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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778791/evolutionary-transitions-in-controls-reconcile-adaptation-with-continuity-of-evolution
#1
REVIEW
Alexander V Badyaev
Evolution proceeds by accumulating functional solutions, necessarily forming an uninterrupted lineage from past solutions of ancestors to the current design of extant forms. At the population level, this process requires an organismal architecture in which the maintenance of local adaptation does not preclude the ability to innovate in the same traits and their continuous evolution. Representing complex traits as networks enables us to visualize a fundamental principle that resolves tension between adaptation and continuous evolution: phenotypic states encompassing adaptations traverse the continuous multi-layered landscape of past physical, developmental and functional associations among traits...
May 17, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775412/inhibitor-of-lysyl-oxidase-improves-cardiac-function-and-the-collagen-mmp-profile-in-response-to-volume-overload
#2
Elia C El Hajj, Milad C El Hajj, Van K Ninh, Jason D Gardner
The cardiac extracellular matrix is a complex architectural network that serves many functions including providing structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells, and regulating intercellular signaling pathways. Cardiac function is directly affected by extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, and alterations of the ECM contribute to progression of heart failure. Initially, collagen deposition is an adaptive response that aims to preserve tissue integrity and maintain normal ventricular function. However, the synergistic effects of the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses induce a vicious cycle which causes excess activation of myofibroblasts, significantly increasing collagen deposition and accumulation in the matrix...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772713/genetic-optimization-algorithm-for-metabolic-engineering-revisited
#3
Tobias B Alter, Lars M Blank, Birgitta E Ebert
To date, several independent methods and algorithms exist for exploiting constraint-based stoichiometric models to find metabolic engineering strategies that optimize microbial production performance. Optimization procedures based on metaheuristics facilitate a straightforward adaption and expansion of engineering objectives, as well as fitness functions, while being particularly suited for solving problems of high complexity. With the increasing interest in multi-scale models and a need for solving advanced engineering problems, we strive to advance genetic algorithms, which stand out due to their intuitive optimization principles and the proven usefulness in this field of research...
May 16, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771673/self-paced-prioritized-curriculum-learning-with-coverage-penalty-in-deep-reinforcement-learning
#4
Zhipeng Ren, Daoyi Dong, Huaxiong Li, Chunlin Chen
In this paper, a new training paradigm is proposed for deep reinforcement learning using self-paced prioritized curriculum learning with coverage penalty. The proposed deep curriculum reinforcement learning (DCRL) takes the most advantage of experience replay by adaptively selecting appropriate transitions from replay memory based on the complexity of each transition. The criteria of complexity in DCRL consist of self-paced priority as well as coverage penalty. The self-paced priority reflects the relationship between the temporal-difference error and the difficulty of the current curriculum for sample efficiency...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766942/thalamus-and-language-what-do-we-know-from-vascular-and-degenerative-pathologies
#5
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
Language is a complex cognitive task that is essential in our daily life. For decades, researchers have tried to understand the different role of cortical and subcortical areas in cerebral language representations and language processing. Language-related cortical zones are richly interconnected with other cortical regions (particularly via myelinated fibre tracts), but they also participate in subcortical feedback loops within the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) and thalamus. The most relevant thalamic functions are the control and adaptation of cortico-cortical connectivity and bandwidth for information exchange...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766612/visuomotor-coordination-and-cortical-connectivity-of-modular-motor-learning
#6
Pablo I Burgos, Juan J Mariman, Scott Makeig, Gonzalo Rivera-Lillo, Pedro E Maldonado
The ability to transfer sensorimotor skill components to new actions and the capacity to use skill components from whole actions are characteristic of the adaptability of the human sensorimotor system. However, behavioral evidence suggests complex limitations for transfer after combined or modular learning of motor adaptations. Also, to date, only behavioral analysis of the consequences of the modular learning has been reported, with little understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms of control and the interaction between cortical areas...
