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Brain body mind

Yuko M Komesu, Rebecca G Rogers, Robert E Sapien, Ronald M Schrader, Timothy Simmerman-Sierra, Andrew R Mayer, Loren H Ketai
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methodology for a study comparing mind-body treatment and pharmacotherapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). To explore brain associations in UUI, a subset of patients will also undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesize that hypnotherapy, a mind-body intervention, will be at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating UUI. We also hypothesize that fMRI findings will change following treatment, with changes potentially differing between groups...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Irayda Jakušovaitė, Žydrunė Luneckaitė, Eimantas Peičius, Živilė Bagdonaitė, Olga Riklikienė, Edgaras Stankevičius
The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death...
2016: Medicina
Huseyin Agah Terzi, Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Koroglu, Guner Cakmak, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci, Ahmet Ozbek, Mustafa Altindis
INTRODUCTION: The Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria are low-virulence bacteria existing as commensals in the oral flora and gastrointestinal tracts of humans. S. anginosus may spread to the blood in individuals with poor oral hygiene in cases of oral infections, such as gingivitis and tooth abscesses, that develop following the loss of mucosal unity. This may lead to infections in the whole body, primarily as brain and liver abscesses. CASE PRESENTATION: A 32-year-old male patient presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting, and diffuse abdominal pain...
June 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Wangbing Shen, Yuan Yuan, Chang Liu, Jing Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Claudia C Aguirre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Klaus Bielefeldt, Ashok Tuteja, Salman Nusrat
Ingestion and digestion of food as well as expulsion of residual material from our gastrointestinal tract requires normal propulsive, i.e. motor, function. Hypomotility refers to inherited or acquired changes that come with decreased contractile forces or slower transit. It not only often causes symptoms but also may compromise nutritional status or lead to other complications. While severe forms, such as pseudo-obstruction or ileus, may have a tremendous functional impact, the less severe forms of hypomotility may well be more relevant, as they contribute to common disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
2016: F1000Research
Jenni Koivukangas, Lassi Björnholm, Osmo Tervonen, Jouko Miettunen, Tanja Nordström, Vesa Kiviniemi, Pirjo Mäki, Sari Mukkala, Irma Moilanen, Jennifer H Barnett, Peter B Jones, Juha Nikkinen, Juha Veijola
Antipsychotic medications and psychotic illness related factors may affect both weight and brain structure in people with psychosis. Genetically high-risk individuals offer an opportunity to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and brain structure free from these potential confounds. We examined the effect of BMI on white matter (WM) microstructure in subjects with familial risk for psychosis (FR). We used diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics to explore the effect of BMI on whole brain FA in 42 (13 males) participants with FR and 46 (16 males) control participants aged 20-25 years drawn from general population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986...
August 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
A Tzankov
The mediastinum is a complex body region of limited space but containing numerous organs of different embryonic origins. A variety of lesions that are difficult to distinguish from each other can occur here. Non-neoplastic lesions of the mediastinum represent important differential diagnostic pitfalls to mediastinal tumors, clinically, radiologically and histopathologically. It is important to bear these lesions in mind and to adequately verify or exclude them before starting further differential diagnostic considerations on mediastinal neoplasms...
September 2016: Der Pathologe
Sonia S Anand, Jack V Tu, Philip Awadalla, Sandra Black, Catherine Boileau, David Busseuil, Dipika Desai, Jean-Pierre Després, Russell J de Souza, Trevor Dummer, Sébastien Jacquemont, Bartha Knoppers, Eric Larose, Scott A Lear, Francois Marcotte, Alan R Moody, Louise Parker, Paul Poirier, Paula J Robson, Eric E Smith, John J Spinelli, Jean-Claude Tardif, Koon K Teo, Natasa Tusevljak, Matthias G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: The Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds (CAHHM) is a pan-Canadian, prospective, multi-ethnic cohort study being conducted in Canada. The overarching objective of the CAHHM is to understand the association of socio-environmental and contextual factors (such as societal structure, activity, nutrition, social and tobacco environments, and access to health services) with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical vascular disease, and cardiovascular and other chronic disease outcomes...
2016: BMC Public Health
Adrian Wong, Alexander Y L Lau, Eugene Lo, Michael Tang, Zhaolu Wang, Wenyan Liu, Nicole Tanner, Natalie Chau, Lorraine Law, Lin Shi, Winnie C W Chu, Jie Yang, Yun-Yun Xiong, Bonnie Y K Lam, Lisa Au, Anne Y Y Chan, Yannie Soo, Thomas W H Leung, Lawrence K S Wong, Linda C W Lam, Vincent C T Mok
BACKGROUND: Leisure activity participation has been shown to lower risks of cognitive decline in non-stroke populations. However, effects of leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of dementia after stroke are unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of recent past leisure activities participation upon cognitive functions and risk of incident dementia after stroke. METHODS: Hospital-based, retrospective cohort study...
2016: PloS One
Sakura Okada, Hideyoshi Igata, Tetsuya Sakaguchi, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
We present a new technique for the simultaneous capture of bioelectrical time signals from the brain and peripheral organs of freely moving rodents. The recording system integrates all systemic signals into an electrical interface board that is mounted on an animal's head for an extended period. The interface board accommodates up to 48 channels, enabling us to analyze neuronal activity patterns in multiple brain regions by comparing a variety of physiological body states over weeks and months. This technique will advance the understanding of the neurophysiological correlate of mind-body associations in health and disease...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Christof Kuhbandner, Philipp Spachtholz, Bernhard Pastötter
An intriguing finding of research on emotional processing is a discrepancy between perception and behavior. Perceptually, a robust finding is that negative stimuli are processed faster and more efficiently than positive stimuli. Behaviorally, a similarly robust finding is that response times are slower for negative than for positive stimuli. We proposed and tested a novel account to explain this still unexplained discrepancy, on the basis of the assumption that negative valence narrows perceptual processes to the benefit of speeded perception, but broadens motor processes at the cost of slowed responding...
