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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739866/region-specific-regulation-of-presynaptic-dopamine-homeostasis-by-d2-autoreceptors-shapes-the-in-vivo-impact-of-the-neuropsychiatric-disease-associated-dat-variant-val559
#1
Raajaram Gowrishankar, Paul J Gresch, Gwynne L Davis, Rania M Katamish, Justin R Riele, Adele M Stewart, Roxanne A Vaughan, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Disruptions of dopamine (DA) signaling contribute to a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Despite evidence that risk for these disorders derives from heritable variation in DA-linked genes, a better understanding is needed of the molecular and circuit context through which gene variation drives distinct disease traits. Previously, we identified the DA transporter (DAT) variant Val559 in subjects with ADHD and established that the mutation supports anomalous DAT-mediated DA efflux (ADE)...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706908/event-related-potential-erp-correlates-of-performance-monitoring-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#2
Lynn Marquardt, Heike Eichele, Astri J Lundervold, Jan Haavik, Tom Eichele
Introduction: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and tends to persist into adulthood. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies indicates that alterations of error processing are core symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD. To test whether adults with ADHD show persisting deficits and compensatory processes, we investigated performance monitoring during stimulus-evaluation and response-selection, with a focus on errors, as well as within-group correlations with symptom scores...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702087/out-of-focus-brain-attention-control-deficits-in-adult-adhd
#3
Juha Salmi, Viljami Salmela, Emma Salo, Katri Mikkola, Sami Leppämäki, Pekka Tani, Laura Hokkanen, Marja Laasonen, Jussi Numminen, Kimmo Alho
Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks...
April 24, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619935/tourette-syndrome-in-a-longitudinal-perspective-clinical-course-of-tics-and-comorbidities-coexisting-psychopathologies-phenotypes-and-predictors
#4
Camilla Groth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553782/treatment-seeking-college-students-with-disabilities-presenting-concerns-protective-factors-and-academic-distress
#5
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544457/prevalence-of-probable-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-result-from-a-spanish-sample-of-children
#6
Alberto José Cerrillo-Urbina, Antonio García-Hermoso, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, María Jesús Pardo-Guijarro, Abel Ruiz-Hermosa, Mairena Sánchez-López
BACKGROUND: The aims of our study were to: (i) determine the prevalence of children aged 4 to 6 years with probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Spanish population; and (ii) analyse the association of probable ADHD symptoms with sex, age, type of school, origin (native or foreign) and socio-economic status in these children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1189 children (4 to 6 years-old) from 21 primary schools in 19 towns from the Ciudad Real and Cuenca provinces, Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538764/cigarette-smoking-progression-among-young-adults-diagnosed-with-adhd-in-childhood-a-16-year-longitudinal-study-of-children-with-and-without-adhd
#7
John T Mitchell, Andrea L Howard, Katherine A Belendiuk, Traci M Kennedy, Annamarie Stehli, James M Swanson, Lily Hechtman, L Eugene Arnold, Betsy Hoza, Benedetto Vitiello, Bo Lu, Scott H Kollins, Brooke S G Molina
Introduction: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for smoking cigarettes, but there is little longitudinal research on the array of smoking characteristics known to be prognostic of long-term smoking outcomes into adulthood. These variables were studied into early adulthood in a multi-site sample diagnosed with ADHD combined-type at ages 7-9.9 and followed prospectively alongside an age- and sex-matched local normative comparison group (LNCG)...
March 12, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413097/a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-relationship-between-infant-thimerosal-containing-hepatitis-b-vaccine-exposure-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#8
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a marked pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is inconsistent with developmental level and interferes with normal functioning in at least two settings. This study evaluated the hypothesis that infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (T-HepB) exposure would increase the risk of an ADHD diagnosis. This cross-sectional study examined 4393 persons between 13 and 19 years of age from the combined 1999-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) by analyzing demographic, immunization, socioeconomic, and health-related variables using the SAS system...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220204/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-controversy-developmental-mechanisms-and-multiple-levels-of-analysis
#9
Stephen P Hinshaw
Controversy abounds regarding the symptom dimensions of attention problems, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, developmentally extreme and impairing levels of which compose the diagnostic category of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I highlight causal factors, underlying mechanisms, developmental trajectories, and female manifestations of ADHD, integrating the psychobiological underpinnings of this syndrome with contextual factors related to its clinical presentation, impairments, and soaring increases in diagnosed prevalence...
May 7, 2018: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214372/a-review-of-the-clinical-utility-of-systematic-behavioral-observations-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#10
Franziska Minder, Agnieszka Zuberer, Daniel Brandeis, Renate Drechsler
This review evaluates the clinical utility of tools for systematic behavioral observation in different settings for children and adolescents with ADHD. A comprehensive search yielded 135 relevant results since 1990. Observations from naturalistic settings were grouped into observations of classroom behavior (n = 58) and of social interactions (n = 25). Laboratory observations were subdivided into four contexts: independent play (n = 9), test session (n = 27), parent interaction (n = 11), and peer interaction (n = 5)...
