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Complex adaptive network

Luisanna Cocco, Michele Marchesi
In January 3, 2009, Satoshi Nakamoto gave rise to the "Bitcoin Blockchain", creating the first block of the chain hashing on his computer's central processing unit (CPU). Since then, the hash calculations to mine Bitcoin have been getting more and more complex, and consequently the mining hardware evolved to adapt to this increasing difficulty. Three generations of mining hardware have followed the CPU's generation. They are GPU's, FPGA's and ASIC's generations. This work presents an agent-based artificial market model of the Bitcoin mining process and of the Bitcoin transactions...
2016: PloS One
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
W Schuyler Jones, Matthew T Roe, Elliott M Antman, Mark J Pletcher, Robert A Harrington, Russell L Rothman, William J Oetgen, Sunil V Rao, Mitchell W Krucoff, Lesley H Curtis, Adrian F Hernandez, Frederick A Masoudi
Large randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular disease have proliferated over the past 3 decades, with results that have influenced every aspect of cardiology practice. Despite these advances, there remains a substantial need for more high-quality evidence to inform cardiovascular clinical practice, given the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease around the world. Traditional clinical trials are increasingly challenging due to rising costs, increasing complexity and length, and burdensome institutional and regulatory requirements...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Francesco Corrivetti, Guillaume Herbet, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Hugues Duffau
BACKGROUND: Face recognition is a complex function sustained by a distributed large-scale neural network, with a core system involving the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the splenial commissural fibers. This circuit seems to be bilaterally organized, with however a right hemispheric dominance. According to this anatomo-functional model, prosopagnosia is usually, but not exclusively, generated by a damage of the right part of this brain network...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Hayden Wilson, David Mycock, Isabel M Weiersbye
Tamarix usneoides is a halophyte tree endemic to south-western Africa. This species is known to excrete a range of ions from specialised glandular structures on its leaves. To understand the mechanisms involved in the transport, sequestration and excretion of ions by the glands, a study was performed on salt gland distribution and ultrastructure. The glands are vesiculated trichomes, comprised of eight cells viz., two basal collecting cells and six excretory cells, partially bounded by a secondary cell wall which, could serve as an impermeable barrier, forcing excess ions to move from the apoplast of the surrounding tissue into the cytoplasm of the basal excretory cells...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Anna Di Cosmo, Gianluca Polese
Under a continuous changing environment, animals are challenged with stresses and stimuli which demanding adaptation at behavioral and physiological levels. The adaptation strategies are finely regulated by animal nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Although it's been established by now the usage of integrative approach to the study the endocrine and nervous systems (neuroendocrine), yet our understanding of how they cooperate with the immune system remains far from complete. The possible role that immune system plays as a component of the network has only been recognized recently...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
XiaoHao Sun, HengAn Wu, Rong Long
We study a covalent adaptable polymer that can rearrange its network topology through thermally activated bond exchange reactions. When the polymer is deformed, such a network rearrangement leads to macroscopic stress relaxation, which allows the polymer to be thermoformed without a mold. Based on a previously developed constitutive model, we investigate thermal-mechanical behaviors of this material under a non-uniform and evolving temperature field through numerical simulations. Our focus is on the complex coupling between mechanical deformation, heat conduction and bond exchange reactions...
October 12, 2016: Soft Matter
Bodo Brand, Markus O Scheinhardt, Juliane Friedrich, Daisy Zimmer, Norbert Reinsch, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Manfred Schwerin, Andreas Ziegler
BACKGROUND: The importance of the adrenal gland in regard to lactation and reproduction in cattle has been recognized early. Caused by interest in animal welfare and the impact of stress on economically important traits in farm animals the adrenal gland and its function within the stress response is of increasing interest. However, the molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in stress-related effects on economically important traits in farm animals are not fully understood. Gene expression is an important mechanism underlying complex traits, and genetic variants affecting the transcript abundance are thought to influence the manifestation of an expressed phenotype...
October 6, 2016: BMC Genetics
Henrik Ronellenfitsch, Eleni Katifori
Highly optimized complex transport networks serve crucial functions in many man-made and natural systems such as power grids and plant or animal vasculature. Often, the relevant optimization functional is nonconvex and characterized by many local extrema. In general, finding the global, or nearly global optimum is difficult. In biological systems, it is believed that such an optimal state is slowly achieved through natural selection. However, general coarse grained models for flow networks with local positive feedback rules for the vessel conductivity typically get trapped in low efficiency, local minima...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Xuelin Zhao, Hong Yu, Lingfeng Kong, Qi Li
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is a dominant aquaculture species in many intertidal zones throughout the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and can tolerate a wide range of salinity. Studying the gene expression profiles of oyster gills had found differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in salinity tolerance. A systematic study of cellular response to salinity stress may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired salinity tolerance. Here, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was carried out using RNA-seq data from gill transcriptome in response to different salinity...
