children's hospitals in the 2013 Pediatric Health Information System database for children (ages 0-18 years) admitted for asthma (n = 36 910), seizure (n = 35 361), diabetes (n = 12 468), migraine (n = 5882), and depression (n = 5132)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393538/racial-ethnic-differences-in-healthcare-use-among-patients-with-uncontrolled-and-controlled-diabetes
#6
Yhenneko J Taylor, Melanie D Spencer, Rohan Mahabaleshwarkar, Thomas Ludden
OBJECTIVES: To examine racial/ethnic differences in healthcare use among patients classified as having controlled and uncontrolled diabetes. DESIGN: Data from the Carolinas HealthCare System electronic data warehouse were used. Glycemic control was defined as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 8% (64 mmol/mol) in 2012 (n = 9996). Patients with HbA1c ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) in 2012 were classified as uncontrolled (n = 2576). Race and ethnicity were jointly classified as non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White or Other...
April 10, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388292/end-of-life-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-among-patients-with-ovarian-cancer
#7
Jolyn S Taylor, Suja S Rajan, Ning Zhang, Larissa A Meyer, Lois M Ramondetta, Diane C Bodurka, David R Lairson, Sharon H Giordano
Purpose To assess disparities in end-of-life care among patients with ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods Using Texas Cancer Registry-Medicare data, we assessed patients with ovarian cancer deceased in 2000 to 2012 with at least 13 months of continuous Medicare coverage before death. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate end-of-life care, including chemotherapy in the final 14 days of life, intensive care unit (ICU) admission in the final 30 days of life, more than one emergency room (ER) or hospital admission in the final 30 days of life, invasive or life-extending procedures in the final 30 days of life, enrollment in hospice, enrollment in hospice during the final 3 days of life, and enrollment in hospice while not hospitalized...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378200/determinants-of-cancer-screening-disparities-among-asian-americans-a-systematic-review-of-public-health-surveys
#8
Jungmi Jun, Xiaoli Nan
We conducted a systematic analysis of 24 peer-reviewed literary works that examined Asian Americans' breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening, focusing on empirical findings from large-scale public health surveys (i.e., NHIS, CHIS, HINTS, BRFSS). We provide an overview of relevant research in terms of study characteristics, samples, predictor/covariate of cancer screenings, and key findings. Our analysis indicates that Asian Americans' cancer screening rates are lower than for non-Hispanic Whites for all cancer types in four large-scale public health surveys throughout 17 study years...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371853/patient-portals-and-broadband-internet-inequality
#9
Adam T Perzynski, Mary Joan Roach, Sarah Shick, Bill Callahan, Douglas Gunzler, Randall Cebul, David C Kaelber, Anne Huml, John Daryl Thornton, Douglas Einstadter
Background: Patient portals have shown potential for increasing health care quality and efficiency. Internet access and other factors influencing patient portal use could worsen health disparities. Methods: Observational study of adults with 1 or more visits to the outpatient clinics of an urban public health care system from 2012 to 2015. We used mixed effects logistic regression to evaluate the association between broadband internet access and (1) patient portal initiation (whether a patient logged in at least 1 time) and (2) messaging, controlling for demographic and neighborhood characteristics...
March 23, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371830/vape-shop-density-and-socio-demographic-disparities-a-u-s-census-tract-analysis
#10
Hongying Dai, Jianqiang Hao, Delwyn Catley
Introduction-: Vape shops are an emerging business specializing in the sales and promotion of e-cigarette, e-juice and other vaping products. This study sought to evaluate the associations between vape shop density and socio-demographic characteristics at the U.S. census tract level. Methods-: Vape shop data (n=9,943) were collected from three online directories: Yelp.com, Yellowpages.com, and Guidetovaping.com. Addresses of vape shops were geocoded and the density per 10,000 people was estimated at each U...
March 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366968/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-health-insurance-coverage-dynamics-of-gaining-and-losing-coverage-over-the-life-course
#11
Heeju Sohn
Health insurance coverage varies substantially between racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, African Americans and people of Hispanic origin had persistently lower insurance coverage rates at all ages. This article describes age- and group-specific dynamics of insurance gain and loss that contribute to inequalities found in traditional cross-sectional studies. It uses the longitudinal 2008 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (N=114,345) to describe age-specific patterns of disparity prior to the Affordable Care Act (ACA)...
