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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908890/pathology-of-human-coronary-and-carotid-artery-atherosclerosis-and-vascular-calcification-in-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Kazuyuki Yahagi, Frank D Kolodgie, Christoph Lutter, Hiroyoshi Mori, Maria E Romero, Aloke V Finn, Renu Virmani
The continuing increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the general population is predicted to result in a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms of diabetes mellitus-associated progression of atherosclerosis are not fully understood, at clinical and pathological levels, there is an appreciation of increased disease burden and higher levels of arterial calcification in these subjects. Plaques within the coronary arteries of patients with diabetes mellitus generally exhibit larger necrotic cores and significantly greater inflammation consisting mainly of macrophages and T lymphocytes relative to patients without diabetes mellitus...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904523/the-role-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in-the-detection-of-vulnerable-atherosclerotic-plaques
#2
Martin Horvath, Petr Hajek, Cyril Stechovsky, Jakub Honek, Miloslav Spacek, Josef Veselka
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by a rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque which can be characterized by a lipid-rich necrotic core with an overlying thin fibrous cap. Many vulnerable plaques can cause angiographically mild stenoses due to positive remodelling, which is why the extent of coronary artery disease may be seriously underestimated. In recent years, we have witnessed a paradigm shift in interventional cardiology...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904029/coronary-artery-calcium-and-carotid-artery-intima-media-thickness-and-plaque-clinical-use-in-need-of-clarification
#3
Maryam Zaid, Akira Fujiyoshi, Aya Kadota, Robert D Abbott, Katsuyuki Miura
Atherosclerosis begins in early life and has a long latent period prior to onset of clinical disease. Measures of subclinical atherosclerosis, therefore, may have important implications for research and clinical practice of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). In this review, we focus on coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque as many population-based studies have investigated these measures due to their non-invasive features and ease of administration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903864/oral-thrombin-inhibitor-aggravates-platelet-adhesion-and-aggregation-during-arterial-thrombosis
#4
Tobias Petzold, Manuela Thienel, Ildiko Konrad, Irene Schubert, Ron Regenauer, Boj Hoppe, Michael Lorenz, Annekathrin Eckart, Sue Chandraratne, Carsten Lennerz, Christof Kolb, Daniel Braun, Janina Jamasbi, Richard Brandl, Siegmund Braun, Wolfgang Siess, Christian Schulz, Steffen Massberg
In patients with atrial fibrillation, oral anticoagulation with oral thrombin inhibitors (OTIs), in contrast to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), associates with a modest increase in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). Whether this observation is causatively linked to OTI treatment and, if so, whether OTI action is the result of a lower antithrombotic efficacy of OTI compared to VKA or reflects a yet undefined prothrombotic activity of OTI remain unclear. We analyzed platelet function in patients receiving OTI or dose-adapted VKA under static and flow conditions...
November 30, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900990/prognostic-value-of-gai-s-plaque-score-and-agatston-coronary-artery-calcium-score-for-functionally-significant-coronary-artery-stenosis
#5
Chuang Zhang, Shuang Yang, Lu-Yue Gai, Zhi-Qi Han, Qian Xin, Xiao-Bo Yang, Jun-Jie Yang, Qin-Hua Jin
BACKGROUND: The prognostic values of the coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) score for predicting future cardiovascular events have been previously demonstrated in numerous studies. However, few studies have used the rich information available from CCTA to detect functionally significant coronary lesions. We sought to compare the prognostic values of Gai's plaque score and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) of CCTA for predicting functionally significant coronary lesions, using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as the gold standard...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900865/-treatment-of-dyslipidemia-is-here-still-place-for-cetp-inhibitors
#6
Ján Murín, Miroslav Pernický, Soňa Kiňová
In the treatment of dyslipidemias about 5-6 years back a new class of drugs emerged, CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein)-inhibitors. Their benefit was due to an increase of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) serum levels. This treatment mode was supported by epidemiological and clinical studies, as people with high serum HDL-C levels suffered less from cardiovascular (CV) events. Three studies with CETP inhibitors (ILLUMINATE with torcetrapib, dal-OUTCOMES with dalcetrapib and ACCELERATE with evacetrapib) were unfortunately negative, and torcetrapib was even harmful to patients due to an increase of aldosterone serum levels...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899941/influence-of-increased-epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-on-1-year-in-stent-restenosis-in-patients-who-received-coronary-stent-implantation
#7
Ying Zhou, Hua-Wei Zhang, Feng Tian, Jin-Song Chen, Tian-Wen Han, Ya-Hang Tan, Jia Zhou, Tao Zhang, Jing Jing, Yun-Dai Chen
BACKGROUND: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is significantly associated with the formation and composition of coronary atherosclerotic plaque, cardiac events and the clinical prognosis of coronary heart disease. But, whether increased EAT deposition may affect the incidence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is currently unclear. This study used coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as a mean to investigate whether increased EAT volume was associated with ISR. METHODS: A total of 364 patients who underwent 64-slice CCTA examination for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease, and subsequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the first time, and then accepted coronary angiography (CA) follow-up for ISR examination in one year, were retrospectively included in this study...