October 4, 2016: Marine Biotechnology
Marvin Dörries, Lars Wöhlbrand, Ralf Rabus
The marine sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfobacterium autotrophicum HRM2 belongs to the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfobacteraceae and stands out for its capacity of facultative chemolithoautotrophic growth (next to heterotrophy). Here, proteomics-driven metabolic reconstruction was based on a combination of 2D DIGE, shotgun proteomics and analysis of the membrane protein-enriched fraction applied to 8 different substrate adaptation conditions (7 aliphatic compounds plus H2 /CO2 ). In total 1,344 different proteins were identified (∼27% of the 4,947 genome-predicted) from which a complex metabolic network was reconstructed consisting of 136 proteins (124 detected; ∼91%)...
October 4, 2016: Proteomics
Joseph J Armao, Jean-Marie Lehn
Non-volatile solutes in an evaporating drop experience an out-of-equilibrium state due to non-linear concentration effects and complex flow patterns. Here, we demonstrate a small molecule chemical reaction network that undergoes a rapid adaptation response to the out-of-equilibrium conditions inside the droplet leading to control over the molecular constitution and spatial arrangement of the deposition pattern. Adaptation results in a pronounced coffee stain effect and coupling to chemical concentration gradients within the drop is demonstrated...
October 17, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Wenxiu Ning, Yanan Yu, Honglin Xu, Xiaofei Liu, Daiwei Wang, Jing Wang, Yingchun Wang, Wenxiang Meng
For adaptation to complex cellular functions, dynamic cytoskeletal networks are required. There are two major components of the cytoskeleton, microtubules and actin filaments, which form an intricate network maintaining an exquisite cooperation to build the physical basis for their cellular function. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying their synergism. Here, we show that in Caco2 epithelial cells, noncentrosomal microtubules crosstalk with F-actin through their minus ends and contribute to the regulation of focal adhesion size and cell migration...
October 10, 2016: Developmental Cell
Dazhi Yin, Wenjing Liu, Kristina Zeljic, Zhiwei Wang, Qian Lv, Mingxia Fan, Wenhong Cheng, Zheng Wang
UNLABELLED: Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jinsong Gui, Kai Zhou, Naixue Xiong
Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) can improve wireless network performance. Sensors are usually single-antenna devices due to the high hardware complexity and cost, so several sensors are used to form virtual MIMO array, which is a desirable approach to efficiently take advantage of MIMO gains. Also, in large Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), clustering can improve the network scalability, which is an effective topology control approach. The existing virtual MIMO-based clustering schemes do not either fully explore the benefits of MIMO or adaptively determine the clustering ranges...
2016: Sensors
Christoph Hold, Sonja Billerbeck, Sven Panke
Enzymatic reaction networks are unique in that one can operate a large number of reactions under the same set of conditions concomitantly in one pot, but the nonlinear kinetics of the enzymes and the resulting system complexity have so far defeated rational design processes for the construction of such complex cascade reactions. Here we demonstrate the forward design of an in vitro 10-membered system using enzymes from highly regulated biological processes such as glycolysis. For this, we adapt the characterization of the biochemical system to the needs of classical engineering systems theory: we combine online mass spectrometry and continuous system operation to apply standard system theory input functions and to use the detailed dynamic system responses to parameterize a model of sufficient quality for forward design...
2016: Nature Communications
Jonathan S Cant, Yaoda Xu
Our visual system can extract summary statistics from large collections of objects without forming detailed representations of the individual objects in the ensemble. In a region in ventral visual cortex encompassing the collateral sulcus and the parahippocampal gyrus and overlapping extensively with the scene-selective parahippocampal place area (PPA), we have previously reported fMRI adaptation to object ensembles when ensemble statistics repeated, even when local image features differed across images (e...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Katharina Marie Steiner, Anne Enders, Wiebke Thier, Giorgi Batsikadze, Nicolas Ludolph, Winfried Ilg, Dagmar Timmann
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is of increasing interest as a non-invasive technique to modulate motor performance and learning in health and disease. Previous studies have shown that cerebellar tDCS facilitates reach adaptation and associative motor learning in healthy subjects. In the present study it was tested whether cerebellar tDCS improves learning of a complex whole body motor skill. Because this task involves learning of posture and balance likely including learning of a new motor sequence and cognitive strategies, cerebellar tDCS was applied over midline cerebellar structures and the posterolateral cerebellar hemispheres...
2016: PloS One
S E Sanchez, S A Kay
The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of the clock, including the interplay with metabolism, hormone, and stress pathways in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana We outline the importance of this system in crop agricultural traits, highlighting the identification of natural alleles that alter the pace of the timekeeper...
September 23, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Diane Nacci, Dina Proestou, Denise Champlin, John Martinson, Eric R Waits
Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
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