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Adhd effort

Alberto José Cerrillo-Urbina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, María Jesús Pardo-Guijarro, Abel Ruiz-Hermosa, Mairena Sánchez-López
BACKGROUND: The aims of our study were to: (i) determine the prevalence of children aged 4 to 6 years with probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Spanish population; and (ii) analyse the association of probable ADHD symptoms with sex, age, type of school, origin (native or foreign) and socio-economic status in these children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1189 children (4 to 6 years-old) from 21 primary schools in 19 towns from the Ciudad Real and Cuenca provinces, Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
John T Mitchell, Andrea L Howard, Katherine A Belendiuk, Traci M Kennedy, Annamarie Stehli, James M Swanson, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Betsy Hoza, Benedetto Vitiello, Bo Lu, Scott H Kollins, Brooke S G Molina
Introduction: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for smoking cigarettes, but there is little longitudinal research on the array of smoking characteristics known to be prognostic of long-term smoking outcomes into adulthood. These variables were studied into early adulthood in a multi-site sample diagnosed with ADHD combined-type at ages 7-9.9 and followed prospectively alongside an age- and sex-matched local normative comparison group (LNCG)...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a marked pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is inconsistent with developmental level and interferes with normal functioning in at least two settings. This study evaluated the hypothesis that infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HepB) exposure would increase the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This cross-sectional study examined 4393 persons between 13 and 19 years of age from the combined 1999-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographic, immunization, socioeconomic, and health-related variables using the SAS system...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Stephen P Hinshaw
Controversy abounds regarding the symptom dimensions of attention problems, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, developmentally extreme and impairing levels of which compose the diagnostic category of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I highlight causal factors, underlying mechanisms, developmental manifestations, and female manifestations of ADHD, integrating the psychobiological underpinnings of this syndrome with contextual factors related to its clinical presentation, impairments, and soaring increases in diagnosed prevalence...
December 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Franziska Minder, Agnieszka Zuberer, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
This review evaluates the clinical utility of tools for systematic behavioral observation in different settings for children and adolescents with ADHD. A comprehensive search yielded 135 relevant results since 1990. Observations from naturalistic settings were grouped into observations of classroom behavior (n = 58) and of social interactions (n = 25). Laboratory observations were subdivided into four contexts: independent play (n = 9), test session (n = 27), parent interaction (n = 11), and peer interaction (n = 5)...
December 6, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, George J DuPaul
OBJECTIVE: To characterize lifetime and current rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments among US children and adolescents with current ADHD and describe the association of these treatments with demographic and clinical factors. STUDY DESIGN: Data are from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome, a follow-back survey of parents from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Weighted analyses focused on receipt of ADHD treatment among children aged 4-17 years with current ADHD (n = 2495) by 4 treatment types: medication, school supports, psychosocial interventions, and alternative treatments...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
Hassan Mirza, Emmert Roberts, Mohammed Al-Belushi, Humaid Al-Salti, Amira Al-Hosni, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Samir Al-Adawi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the rising incidence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of studies examining the rate of school dropout and its correlates in non-Western populations. METHODS: Medical records were scrutinized to identify Omani children diagnosed with ADHD from 2006 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. The persistence of ADHD symptoms, school performance and dropout, as well as sociodemographic characteristics were examined...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Amori Yee Mikami, Sophie Smit, Adri Khalis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties in their social skills and peer relationships. Because social problems exacerbate later maladjustment in ADHD populations, it is important to address this serious impairment. Although social skills training (SST) is a common intervention approach, evidence to date suggests that SST has limited efficacy, at least when provided in traditional, clinic-based settings. The current review summarizes recent advances to traditional SST approaches that may potentially enhance their efficacy...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
Rachel L Hulkower, Meghan Kelley, Lindsay K Cloud, Susanna N Visser
OBJECTIVES: In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to recommend that clinicians refer parents of preschoolers (aged 4-5) for training in behavior therapy and subsequently treat with medication if behavior therapy fails to sufficiently improve functioning. Data available from just before the release of the guidelines suggest that fewer than half of preschoolers with ADHD received behavior therapy and about half received medication...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
Sander M Weckstein, Ethan J Weckstein, Christopher D Parker, Matthew W Westerman
BACKGROUND This case study was undertaken in an effort to assess whether children/adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience improvement in comorbid ADHD following Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT). This treatment intervention has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents; however, there have been no studies on its use with individuals with ASD. MATERIAL AND METHODS CWMT is a computer-based program that consists of 13 auditory, visual, visual spatial, and combined exercises that are practiced for 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Jessica L King, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Erin L Sutfin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health conditions represent a priority population for tobacco control. This population smokes cigarettes at disproportionately higher rates than the general population, but less is known about the relationship between non-cigarette tobacco use and mental health status. METHOD: In 2013, 2370 young adults recruited from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia completed an online survey on tobacco use. We compared past 6-month self-reported mental health diagnosis, past 30-day depression score, and past 7-day stress score to past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, waterpipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use...
