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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616259/hyperphosphatemia-in-a-patient-with-spinal-cord-injury-who-received-etidronate-for-the-treatment-of-heterotopic-ossification
#1
Sahil Taravati, Ece Cinar, Yesim Akkoc
INTRODUCTION: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as ectopic bone formation around peripheral joints and in soft tissues. HO is a common complication of diseases of the central nervous system, such as spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury. HO is seen in up to 50% of patients with SCI and typically occurs in the first 12 weeks after onset of injury. Although no treatment method is proven to be curative, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, irradiation of the involved body part and bisphosphonates are commonly used in the management of HO...
2017: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600777/psychoneuroimmunology-developments-in-stress-research
#2
REVIEW
Rainer H Straub, Maurizio Cutolo
Links between the central nervous stress system and peripheral immune cells in lymphoid organs have been detailed through 50 years of intensive research. The brain can interfere with the immune system, where chronic psychological stress inhibits many functions of the immune system. On the other hand, chronic peripheral inflammation-whether mild (during aging and psychological stress) or severe (chronic inflammatory diseases)-clearly interferes with brain function, leading to disease sequelae like fatigue but also to overt psychiatric illness...
June 9, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600001/at-least-eighty-percent-of-brain-grey-matter-is-modifiable-by-physical-activity-a-review-study
#3
REVIEW
Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Valiallah Saba
The human brain is plastic, i.e. it can show structural changes in response to the altered environment. Physical activity (PA) is a lifestyle factor which has significant associations with the structural and functional aspects of the human brain, as well as with the mind and body health. Many studies have reported regional/global brain volume increments due to exercising; however, a map which shows the overall extent of the influences of PAs on brain structure is not available. In this study, we collected all the reports on brain structural alterations in association with PA in healthy humans, and next, a brain map of the extent of these effects is provided...
June 7, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579071/tranylcypromine-in-mind-part-ii-review-of-clinical-pharmacology-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-studies-in-depression
#4
REVIEW
Roland Ricken, Sven Ulrich, Peter Schlattmann, Mazda Adli
It has been over 50 years since a review has focused exclusively on the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP). A new review has therefore been conducted for TCP in two parts which are written to be read preferably in close conjunction: part I - pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, toxicology; and part II - clinical studies with meta-analysis of controlled studies in depression, practice of TCP treatment, place in therapy. The irreversible and nonselective MAO-A/B inhibitor TCP has been confirmed as an efficacious and safe antidepressant drug...
June 1, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575207/moran-s-i-quantifies-spatio-temporal-pattern-formation-in-neural-imaging-data
#5
Christoph Schmal, Jihwan Myung, Hanspeter Herzel, Grigory Bordyugov
Motivation: Neural activities of the brain occur through the formation of spatio-temporal patterns. In recent years, macroscopic neural imaging techniques have produced a large body of data on these patterned activities, yet a numerical measure of spatio-temporal coherence has often been reduced to the global order parameter, which does not uncover the degree of spatial correlation. Here, we propose to use the spatial autocorrelation measure Moran's I, which can be applied to capture dynamic signatures of spatial organization...
May 31, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571077/a-systematic-review-of-mechanisms-of-change-in-body-oriented-yoga-in-major-depressive-disorders
#6
K Meister, G Juckel
Introduction Despite empirical evidence for the efficacy of body-oriented yoga as add-on treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), the specific mechanisms by which yoga leads to therapeutic changes remain unclear. By means of a systematic review, we evaluate how the field is progressing in its empirical investigation of mechanisms of change in yoga for MDD. Methods To identify relevant studies, a systematic search was conducted. Results The search produced 441 articles, of which 5 were included, that empirically examined 2 psychological mechanisms (mindfulness, rumination) and 3 biological mechanisms (vagal control, heart rate variability [HRV], brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], cortisol)...
June 1, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566550/disconnection-as-a-mechanism-for-social-cognition-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Sonia Batista, Carolina Alves, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Ricardo Félix-Morais, João Pereira, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of microstructural normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) damage to social cognition impairment, specifically in the theory of mind (ToM), in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We enrolled consecutively 60 patients with MS and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education level. All participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3T brain MRI including conventional and diffusion tensor imaging sequences...
May 31, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546682/yoga-practice-improves-the-body-mass-index-and-blood-pressure-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Ashutosh Chauhan, Deepak Kumar Semwal, Satyendra Prasad Mishra, Ruchi Badoni Semwal
BACKGROUND: Yoga, an ancient Indian system of exercise and therapy is an art of good living or an integrated system for the benefit of the body, mind, and inner spirit. Regular practice of yoga can help to increase blood flow to the brain, reduce stress, have a calming effect on the nervous system, and greatly help in reducing hypertension. AIM: Aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of 1-month yoga practice on body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP)...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522533/a-dedicated-network-for-social-interaction-processing-in-the-primate-brain
#9
J Sliwa, W A Freiwald
Primate cognition requires interaction processing. Interactions can reveal otherwise hidden properties of intentional agents, such as thoughts and feelings, and of inanimate objects, such as mass and material. Where and how interaction analyses are implemented in the brain is unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque monkeys, we discovered a network centered in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex that is exclusively engaged in social interaction analysis. Exclusivity of specialization was found for no other function anywhere in the brain...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484383/when-playing-is-a-problem-an-atypical-case-of-alien-hand-syndrome-in-a-professional-pianist
#10
Arantxa Alfaro, Ángela Bernabeu, Francisco J Badesa, Nicolas García, Eduardo Fernández
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a neurological illness characterized by limb movements which are carried out without being aware of it. Many patients describe these movements as aggressive and some perceive a strong feeling of estrangement and go so far as to deny ownership. The sense of body ownership is the perception that parts of one's body pertain to oneself, despite it is moving or not and if movement is intentional or unintentional. These anomalous self-experiences may arise in patients with focal brain lesions and provide unique opportunities to disclose the neural components underlying self-body perception...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483271/-mindful-neuropsychology-mindfulness-based-cognitive-remediation
#11
E Bulzacka, S Lavault, A Pelissolo, C Bagnis Isnard
OBJECTIVES: Mindfulness based interventions (MBI) have recently gained much interest in western medicine. MBSR paradigm is based on teaching participants to pay complete attention to the present experience and act nonjudgmentally towards stressful events. During this mental practice the meditator focuses his or her attention on the sensations of the body. While the distractions (mental images, thoughts, emotional or somatic states) arise the participant is taught to acknowledge discursive thoughts and cultivate the state of awareness without immediate reaction...