May 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#7
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764434/real-time-monitoring-of-the-budding-index-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-batch-cultivations-with-in-situ-microscopy
#8
Anna-Maria Marbà-Ardébol, Jörn Emmerich, Michael Muthig, Peter Neubauer, Stefan Junne
BACKGROUND: The morphology of yeast cells changes during budding, depending on the growth rate and cultivation conditions. A photo-optical microscope was adapted and used to observe such morphological changes of individual cells directly in the cell suspension. In order to obtain statistically representative samples of the population without the influence of sampling, in situ microscopy (ISM) was applied in the different phases of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch cultivation. The real-time measurement was performed by coupling a photo-optical probe to an automated image analysis based on a neural network approach...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764109/knowledge-translation-in-healthcare-towards-understanding-its-true-complexities-comment-on-using-complexity-and-network-concepts-to-inform-healthcare-knowledge-translation
#9
Joachim P Sturmberg
This commentary argues that to fully appreciate the complexities of knowledge transfer one firstly has to distinguish between the notions of "data, information, knowledge and wisdom," and that the latter two are highly context sensitive. In particular one has to understand knowledge as being personal rather than objective, and hence there is no form of knowledge that a-priori is more authoritative than another. Secondly, knowledge transfer in organisations can only be successful if the organisation is organised and managed as a "complex adaptive organisation" - its key characteristics arising from it's a-priori defined common "purpose, goals and values...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762555/global-transcriptome-analysis-identifies-weight-regain-induced-activation-of-adaptive-immune-responses-in-white-adipose-tissue-of-mice
#10
D S Kyung, H R Sung, Y J Kim, K D Kim, S Y Cho, J H Choi, Y-H Lee, I Y Kim, J K Seong
OBJECTIVE: Studies have indicated that weight regain following weight loss predisposes obese individuals to metabolic disorders; however, the molecular mechanism of this potential adverse effect of weight regain is not fully understood. Here we investigated global transcriptome changes and the immune response in mouse white adipose tissue caused by weight regain. DESIGN: We established a diet switch protocol to compare the effects of weight regain with those of weight gain without precedent weight loss, weight loss maintenance and chow diet...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758636/emergent-explosive-synchronization-in-adaptive-complex-networks
#11
Vanesa Avalos-Gaytán, Juan A Almendral, I Leyva, F Battiston, V Nicosia, V Latora, S Boccaletti
Adaptation plays a fundamental role in shaping the structure of a complex network and improving its functional fitting. Even when increasing the level of synchronization in a biological system is considered as the main driving force for adaptation, there is evidence of negative effects induced by excessive synchronization. This indicates that coherence alone cannot be enough to explain all the structural features observed in many real-world networks. In this work, we propose an adaptive network model where the dynamical evolution of the node states toward synchronization is coupled with an evolution of the link weights based on an anti-Hebbian adaptive rule, which accounts for the presence of inhibitory effects in the system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758287/pseudomonas-putida-as-a-functional-chassis-for-industrial-biocatalysis-from-native-biochemistry-to-trans-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Pablo I Nikel, Víctor de Lorenzo
The itinerary followed by Pseudomonas putida from being a soil-dweller and plant colonizer bacterium to become a flexible and engineer-able platform for metabolic engineering stems from its natural lifestyle, which is adapted to harsh environmental conditions and all sorts of physicochemical stresses. Over the years, these properties have been capitalized biotechnologically owing to the expanding wealth of genetic tools designed for deep-editing the P. putida genome. A suite of dedicated vectors inspired in the core tenets of synthetic biology have enabled to suppress many of the naturally-occurring undesirable traits native to this species while enhancing its many appealing properties, and also to import catalytic activities and attributes from other biological systems...
May 11, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758267/the-functional-architecture-of-axonal-actin
#13
REVIEW
Marie-Jeanne Papandréou, Christophe Leterrier
The cytoskeleton builds and supports the complex architecture of neurons. It orchestrates the specification, growth, and compartmentation of the axon: axon initial segment, axonal shaft, presynapses. The cytoskeleton must then maintain this intricate architecture for the whole life of its host, but also drive its adaptation to new network demands and changing physiological conditions. Microtubules are readily visible inside axon shafts by electron microscopy, whereas axonal actin study has long been focused on dynamic structures of the axon such as growth cones...
