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Adhd effort

F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Mary C Kral, Michelle D Lally, Andrea D Boan
PURPOSE: To further characterize Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinic-referred sample of youth with epilepsy. METHODS: Children and adolescents with epilepsy who were referred for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation comprised the sample. Data were obtained via archival record review. Youth with epilepsy were grouped according to ADHD diagnosis (no ADHD, ADHD - Combined Type, and ADHD - Predominantly Inattentive Type) and compared for a number of neurocognitive variables, seizure-related variables, and parent and teacher completed behavior rating scale variables...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Natalie J Forde, Ahmad S Kanaan, Joanna Widomska, Shanmukha S Padmanabhuni, Ester Nespoli, John Alexander, Juan I Rodriguez Arranz, Siyan Fan, Rayan Houssari, Muhammad S Nawaz, Francesca Rizzo, Luca Pagliaroli, Nuno R Zilhäo, Tamas Aranyi, Csaba Barta, Tobias M Boeckers, Dorret I Boomsma, Wim R Buisman, Jan K Buitelaar, Danielle Cath, Andrea Dietrich, Nicole Driessen, Petros Drineas, Michelle Dunlap, Sarah Gerasch, Jeffrey Glennon, Bastian Hengerer, Odile A van den Heuvel, Cathrine Jespersgaard, Harald E Möller, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Thaïra J C Openneer, Geert Poelmans, Petra J W Pouwels, Jeremiah M Scharf, Hreinn Stefansson, Zeynep Tümer, Dick J Veltman, Ysbrand D van der Werf, Pieter J Hoekstra, Andrea Ludolph, Peristera Paschou
Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics with a fluctuating course of intensity, frequency, and severity. Up to 90% of patients with GTS present with comorbid conditions, most commonly attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), thus providing an excellent model for the exploration of shared etiology across disorders. TS-EUROTRAIN (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN, Grant Agr.No. 316978) is a Marie Curie Initial Training Network (http://ts-eurotrain...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiaoyan Yu, Lu Liu, Wai Chen, Qingjiu Cao, Florian Daniel Zepf, Gongjun Ji, Zhaomin Wu, Li An, Peng Wang, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Zang, Li Sun, Yufeng Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the functional networks of amygdala subregions (basolateral [BLA], centromedial [CMA], and superficial amygdala [SFA]) in ADHD and their association with emotional lability (EL) symptoms. METHOD: Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of amygdala subregions and their correlations with EL scores were evaluated in 35 drug-naïve boys with ADHD and 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: Compared with HC, altered RSFC were detected differently for each amygdala subregion in ADHD: altered RSFC of BLA with the thalamus and vermis; aberrant RSFC of CMA with the superior temporal gyrus/pole and insula, precuneus and cerebellum; reduced RSFC of SFA with dorsal frontoparietal cortices...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Kerrie Glass Murphy, Kate Flory
BACKGROUND: The positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and smoking in youth has been well documented. Less research has examined why individuals with ADHD, particularly college students, are at increased risk for smoking. OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study examined whether smoking motives [cognitive enhancement, tolerance, negative reinforcement (smoking to reduce negative affect or stress), craving, social influences, and weight control] helped to explain the relation between ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity) and cigarette smoking among college students...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Rakesh Jain, Jeffrey G Stark
Amphetamine or methylphenidate are first-line options for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Deviations from suggested routes of administration such as crushing, chewing, intravenous administration, or snorting stimulant medication may alter the release rate, absorption, and bioavailability of the active drug. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of extended-release formulations of certain medications (e.g., some opioids) are known to be dangerously altered when consumed with alcohol; specifically, there is an unintended, rapid release of a significant portion of the drug (dose dumping)...
September 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Venke Arntsberg Grane, Jan Ferenc Brunner, Tor Endestad, Ida Emilia S Aasen, Juri Kropotov, Robert Thomas Knight, Anne-Kristin Solbakk
This study investigated whether treatment naïve adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 33; 19 female) differed from healthy controls (n = 31; 17 female) in behavioral performance, event-related potential (ERP) indices of preparatory attention (CueP3 and late CNV), and reactive response control (Go P3, NoGo N2, and NoGo P3) derived from a visual cued Go/NoGo task. On several critical measures, Cue P3, late CNV, and NoGo N2, there were no significant differences between the groups. This indicated normal preparatory processes and conflict monitoring in ADHD patients...
