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coronary plaque

Satish Chirde
A 45 yrs male presented with angina. ECG showed transient CHB, T wave inversion in V3 to V6 and inferior leads. It was difficult to predict the culprit vessel based on ECG. Coronary angiography showed thrombotic lesions in LAD, LCX and OM which can potentially impact identification of culprit vessel and hence affect the management with primary PCI.
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira Petisco, Jorge Eduardo Assef, Carlos Alberto de Jesus, Mohamed Hassan Saleh, Jose Eduardo Martins Barbosa, David Costa de Souza Le Bihan, Ibraim Masciarelli França Pinto, Simone Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos Barretto, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego Sousa
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US)...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
April Robinson, Delilah McCarty, Janine Douglas
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a cardiovascular condition with a multifactorial pathophysiology that includes atherosclerotic plaques, platelet activation and thrombin production, among others. Thrombin production and the prothrombotic state of ACS patients have provided a role for anticoagulants to treat patients during the acute event and has led to subsequent research for the post-acute state. Warfarin has an indication for ACS, however, it is restricted to specific patients and many factors limit its use...
October 7, 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Ammara Usman, Umar Sadat, Zhongzhao Teng, Martin J Graves, Jonathan R Boyle, Kevin Varty, Paul D Hayes, Jonathan H Gillard
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of atheroma using contrast media enables assessment of the systemic severity of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds. Whether black-blood imaging has similar ability remains widely unexplored. In this study, we evaluate whether black-blood imaging can differentiate carotid plaques of patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in terms of morphological and biomechanical features of plaque vulnerability, thereby allowing assessment of the systemic severity nature of atherosclerosis in different arterial beds...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Siroon Bekkering, Inge van den Munckhof, Tim Nielen, Evert Lamfers, Charles Dinarello, Joost Rutten, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Marc E R Gomes, Niels P Riksen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have recently reported that monocytes can undergo functional and transcriptional reprogramming towards a long-term pro-inflammatory phenotype after brief in vitro exposure to atherogenic stimuli such as oxidized LDL. This process is termed 'trained immunity', and is mediated by epigenetic remodeling and a metabolic switch towards increased aerobic glycolysis. We hypothesize that trained immunity contributes to atherogenesis. Therefore, we investigated the inflammatory phenotype and epigenetic remodeling of monocytes from patients with and without established atherosclerosis...
October 12, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M den Ruijter, Peter Libby
The concept of the 'vulnerable plaque' originated from pathological observations in patients who died from acute coronary syndrome. This recognition spawned a generation of research that led to greater understanding of how complicated atherosclerotic plaques form and precipitate thrombotic events. In current practice, an increasing number of patients who survive their first event present with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) rather than myocardial infarction (MI) with ST-segment elevation (STEMI)...
October 20, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Takao Sato, John Jose, Mohamed El-Mawardy, Dmitriy S Sulimov, Ralph Tölg, Gert Richardt, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab
This study investigated the predictors of acute recoil after implantation of everolimus-eluting BRS based on optical coherence tomography (OCT). Thirty-nine patients (56 scaffolds) were enrolled. Acute absolute recoil by quantitative coronary angiography was defined as the difference between the mean diameter of the last inflated balloon (X) and the mean lumen diameter of BRS immediately after balloon deflation (Y). Acute percent recoil was defined as (X - Y) × 100/X. Plaque eccentricity (PE) and plaque composition (PC) were assessed by OCT...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Sibghatullah Muhammad Ali Sangi
BACKGROUND: Since long high fat diet (HFD) is being blamed for causing fatty degeneration of liver and formation of atheromatous plaques. At present, no proper pharmacotherapy is available for both the conditions. In this study, different substances containing monounsaturated fatty acids were used to observe their protective effects in the HFD induced damage to liver and coronary vessels. OBJECTIVES: To discover effective therapeutic agents for HFD induced fatty degeneration of liver and atheromatous plaques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Giovanni Cimmino, Francesco S Loffredo, Alberto Morello, Saverio D Elia, Raffaele De Palma, Plinio Cirillo, Paolo Golino
In the last twenty years, our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved in formation, progression and complication of atherosclerotic plaque has advanced significantly and the main role of inflammation and immunity in this phenomenon is now largely accepted. Accumulating evidence highlight the crucial role of different inflammatory and immune cells, such as monocytes and T-lymphocytes, in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic lesion, particularly in contributing to its complications, such as rupture or ulceration...
October 13, 2016: Current Cardiology Reviews
Nermina Buljubasic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Jin M Cheng, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Sanneke P M de Boer, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Patrick W J C Serruys, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide additional insight into the role of fibrinogen in coronary artery disease by investigating the associations between plasma fibrinogen with both degree and composition of coronary atherosclerosis as determined by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris, preprocedural blood samples were drawn for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 measurements, and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound of a nonculprit coronary artery was performed...