December 6, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132817/a-national-description-of-treatment-among-united-states-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, George J DuPaul
OBJECTIVE: To characterize lifetime and current rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments among US children and adolescents with current ADHD and describe the association of these treatments with demographic and clinical factors. STUDY DESIGN: Data are from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome, a follow-back survey of parents from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Weighted analyses focused on receipt of ADHD treatment among children aged 4-17 years with current ADHD (n = 2495) by 4 treatment types: medication, school supports, psychosocial interventions, and alternative treatments...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084072/school-dropout-and-associated-factors-among-omani-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Hassan Mirza, Emmert Roberts, Mohammed Al-Belushi, Humaid Al-Salti, Amira Al-Hosni, Lakshmanan Jeyaseelan, Samir Al-Adawi
OBJECTIVE: Despite the rising incidence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is a dearth of studies examining the rate of school dropout and its correlates in non-Western populations. METHODS: Medical records were scrutinized to identify Omani children diagnosed with ADHD from 2006 to 2014 in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. The persistence of ADHD symptoms, school performance and dropout, as well as sociodemographic characteristics were examined...
February 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082428/social-skills-training-and-adhd-what-works
#13
REVIEW
Amori Yee Mikami, Sophie Smit, Adri Khalis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Many children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties in their social skills and peer relationships. Because social problems exacerbate later maladjustment in ADHD populations, it is important to address this serious impairment. Although social skills training (SST) is a common intervention approach, evidence to date suggests that SST has limited efficacy, at least when provided in traditional, clinic-based settings. The current review summarizes recent advances to traditional SST approaches that may potentially enhance their efficacy...
October 30, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072963/medicaid-prior-authorization-policies-for-medication-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-young-children-united-states-2015
#14
Rachel L Hulkower, Meghan Kelley, Lindsay K Cloud, Susanna N Visser
OBJECTIVES: In 2011, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to recommend that clinicians refer parents of preschoolers (aged 4-5) for training in behavior therapy and subsequently treat with medication if behavior therapy fails to sufficiently improve functioning. Data available from just before the release of the guidelines suggest that fewer than half of preschoolers with ADHD received behavior therapy and about half received medication...
November 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033450/a-retrospective-chart-analysis-with-follow-up-of-cogmed-working-memory-training-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Sander M Weckstein, Ethan J Weckstein, Christopher D Parker, Matthew W Westerman
BACKGROUND This case study was undertaken in an effort to assess whether children/adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience improvement in comorbid ADHD following Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT). This treatment intervention has been shown to improve ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents; however, there have been no studies on its use with individuals with ASD. MATERIAL AND METHODS CWMT is a computer-based program that consists of 13 auditory, visual, visual spatial, and combined exercises that are practiced for 45 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks...
October 16, 2017: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965069/tobacco-product-use-and-mental-health-status-among-young-adults
#16
Jessica L King, Beth A Reboussin, John Spangler, Jennifer Cornacchione Ross, Erin L Sutfin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with mental health conditions represent a priority population for tobacco control. This population smokes cigarettes at disproportionately higher rates than the general population, but less is known about the relationship between non-cigarette tobacco use and mental health status. METHOD: In 2013, 2370 young adults recruited from 11 colleges in North Carolina and Virginia completed an online survey on tobacco use. We compared past 6-month self-reported mental health diagnosis, past 30-day depression score, and past 7-day stress score to past 30-day cigarette, e-cigarette, waterpipe, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use...
February 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929831/culturally-appropriate-assessment-of-functioning-in-diverse-children-development-and-preliminary-validation-of-the-fx-ii-scale-in-mexico
#17
Lauren M Haack, Eva A Araujo
OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop and provide preliminary validation for a questionnaire evaluating functioning related to ADHD (i.e., the FX-II) with a particularly underserved group (i.e., Mexican youth). METHOD: 191 Mexican raters completed the FX-II alongside measures of ADHD symptoms, impairment, cultural values, and demographics: 127 raters were caregivers of treatment-naïve youth (i.e., community sample); 32 raters were caregivers and 32 raters were teachers of youth participating in a school-based program for attention/behavior concerns (i...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921526/parsing-heterogeneity-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-using-eeg-based-subgroups
#18
Sandra K Loo, James J McGough, James T McCracken, Susan L Smalley
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous condition for which multiple efforts to characterize brain state differences are underway. The objective of this study was to identify distinct subgroups of resting electroencephalography (EEG) profiles among children with and without ADHD and subsequently provide extensive clinical characterization of the subgroups. METHODS: Latent class analysis was used with resting state EEG recorded from a large sample of 781 children with and without ADHD (N = 620 ADHD, N = 161 Control), aged 6-18 years old...
March 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875432/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-cortisol-reactivity-in-response-to-a-stressor-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
Jaclyn M Kamradt, Allison M Momany, Molly A Nikolas
A substantial literature suggests that abnormal cortisol reactivity may be a vulnerability for deleterious mental health outcomes, including ADHD. ADHD has been linked with difficulty in emotion regulation and increased risk of experiencing stressors, both of which may be related to psychobiological abnormalities (e.g., abnormal cortisol reactivity). Research has been mixed regarding the association between cortisol reactivity and ADHD. Therefore, the present meta-analytic review (k = 12) sought to quantify this association and review the relevant methodological issues and theoretical implications of this area of research...
September 5, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868337/the-adolescent-brain-at-risk-for-substance-use-disorders-a-review-of-functional-mri-research-on-motor-response-inhibition
#20
Maki S Koyama, Muhammad A Parvaz, Rita Z Goldstein
Youth with family history (FH+) of substance use disorders (SUDs) are at increased risk for developing SUDs. Similarly, childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered to be a risk factor for developing SUDs. Recent research has suggested a close association between SUDs and impaired inhibitory control. As such, it is crucial to examine common and distinct neural alterations associated with inhibitory control in these at-risk groups, particularly prior to the initiation of heavy substance use...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
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