February 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Lauren M Haack, Eva A Araujo
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and provide preliminary validation for a questionnaire evaluating functioning related to ADHD (i.e., the FX-II) with a particularly underserved group (i.e., Mexican youth). METHOD: 191 Mexican raters completed the FX-II alongside measures of ADHD symptoms, impairment, cultural values, and demographics: 127 raters were caregivers of treatment-naïve youth (i.e., community sample); 32 raters were caregivers and 32 raters were teachers of youth participating in a school-based program for attention/behavior concerns (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
Sandra K Loo, James J McGough, James T McCracken, Susan L Smalley
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous condition for which multiple efforts to characterize brain state differences are underway. The objective of this study was to identify distinct subgroups of resting electroencephalography (EEG) profiles among children with and without ADHD and subsequently provide extensive clinical characterization of the subgroups. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used with resting state EEG recorded from a large sample of 781 children with and without ADHD (N = 620 ADHD, N = 161 Control), aged 6-18 years old...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Jaclyn M Kamradt, Allison M Momany, Molly A Nikolas
A substantial literature suggests that abnormal cortisol reactivity may be a vulnerability for deleterious mental health outcomes, including ADHD. ADHD has been linked with difficulty in emotion regulation and increased risk of experiencing stressors, both of which may be related to psychobiological abnormalities (e.g., abnormal cortisol reactivity). Research has been mixed regarding the association between cortisol reactivity and ADHD. Therefore, the present meta-analytic review (k = 12) sought to quantify this association and review the relevant methodological issues and theoretical implications of this area of research...
September 5, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Maki S Koyama, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein
Youth with family history (FH+) of substance use disorders (SUDs) are at increased risk for developing SUDs. Similarly, childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be a risk factor for developing SUDs. Recent research has suggested a close association between SUDs and impaired inhibitory control. As such, it is crucial to examine common and distinct neural alterations associated with inhibitory control in these at-risk groups, particularly prior to the initiation of heavy substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Francisco Zamorano, Pablo Billeke, Leonie Kausel, Josefina Larrain, Ximena Stecher, Jose M Hurtado, Vladimir López, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in childhood and is characterized by a delay of cortical maturation in frontal regions. In order to investigate interference control, which is a key function of frontal areas, a functional MRI study was conducted on 17 ADHD boys and 17 typically developing (TD) boys, while solving the multi source interference task (MSIT). This task consists of two conditions, a "congruent condition" and an "incongruent condition". The latter requires to inhibit information that interferes with task-relevant stimuli...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kari Benson, Kate Flory
BACKGROUND: The misuse of stimulant medications, commonly used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a concern on college campuses. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the relations between the misuse of stimulant medications and symptoms of depression and ADHD. METHOD: Eight hundred and ninety students ages 18-26 from one public university took a web-based survey including rating scales measuring symptoms of depression and ADHD...
December 6, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Lisa Manderino, John Gunstad
OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other academically-relevant diagnoses have been suggested as modifiers of neurocognitive testing in sport-related concussion, such as Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). These preexisting conditions may suppress ImPACT scores to the extent that they are indistinguishable from low scores because of poor effort. The present study hypothesized that student athletes with history of ADHD or academic difficulties produce lower ImPACT composite scores and are more likely to produce invalid protocols than those without such conditions...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Julia Kerner Auch Koerner, Nicole Gust, Franz Petermann
The dual pathway model of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggests that effortful control and positive approach, or surgency, are independent pathways leading to ADHD. This model has been proven on the basis of temperament in school children, however not in preschool children. In this study we tested whether the dual pathway model of ADHD can be replicated in preschool children using temperamental measures. One hundred and nineteen children (59 girls, M-age = 4.97 years, SD = 0.96) participated in a study...
July 14, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Lars Wichstrøm, Eva Penelo, Kristine Rensvik Viddal, Nuria de la Osa, Lourdes Ezpeleta
BACKGROUND: Four explanations for the concurrent and prospective associations between temperament and psychopathology in children have been suggested: predisposition, complication/scar, common cause/continuity, and pathoplasty/exacerbation. Because the confounding effects of common causes have not been ruled out in prior work, the support for the various explanations is uncertain. METHODS: Screen-stratified community samples of 4-year olds in Trondheim, Norway (n = 1,042), and 3-year olds in Barcelona, Spain (n = 622), were assessed biennially for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), oppositional defiant (ODD), conduct (CD), anxiety, and depressive disorders through interviewer-based psychiatric interviews across four waves of data collection...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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