October 14, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
Junichiro Hashimoto
Arterial structure and function change progressively with advancing age. Owing to long-lasting repetitive stretch with intermittent cardiac contraction, elastic fibers in the tunica media of large arteries gradually degenerate and are replaced by collagenous fibers. Such medial degeneration causes elastic arteries to stiffen and dilate. However, the speed of the vascular aging varies considerably among individuals; a discrepancy often exists between the chronological age of an individual and the biological age of his or her arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jürgen Bohlender, Jürg Nussberger, Beate Bohlender
OBJECTIVE: In elderly hypertensive patients, systolic blood pressure (sBP) goals recommended by US and European guidelines (ESH) for the initiation of treatment are more liberal than in younger patients because of an increased risk of treatment-associated side-effects and hypotension. Carotid stenosis increases with age and poses a risk of brain ischemia if hypotension occurs. Its relevance for the routine care of elderly hypertensives, however, remains unclear. We analyzed data on precerebral artery morphology and BP evolution from a survey of aged hospitalized patients...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Enrico Agabiti Rosei
Current Hypertension Guidelines emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of preclinical organ damage. In fact, an extensive evaluation of organ damage may increase the number of patients classified at high CV risk and therefore strongly influence the clinical management of patients. Hypertensive heart disease remains to date the form of organ damage for which there is the greatest amount of evidence of a strong independent prognostic significance. In the presence of a chronic pressure overload, a parallel addition of sarcomers takes place with an increase in myocyte width, which in turn increases left ventricular wall thickness; myocyte hypertrophy is also associated with apoptosis, collagen deposition and ventricular fibrosis with an impairment of coronary hemodynamics as well, thus profoundly influencing functional properties of the left (and right) ventricle...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Soo-Kyeong Song, Sang-Rok Lee, Lae-Young Jung, Yi-Shik Kim, Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoung-Suk Rhee, Jei-Keon Chae, Won-Ho Kim, Jae-Ki Ko
OBJECTIVE: Wall shear stress contributes to atherosclerosis progression and plaque rupture. There were limited studies for hypertension as influence factor on whole blood viscosity (WBV) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. We evaluated the relations between WBV and hypertension in patients who visited to the emergency room by acute chest pain. DESIGN AND METHOD: From April 2013 through June 2015, we prospectively enrolled 471 acute chest pain patients who visited emergency room...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sang-Chol Lee
Chronic hypertension can result in deleterious effects on various vascular organs including the heart and vessels. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has the unique advantage of the ability to assess ventricular volumes and function, valvular abnormalities, vascular pathology, myocardial perfusion and tissue characterization with high accuracy and reproducibility and also avoid the risk of radiation. As this is the case, CMR seems to be an ideal method for comprehensive assessment of patients with systemic hypertension...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Girish Dwivedi, Yingwei Liu, Shrankhala Tewari, Joao Inacio, Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Benjamin J W Chow
BACKGROUND: Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) has the ability to detect, characterize, and quantify atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic power of CCTA-quantified plaque subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with adverse events and 36 Morise score-matched patients who remained event free on follow-up were identified. Using CCTA images, plaque subtype volumes in the major epicardial arteries were analyzed using predetermined attenuation ranges in Hounsfield units (HU): 1 to 30 HU (low attenuating), 31 to 70 HU (intermediate attenuating), 71 to 150 HU (high attenuating), and mean coronary lumen+2 SD to 1000 HU (calcified)...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
George Jose Valooran, Shiv Kumar Nair, Krishnan Chandrasekharan
The metabolically active endothelium of arterial grafts is reported to slow the atherosclerotic process in the distal coronary territories to which they are grafted with improved patency. The literature on arterial grafting causing proximal plaque regression is scant. We report here a case of proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) plaque regression following distal arterial grafting with a left internal mammary arterial (LIMA) graft to LAD. This rarely documented regression resulted in "stringing" of the arterial graft, while there was a significant progression of atherosclerotic disease in the right coronary with patent venous graft and de novo lesion in circumflex territory necessitating percutaneous coronary intervention, in spite of aggressive medical therapy...
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
Aviva S Mattingly, Aylin B Unsal, Julia B Purdy, Ahmed M Gharib, Adam Rupert, Joseph A Kovacs, Dorothea McAreavey, Rohan Hazra, Khaled Z Abd-Elmoniem, Colleen Hadigan
We evaluated immune activation and coronary artery plaque in young adults with HIV acquired in early life (n=31). Coronary plaque was positively associated with lipids, immune activation marker %CD8+CD38+DR, and E-selectin, a marker of endothelial inflammation. Immune activation and endothelial inflammation may drive coronary plaque formation during the early stages of atherosclerosis in the context of chronic HIV.
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ana Blasco, Carmen Bellas, Leyre Goicolea, Ana Muñiz, Víctor Abraira, Ana Royuela, Susana Mingo, Juan Francisco Oteo, Arturo García-Touchard, Francisco Javier Goicolea
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Thrombus aspiration allows analysis of intracoronary material in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Our objective was to characterize this material by immunohistology and to study its possible association with patient progress. METHODS: This study analyzed a prospective cohort of 142 patients undergoing primary angioplasty with positive coronary aspiration. Histological examination of aspirated samples included immunohistochemistry stains for the detection of plaque fragments...
October 10, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
Yibin Xie, Young-Jin Kim, Jianing Pang, Jung-Sun Kim, Qi Yang, Janet Wei, Christopher T Nguyen, Zixin Deng, Byoung Wook Choi, Zhaoyang Fan, C Noel Bairey Merz, Prediman K Shah, Daniel S Berman, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Debiao Li
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the development of coronary atherosclerosis T1-weighted characterization with integrated anatomical reference (CATCH) technique and the validation by comparison with high-risk plaque features (HRPF) observed on intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and invasive coronary angiography. BACKGROUND: T1-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance with or without contrast media has been used for characterizing coronary atherosclerosis showing promising prognostic value...
October 6, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
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