2016: PloS One
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
Yael Winter, Hilla Ben-Pazi, Yehuda Pollak
OBJECTIVE: Effort allocation is a multi-faceted process driving both the decision to choose a high effort-high reward alternative over a low effort-low reward alternative, and the execution of this decision by recruiting sufficient effort. The objectives of our study were to examine whether children with ADHD would (a) show different reward-effort cost trade-off, and (b) have difficulty executing their decision. METHOD: 50 children, aged 9 to 15, with and without ADHD, had to choose between high effort-high reward and low effort-low reward alternatives using a handheld dynamometer and to execute their choice...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Samuele Cortese, Maite Ferrin, Daniel Brandeis, Martin Holtmann, Pascal Aggensteiner, David Daley, Paramala Santosh, Emily Simonoff, Jim Stevenson, Argyris Stringaris, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: We performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of neurofeedback on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and neuropsychological deficits in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: We searched PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, ERIC, and CINAHAL through August 30, 2015. Random-effects models were employed. Studies were evaluated with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: We included 13 trials (520 participants with ADHD)...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Stefanie C Biehl, Christian J Merz, Thomas Dresler, Julia Heupel, Susanne Reichert, Christian P Jacob, Jürgen Deckert, Martin J Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with ADHD report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult ADHD patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate (MPH) treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. METHODS: Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to six weeks of double-blind placebo or MPH treatment...
May 6, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Georgia Chronaki
In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of event-related potentials (ERPs) to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalizing behavior (i.e., ADHD, CD), ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Eduardo F Gallo, Jonathan Posner
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and hyperactivity or impulsivity. The heterogeneity of its clinical manifestations and the differential responses to treatment and varied prognoses have long suggested myriad underlying causes. Over the past decade, clinical and basic research efforts have uncovered many behavioural and neurobiological alterations associated with ADHD, from genes to higher order neural networks...
June 2016: Lancet Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The Impact of Failing to Identify Suspect Effort in Patients Undergoing Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Assessment" by Paul S. Marshall, James B. Hoelzle, Danielle Heyerdahl and Nathaniel W. Nelson (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Jan 11, 2016, np). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-00618-001.) This retrospective study examines how many adult patients would plausibly receive a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) if performance and symptom validity measures were not administered during neuropsychological evaluations...
May 9, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Joshua M Langberg, Steven W Evans, Brandon K Schultz, Stephen P Becker, Mekibib Altaye, Erin Girio-Herrera
The Challenging Horizons After School Program is one of the only psychosocial interventions developed specifically for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that has demonstrated efficacy in multiple randomized controlled trials. To date, however, all research with the intervention has evaluated outcomes at the group level, and it is unclear whether all adolescents respond similarly, or if the intervention is particularly well suited for certain adolescents with ADHD. This type of information is needed to guide stakeholders in making informed choices as part of dissemination and implementation efforts...
May 2016: Behavior Therapy
Saleh M H Mohamed, Norbert A Börger, Reint H Geuze, Jaap J van der Meere
INTRODUCTION: Many clinical studies have shown that performance of subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is impaired when stimuli are presented at a slow rate compared to a medium or fast rate. According to the cognitive-energetic model, this finding may reflect difficulty in allocating sufficient effort to regulate the motor activation state. Other studies have shown that the left hemisphere is relatively responsible for keeping humans motivated, allocating sufficient effort to complete their tasks...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Dagmar Van Liefferinge, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Nady Van Broeck, Saskia Van Der Oord, Jurgen Lemiere, Marina Danckaerts
A new parent-completed questionnaire, the Cognition and Motivation in Everyday Life (CAMEL) scale, was developed to provide a comprehensive assessment of neuropsychological impairment in children related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across diverse cognitive, motivational and energetic domains. Its psychometric properties were investigated. A total of 60 items were generated to cover a wide range of putative ADHD-related neuropsychological processes. A clinical (n = 142) and community (n = 810) sample of parents with children between 6 and 16 years of age completed the questionnaire...
April 19, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Soly Erlandsson, Linda Lundin, Elisabeth Punzi
A discourse analysis was performed based on an online document under the headline: "What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)?" published by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), USA. Three parts of the document were analysed: (1) The introductory part, as this sets the tone of the whole text. (2) Parts of the text that were specifically addressed to parents. (3) Etiology and pathology of "ADHD" with reference to a number of different symptoms and behaviors. Inattention and hyperactivity are presented in the document as a floating spectrum of symptoms caused by "ADHD...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Ashok Antony
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood mental health disorder. Treatment has shown to improve both short and long-term prognosis. Hence, study of factors leading to nonadherence is undertaken. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to know the rate of nonadherence and factors affecting nonadherence. SETTING AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional follow-up study at child guidance clinic in a tertiary health care facility...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Hanna Kovshoff, Tobias Banaschewski, Jan K Buitelaar, Sara Carucci, David Coghill, Marina Danckaerts, Ralf W Dittmann, Bruno Falissard, Dina Gojkovic Grimshaw, Chris Hollis, Sarah Inglis, Kerstin Konrad, Elizabeth Liddle, Suzanne McCarthy, Peter Nagy, Margaret Thompson, Ian C K Wong, Alessandro Zuddas, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
OBJECTIVE: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such potential experiences. Second, to use the derived data to generate items for a new questionnaire that can be used for monitoring such events in medication trials or routine clinical care. METHODS: Following a literature search aimed at identifying associations between MPH and cognition and/or motivation, a qualitative semistructured interview was designed to focus specifically on the domains of cognition (i...
August 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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