May 5, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405215/the-american-psychosomatic-society-integrating-mind-brain-body-and-social-context-in-medicine-since-1942
#12
REVIEW
Christoph Herrmann-Lingen
BACKGROUND: The American Psychosomatic Society is one of the oldest and probably the most influential scientific society in psychosomatic/biopsychosocial research worldwide. The current article delineates the historical development and current strategic orientation of the society. METHOD: Review of published literature, archived materials and current documents of the society. RESULTS: The American Psychosomatic Society (APS) was founded in 1942, originally named the "American Society for Research in Psychosomatic Problems "...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368365/mind-body-interventions-for-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ann Ming Yeh, Anava Wren, Brenda Golianu
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain-gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with quiescent IBD, and the potential of psychosocial stressors to trigger IBD flares. Mind-body interventions such as psychotherapy, relaxation, mindfulness, biofeedback, yoga, and clinical hypnosis offer an adjunct to standard medical treatment for IBD...
April 3, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367446/systematic-comparison-of-brain-imaging-meta-analyses-of-tom-with-vpt
#14
Aditi Arora, Matthias Schurz, Josef Perner
In visual perspective taking (vPT) one has to concern oneself with what other people see and how they see it. Since seeing is a mental state, developmental studies have discussed vPT within the domain of "theory of mind (ToM)" but imaging studies have not treated it as such. Based on earlier results from several meta-analyses, we tested for the overlap of visual perspective taking studies with 6 different kinds of ToM studies: false belief, trait judgments, strategic games, social animations, mind in the eyes, and rational actions...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367120/who-am-i-the-conscious-and-the-unconscious-self
#15
Michael Schaefer, Georg Northoff
Who am I? What is the self and where does it come from? This may be one of the oldest problems in philosophy. Beyond traditional philosophy, only very recently approaches from neuroscience (in particular imaging studies) have tried to address these questions, too. So what are neural substrates of our self? An increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that a set of structures labeled as cortical midline structures are fundamental components to generate a conscious self. Moreover, recent theories on embodied cognition propose that this conscious self might be supplemented by additional structures, for example, in the somatosensory cortices, which enable our brain to create an "embodied mind"...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#16
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#17
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275643/a-translational-approach-to-clinical-practice-via-stress-responsive-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling
#18
COMMENT
Mario F Juruena, Bruno Agustini, Anthony J Cleare, Allan H Young
A recent article by Kwan and colleagues could elegantly demonstrate the necessary interaction between neuronal serotonin (5-HT) systems and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through glucocorticoid receptors (GR), producing an adequate stress response, in this case, responding to hypoxia with an increase in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). There is an intricate system connecting brain, body and mind and this exchange is only possible when all these systems-nervous, endocrine, and immune-have receptors on critical cells to receive information (via messenger molecules) from each of the other systems...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266344/epilepsy-at-the-prodromal-stages-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Benjamin Cretin, Nathalie Philippi, Laure Dibitonto, Frédéric Blanc
This review provides a clinically grounded description of the links between epilepsy and early common neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, vascular cognitive impairment, fronto-temporal lobar degeneration). It shows that epilepsy does not only concern demented patients displaying convulsive seizures (whether focal or generalized) and obvious atrophy on brain imaging. On the contrary, unprovoked seizures and epilepsy - commonly involving the temporal lobe - are now reported at the prodromal stages of these diseases, when cognitive complaints are mild or even minimal and brain imaging inconstantly abnormal...
March 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239961/in-pursuit-of-neurophenotypes-the-consequences-of-having-autism-and-a-big-brain
#20
David G Amaral, Deana Li, Lauren Libero, Marjorie Solomon, Judy Van de Water, Ann Mastergeorge, Letitia Naigles, Sally Rogers, Christine Wu Nordahl
A consensus has emerged that despite common core features, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has multiple etiologies and various genetic and biological characteristics. The fact that there are likely to be subtypes of ASD has complicated attempts to develop effective therapies. The UC Davis MIND Institute Autism Phenome Project is a longitudinal, multidisciplinary analysis of children with autism and age-matched typically developing controls; nearly 400 families are participating in this study. The overarching goal is to gather sufficient biological, medical, and behavioral data to allow definition of clinically meaningful subtypes of ASD...
May 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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