September 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899854/association-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-with-the-severity-and-morphology-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaques-detected-by-multidetector-computerized-tomography
#8
Ahmet Hakan Ateş, Kudret Aytemir, Duygu Koçyiğit, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin, Kadri Murat Gürses, Hikmet Yorgun, Uğur Canpolat, Tuncay Hazırolan, Necla Özer
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated a consistent relationship between white blood cell (WBC) counts and coronary artery disease (CAD). The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been considered as a potential marker for identifying individuals under risk of CAD and associated events. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether NLR was associated with the severity and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaques shown by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). METHODS: Our study population consisted of 684 patients who underwent dual-source 64 slice MDCT for the assessment of CAD...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893195/photodynamic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-atherosclerotic-plaque-lost-in-translation
#9
Manish Jain, Matthieu Zellweger, Georges Wagnières, Hubert van den Bergh, Stéphane Cook, Marie-Noelle Giraud
Acute coronary syndromeis a life-threatening condition of utmost clinical importance, which, despite recent progress in the field, is still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute coronary syndrome results from a rupture or erosion of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque with secondary platelet activation and thrombus formation, which leads to partial or complete luminal obstruction of a coronary artery. During the last decade, scientific evidence demonstrated that, when an acute coronary event occurs, several non-culprit plaques are in a "vulnerable" state...
November 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886161/cardiac-ct-in-the-emergency-department-in-the-era-of-highly-sensitive-troponins-is-there-still-a-role
#10
Admir Dedic, Koen Nieman, Udo Hoffmann, Maros Ferencik
INTRODUCTION: Physicians practicing cardiovascular medicine are every day confronted with patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Over the years, there have been substantial technical advances, such as the introduction of new non-invasive imaging techniques and the introduction of new highly sensitive cardiac biomarkers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND SYNTHESIS: Physicians have adopted these new assets and have become more experienced with them thus improving medical care...
November 25, 2016: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885376/high-prevalence-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-psoriatic-arthritis-patients-a-study-based-on-carotid-ultrasound
#11
Rosario Ibáñez-Bosch, Juliana Restrepo-Velez, Miguel Medina-Malone, Laura Garrido-Courel, Inmaculada Paniagua-Zudaire, Eduardo Loza-Cortina
Analyse the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic arthritis patients (PsA). A cross-sectional study of 53 patients with PsA and 53 controls matched for age and sex was designed. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the presence of carotid plaques (CP) were assessed with carotid ultrasound. Data on cardiovascular (CV) risk factors were collected. Patients with PsA had a higher prevalence rate of obesity and tobacco smoking. CP were detected more frequently in patients with PsA than in controls with an OR of 4...
November 24, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884129/in-vivo-optical-coherence-tomography-visualization-of-intraplaque-neovascularization-at-the-site-of-coronary-vasospasm-a-case-report
#12
Kenichi Tsujita, Koichi Kaikita, Satoshi Araki, Toshihiro Yamada, Suguru Nagamatsu, Kenshi Yamanaga, Kenji Sakamoto, Sunao Kojima, Seiji Hokimoto, Hisao Ogawa
BACKGROUND: Coronary plaques in patients with coronary vasospastic angina have been characterized by diffuse intima-media thickening with homogeneous fibrous tissue, without confluent necrotic tissue. However, coronary vasospasm can trigger coronary thrombosis, and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes, though the precise morphological mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man with a history of multivessel coronary vasospastic angina had been treated with long-acting diltiazem and fluvastatin since 2004...
November 25, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884085/the-roles-of-myeloperoxidase-in-coronary-artery-disease-and-its-potential-implication-in-plaque-rupture
#13
Nathaniel Teng, Ghassan J Maghzal, Jihan Talib, Imran Rashid, Antony K Lau, Roland Stocker
Atherosclerosis is the main pathophysiological process underlying coronary artery disease (CAD). Acute complications of atherosclerosis, such as myocardial infarction, are caused by the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by thin, highly inflamed, and collagen-poor fibrous caps. Several lines of evidence mechanistically link the heme peroxidase myeloperoxidase (MPO), inflammation as well as acute and chronic manifestations of atherosclerosis. MPO and MPO-derived oxidants have been shown to contribute to the formation of foam cells, endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis, the activation of latent matrix metalloproteinases, and the expression of tissue factor that can promote the development of vulnerable plaque...