April 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205152/explaining-racial-disparities-in-amputation-rates-for-the-treatment-of-peripheral-artery-disease-pad-using-decomposition-methods
#12
J A Mustapha, Bryan T Fisher, John A Rizzo, Jie Chen, Brad J Martinsen, Harry Kotlarz, Michael Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
INTRODUCTION: While studies have documented racial and ethnic disparities in amputation rates for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), the importance of specific factors has not been quantified. This research seeks to provide such evidence and to quantify how much of the difference reflects observable versus unexplained factors. METHODS: This study used the nationally representative HCUP inpatient database from 2006 to 2013 for patients with a primary diagnosis of PAD who were either Caucasian, African-American, or Hispanic...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159872/utilization-of-mental-health-services-after-mild-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Nathalia Jimenez, Alex Quistberg, Monica S Vavilala, Kenneth M Jaffe, Frederick P Rivara
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury injuries (mTBIs), including concussions, represent >2 million US pediatric emergency department visits annually. Post-mTBI mental health symptoms are prominent and often attributed to the mTBI. This study examined whether individuals seeking post-mTBI mental health care had previous mental health diagnoses or a new onset of such disorders, and determined if mental health care utilization differed by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, using the Medicaid Marketscan claims national dataset (2007-2012)...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140382/the-need-to-consider-longer-term-outcomes-of-care-racial-ethnic-disparities-among-adult-and-older-adult-emergency-general-surgery-patients-at-30-90-and-180-days
#14
Cheryl K Zogg, Olubode A Olufajo, Wei Jiang, Anna Bystricky, John W Scott, Shahid Shafi, Joaquim M Havens, Ali Salim, Andrew J Schoenfeld, Adil H Haider
OBJECTIVES: Following calls from the National Institutes of Health and American College of Surgeons for "urgently needed" research, the objectives of the present study were to (1) ascertain whether differences in 30/90/180-day mortality, major morbidity, and unplanned readmissions exist among adult (18-64 yr) and older adult (≥65 yr) emergency general surgery (EGS) patients; (2) vary by diagnostic category; and (3) are explained by variations in insurance, income, teaching status, hospital EGS volume, and a hospital's proportion of minority patients...
July 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988415/emergence-of-electronic-cigarette-use-in-us-adolescents-and-the-link-to-traditional-cigarette-use
#15
Stephanie T Lanza, Michael A Russell, Jessica L Braymiller
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly used by US adolescents and may be a gateway to traditional cigarette use. We examine rates of both products by age and examine differences in age-varying rates by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS: Data are from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a national sample of US middle and high school students (n=22.007); students ages 11-19 were included. Past 30-day e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use were examined as a function of age; sex and race/ethnicity were included as moderators...
April 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928511/latino-hispanic-alzheimer-s-caregivers-experiencing-dementia-related-dressing-issues-corroboration-of-the-preservation-of-self-model-and-reactions-to-a-smart-dresser-computer-based-dressing-aid
#16
Diane Feeney Mahoney, David W Coon, Cecil Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To gain an understanding of Latino/Hispanic caregivers' dementia-related dressing issues, their impressions of using a "smart" context-aware dresser to coach dressing, and recommendations to improve its acceptability. METHOD: The same Latina moderator conducted all the caregiver focus groups. She followed a semi-structured interview guide that was previously used with White and African American family caregivers who experienced Alzheimer's disease related dressing challenges...
November 2016: Digital Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888035/racial-differences-in-food-allergy-phenotype-and-health-care-utilization-among-us-children
#17
Mahboobeh Mahdavinia, Susan R Fox, Bridget M Smith, Christine James, Erica L Palmisano, Aisha Mohamed, Zeeshan Zahid, Amal H Assa'ad, Mary C Tobin, Ruchi S Gupta
BACKGROUND: Food allergy (FA) is a prevalent condition in the United States, but little is known about its phenotypes in racial minority groups. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to characterize disease phenotypes and disparities in health care utilization among African American (AA), Hispanic, and white children with FA. METHODS: We conducted a large, 2-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-17 years with FA seen in allergy/immunology clinics at 2 urban tertiary care centers in the United States...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763997/closing-the-gap-in-antiretroviral-initiation-and-viral-suppression-time-trends-and-racial-disparities
#18
MULTICENTER STUDY
Charles F Haines, John A Fleishman, Baligh R Yehia, Bryan Lau, Stephen A Berry, Allison L Agwu, Richard D Moore, Kelly A Gebo
BACKGROUND: In the current antiretroviral (ART) era, the evolution of HIV guidelines and emergence of new ART agents might be expected to impact the times to ART initiation and HIV virologic suppression. We sought to determine if times to AI and virologic suppression decreased and if disparities exist by age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of data from 12 sites of the HIV Research Network, a consortium of US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760278/hazard-characteristics-and-patterns-of-environmental-injustice-household-level-determinants-of-environmental-risk-in-miami-florida
#19
Sara E Grineski, Timothy W Collins, Jayajit Chakraborty, Marilyn Montgomery
Limited systematic comparative knowledge exists about patterns of environmental injustices in exposure to varied natural and technological hazards. To address this gap, we examine how hazard characteristics (i.e., punctuated event/suddenness of onset, frequency/magnitude, and divisibility) influence relationships between race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status (SES), older age, housing tenure, and residential hazard exposure. Sociodemographic data come from a random sample survey of 602 residents of the tricounty Miami Metropolitan Statistical Area (Florida)...
October 19, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754449/racial-ethnic-differences-in-electronic-cigarette-use-and-reasons-for-use-among-current-and-former-smokers-findings-from-a-community-based-sample
#20
Monica Webb Hooper, Stephanie K Kolar
The prevalence of e-cigarette use is increasing, yet few studies have focused on its use in racial/ethnic minority populations. We examined associations between race/ethnicity and e-cigarette use, plans to continue using e-cigarettes, and reasons for use among current/former smokers. Participants (285 in total; 29% non-Hispanic White, 42% African American/Black, and 29% Hispanic) were recruited between June and November 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, cigarette smoking, e-cigarette use, plans to continue using, and reasons for use...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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