May 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755445/coral-bacterial-core-abundance-and-network-complexity-as-proxies-for-anthropogenic-pollution
#14
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Clovis B Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Joseane A Marques, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Acclimatization via changes in the stable (core) or the variable microbial diversity and/or abundance is an important element in the adaptation of coral species to environmental changes. Here, we explored the spatial-temporal dynamics, diversity and interactions of variable and core bacterial populations associated with the coral Mussismilia hispida and the surrounding water. This survey was performed on five reefs along a transect from the coast (Reef 1) to offshore (Reef 5), representing a gradient of influence of the river mouth, for almost 12 months (4 sampling times), in the dry and rainy seasons...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751623/a-bds-interference-suppression-technique-based-on-linear-phase-adaptive-iir-notch-filters
#15
Hongbo Zhao, Yinan Hu, Hua Sun, Wenquan Feng
The continuous wave interferences (CWIs) and the narrow-band interferences (NBIs) have significantly impacted the acquisition, tracking and positioning accuracy of Beidou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) receivers. As an interference suppression technology with a simple structure and low hardware cost, the adaptive infinite-duration impulse response (IIR) notch filter has been widely employed in the receivers to mitigate the CWIs and the NBIs. However, the nonlinear phase characteristics introduced by the IIR notch filters into the navigation receivers, may cause the distortion of navigation signals...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749474/pgc1%C3%AE-promotes-cisplatin-resistance-in-human-ovarian-carcinoma-cells-through-upregulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#16
Luyan Shen, Boyang Sun, Jiyao Sheng, Sihang Yu, Yanqing Li, Huadan Xu, Jing Su, Liankun Sun
The induction of lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA by cisplatin is only a small component of its cytostatic/cytotoxic activity. The signaling pathway network in the nucleus and cytoplasm may contribute to chemotherapeutic resistance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator 1α (PGC1α)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis regulates mitochondrial structural and the functional adaptive response against chemotherapeutic stress, and may be a therapeutic target. However, this regulatory network is complex and depends upon tumor types and environments, which require further investigation...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749014/3d-hybrid-small-scale-devices
#17
REVIEW
Jayson V Pagaduan, Anil Bhatta, Lewis H Romer, David H Gracias
Interfacing nano/microscale elements with biological components in 3D contexts opens new possibilities for mimicry, bionics, and augmentation of organismically and anatomically inspired materials. Abiotic nanoscale elements such as plasmonic nanostructures, piezoelectric ribbons, and thin film semiconductor devices interact with electromagnetic fields to facilitate advanced capabilities such as communication at a distance, digital feedback loops, logic, and memory. Biological components such as proteins, polynucleotides, cells, and organs feature complex chemical synthetic networks that can regulate growth, change shape, adapt, and regenerate...
May 10, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742420/self-condensation-culture-enables-vascularization-of-tissue-fragments-for-efficient-therapeutic-transplantation
#18
Yoshinobu Takahashi, Keisuke Sekine, Tatsuya Kin, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Clinical transplantation of tissue fragments, including islets, faces a critical challenge because of a lack of effective strategies that ensure efficient engraftment through the timely integration of vascular networks. We recently developed a complex organoid engineering method by "self-condensation" culture based on mesenchymal cell-dependent contraction, thereby enabling dissociated heterotypic lineages including endothelial cells to self-organize in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we report the successful adaptation of this method for generating complex tissues from diverse tissue fragments derived from various organs, including pancreatic islets...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736291/optimization-of-cytokine-milieu-to-reproduce-atopic-dermatitis-related-gene-expression-in-hacat-keratinocyte-cell-line
#19
Hee Joo Kim, Jinok Baek, Jong Rok Lee, Joo Young Roh, YunJae Jung
Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro , we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22 , CCL17 , IL5 , IL13 , IL33 , IL25 , TSLP , FLG , and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators ( IL5 , IL13 , CCL22 , CCL17, IL25 , IL33 , and TSLP ) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions...
April 2018: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735166/organization-of-healthcare-in-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
L Gignoux
The organization of healthcare for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has changed considerably over the past 15 years, with the creation of health networks providing a new impetus towards better coordination of healthcare through a multidisciplinary approach, and improvement of educational training for both patients and healthcare professionals. In this context, therapeutic educational programs (TEPs) for patients have placed patients at the center of their own care pathway, thereby changing the doctor-patient relationship...
May 4, 2018: Revue Neurologique
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