November 25, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883201/effect-of-treatment-with-5-lipoxygenase-inhibitor-via-2291-atreleuton-on-coronary-plaque-progression-a-serial-ct-angiography-study
#14
Suguru Matsumoto, Reda Ibrahim, Jean C Grégoire, Philippe L L'Allier, Josephine Pressacco, Jean-Claude Tardif, Matthew J Budoff
BACKGROUND: Inflammation has a key role in the process of atherosclerosis. Production of leukotrienes by 5-lipoxygenase has been linked to atherosclerotic plaques and cardiovascular events. HYPOTHESIS: In this study, a selective 5-LO inhibitor will slow plaque progression using serial cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Patients with recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were prospectively assigned to one of 3 VIA-2291 doses (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg) or placebo by oral administration...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882428/progression-of-noncalcified-and-calcified-coronary-plaque-by-ct-angiography-in-sle
#15
Aisha Khan, Armin Arbab-Zadeh, Adnan N Kiani, Laurence S Magder, Michelle Petri
Premature coronary artery disease remains the major cause of late death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Coronary artery calcium (CAC) represents an advanced stage of atherosclerosis, whereas noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque (NCP) typically is more prone to trigger acute coronary events. The aim of this study was to assess the stability of NCP over time and identify factors associated with changes in NCP in patients with SLE. CT coronary angiography and calcium scanning were performed at baseline and follow-up in thirty-six SLE patients...
November 23, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876264/intravascular-ultrasound-and-near-infrared-spectroscopic-characterization-of-thin-cap-fibroatheroma
#16
Shinji Inaba, Gary S Mintz, Allen P Burke, Gregg W Stone, Renu Virmani, Mitsuaki Matsumura, Rupa Parvataneni, Rishi Puri, Stephen J Nicholls, Akiko Maehara
Thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) are considered precursors for plaque rupture and subsequent acute coronary events. We investigated intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) characteristics of lesions that were histopathologic TCFAs. IVUS, NIRS, and histopathology were performed in 271 atherosclerotic lesions from 107 fresh coronary arteries from 54 patients at necropsy. The plaque burden and remodeling index calculated by IVUS and maximum lipid core burden index within any 4-mm segment (maxLCBI4mm) calculated by NIRS were compared among each plaque type based on histopathologic classifications but focusing on TCFA...
October 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876181/analysis-of-suboptimal-stent-deployment-using-intravascular-ultrasound-and-coronary-pressure-pullback-measurement
#17
Nobuhiro Tanaka, Nico H J Pijls, Jun Yamashita, Yo Kimura, Masashi Ogawa, Naotaka Murata, Kunihiro Sakoda, Kou Hoshino, Youhei Hokama, Akira Yamashina
BACKGROUND: There are some cases in whom a sufficient improvement in fractional flow reserve (FFR) could not be achieved even if anatomical results indicated satisfactory stent deployment. We investigated the relation of abnormal findings between intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary pressure pullback measurement (CP-PB). METHODS: IVUS and CP-PB were investigated after stent deployment in 60 vessels in 53 patients. CP-PB criterion for adequate stent deployment was defined as a ratio of coronary pressure at the stent distal edge to the proximal edge (Psd/Psp) that is greater than 0...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876180/gray-scale-intravascular-ultrasound-sheds-light-on-the-importance-of-vasa-vasorum-in-unstable-coronary-plaque
#18
EDITORIAL
Takashi Kubo, Takashi Akasaka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876049/geographical-predisposition-influences-on-the-distribution-and-tissue-characterisation-of-eccentric-coronary-plaques-in-non-branching-coronary-arteries-cross-sectional-study-of-coronary-plaques-analysed-by-intravascular-ultrasound
#19
Hidenori Komiyama, Hitoshi Takano, Shunichi Nakamura, Masamichi Takano, Noritake Hata, Miyauchi Yasushi, Yoshihiko Seino, Kyoichi Mizuno, Wataru Shimizu
BACKGROUND: We investigated the influence of geographical predisposition on the spatial distribution and composition of coronary plaques. METHODS: Thirty coronary arteries were evaluated. A total of 1441 cross-sections were collected from intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and radio-frequency signal-based virtual histology (VH-IVUS) imaging. To exclude complex geographical effects of side branches and to localise the plaque distribution, we analysed only eccentric plaques in non-branching regions...
November 22, 2016: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871242/comparison-of-coronary-arterial-lumen-dimensions-on-angiography-and-plaque-characteristics-on-optical-coherence-tomography-images-and-their-changes-induced-by-statin
#20
Nana Dong, Zulong Xie, Wei Wang, Jiannan Dai, Meng Sun, Zhongyue Pu, Jinwei Tian, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Coronary angiography (CAG) is widely used to assess lumen dimensions, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used to evaluate the characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque. This study was aimed to compare coronary lumen dimensions using CAG and plaque characteristics using OCT and their changes during statin therapy. METHODS: We identified 97 lipid-rich plaques from 69 statin-naïve patients, who received statin therapy in the following 12 months...
November 22, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
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