August 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Barry I Freedman, Crystal A Gadegbeku, R Nick Bryan, Nicholette D Palmer, Pamela J Hicks, Lijun Ma, Michael V Rocco, S Carrie Smith, Jianzhao Xu, Christopher T Whitlow, Benjamin C Wagner, Carl D Langefeld, Amret T Hawfield, Jeffrey T Bates, Alan J Lerner, Dominic S Raj, Mohammad S Sadaghiani, Robert D Toto, Jackson T Wright, Donald W Bowden, Jeff D Williamson, Kaycee M Sink, Joseph A Maldjian, Nicholas M Pajewski, Jasmin Divers
To assess apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) renal-risk-variant effects on the brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cerebral volumes and cognitive function were assessed in 517 African American-Diabetes Heart Study (AA-DHS) Memory IN Diabetes (MIND) and 2568 hypertensive African American Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) participants without diabetes. Within these cohorts, 483 and 197 had cerebral MRI, respectively. AA-DHS participants were characterized as follows: 60.9% female, mean age of 58...
August 2016: Kidney International
M Arias
All human experiences, including mystical and religious ones, are the result of brain functional activity. Thanks to the study of cases of ecstatic epilepsy with structural (MRI) and functional neuroimaging (fMRI, PET, SPECT) and neurophysiological technologies (recording and stimulation with intracranial electrodes), we now have a better knowledge of certain mental states which involve pleasant and affective symptoms and clarity of mind. These ecstatic experiences are thought to be caused by the activation of the anterior insular cortex and some neuronal networks (basically related to mirror neurons and salience) participating in introspection, social cognition, memory, and emotional processes...
June 20, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Shivaji Chobe, Hemant Bhargav, Nagarathna Raghuram, Christoph Garner
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by a significant deterioration in auditory and visual reaction times along with associated depression and anxiety. Yoga and Physical therapy (PT) interventions have been found to enhance recovery from these problems in various neuropsychiatric illnesses, but sufficient evidence is lacking in chronic MS population. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of integrated Yoga and Physical therapy (IYP) on audiovisual reaction times, depression and anxiety in patients suffering from chronic MS...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
T C Bernardo, I Marques-Aleixo, J Beleza, P J Oliveira, A Ascensão, J Magalhães
Exercise is one of the most effective strategies to maintain a healthy body and mind, with particular beneficial effects of exercise on promoting brain plasticity, increasing cognition and reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Moreover, the beneficial effects resulting from increased physical activity occur at different levels of cellular organization, mitochondria being preferential target organelles. The relevance of this review article relies on the need to integrate the current knowledge of proposed mechanisms, focus mitochondria, to explain the protective effects of exercise that might underlie neuroplasticity and seeks to synthesize these data in the context of exploring exercise as a feasible intervention to delay cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative conditions, particularly Alzheimer disease...
September 2016: Brain Pathology
Yi-Yuan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Michael I Posner
BACKGROUND: The core clinical symptoms of addiction include an enhanced incentive for drug taking (craving), impaired self-control (impulsivity and compulsivity), emotional dysregulation (negative mood) and increased stress reactivity. Symptoms related to impaired self-control involve reduced activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), adjacent prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other brain areas. Behavioral training such as mindfulness meditation can increase the function of control networks including those leading to improved emotion regulation and thus may be a promising approach for the treatment of addiction...
June 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Patrick N Stoney, Peter McCaffery
Vitamin A is essential for many physiological processes and is particularly crucial during early life, when vitamin A deficiency increases mortality through elevated rates of infection. This deadly aspect of vitamin A deficiency masks other effects that, while not lethal, may nevertheless cause significant issues if vitamin A insufficiency reoccurs during later childhood or in the adult. One such effect is on the brain. Vitamin A is essential for several regions of the brain, and this chapter focuses on two regions: the hippocampus, needed for learning and memory, and the hypothalamus, necessary to maintain the body's internal physiological balance...
2016: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
Eileen Luders, Nicolas Cherbuin
In the context of an aging population and increased prevalence of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases, developing strategies to decrease the negative effects of aging is imperative. The scientific study of meditation as a potential tool to downregulate processes implicated in brain aging is an emerging field, and a growing body of research suggests that mindfulness practices are beneficial for cerebral resilience. Adding further evidence to this notion, an increasing number of imaging studies report effects of meditation on brain structure that are consistent with our understanding of neuroprotection...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Joseph J Loizzo
Meditation research has begun to clarify the brain effects and mechanisms of contemplative practices while generating a range of typologies and explanatory models to guide further study. This comparative review explores a neglected area relevant to current research: the validity of a traditional central nervous system (CNS) model that coevolved with the practices most studied today and that provides the first comprehensive neural-based typology and mechanistic framework of contemplative practices. The subtle body model, popularly known as the chakra system from Indian yoga, was and is used as a map of CNS function in traditional Indian and Tibetan medicine, neuropsychiatry, and neuropsychology...
June 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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