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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926431/epigenetic-regulation-of-dendritic-cell-development-and-function
#1
Yuanyuan Tian, Lijun Meng, Yi Zhang
The immune system is characterized by the generation of structurally and functionally heterogeneous immune cells that constitute complex innate and adaptive immunity. This heterogeneity of immune cells results from changes in the expression of genes without altering DNA sequence. To achieve this heterogeneity, immune cells orchestrate the expression and functional status of transcription factor (TF) networks, which can be broadly categorized into 3 classes: pioneer TFs that facilitate initial commitment and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, subset-specific TFs that promote the generation of selected cell lineages, and immune-signaling TFs that regulate specialized function in differentiated cells...
September 2017: Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922607/antdas-automatic-data-analysis-strategy-for-uplc-qtof-based-nontargeted-metabolic-profiling-analysis
#2
Hai-Yan Fu, Xiao-Ming Guo, Yue-Ming Zhang, Jing-Jing Song, Qing-Xia Zheng, Ping-Ping Liu, Peng Lu, Qian-Si Chen, Yong-Jie Yu, Yuanbin She
High-quality data analysis methodology remains a bottleneck for metabolic profiling analysis based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The present work aims to address this problem by proposing a novel data analysis strategy wherein (1) chromatographic peaks in the UPLC-QTOF dataset are automatically extracted by using an advanced multiscale Gaussian smoothing-based peak extraction strategy. (2) A peak annotation stage is used to cluster fragment ions that belong to the same compound...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919343/characterizing-pathology-in-erythrocytes-using-morphological-and-biophysical-membrane-properties-relation-to-impaired-hemorheology-and-cardiovascular-function-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#3
Oore-Ofe O Olumuyiwa-Akeredolu, Prashilla Soma, Antoinette V Buys, Legesse Kassa Debusho, Etheresia Pretorius
The inflammatory burden of the complex Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) disease affects several organ-systems, including rheological properties of blood and its formed elements. Red blood cells (RBCs) are constantly exposed to circulating dysregulated inflammatory molecules that are co-transported within the vasculature; and their membranes may be particularly vulnerable to the accompanying oxidative stress. In the current study, we investigate biophysical and ultrastructural characteristics of RBCs obtained from a cohort of patients using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy (CM)...
September 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917001/a-neural-network-model-for-familiarity-and-context-learning-during-honeybee-foraging-flights
#4
Jurek Müller, Martin Nawrot, Randolf Menzel, Tim Landgraf
How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate? Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing...
September 15, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916800/alternative-splicing-complexity-contributes-to-genetic-improvement-of-drought-resistance-in-the-rice-maintainer-huhan2b
#5
Haibin Wei, Qiaojun Lou, Kai Xu, Ming Yan, Hui Xia, Xiaosong Ma, Xinqiao Yu, Lijun Luo
Water-saving and drought-resistantce rice (WDR) breeding practices have greatly increased grain yield and drought resistance. To study the genetic basis of adaptation to drought, transcriptome sequences from the WDR maintainer line HuHan2B and the recurrent parent HanFengB were analyzed for alternative splicing (AS) complexity. Intron retention, the dominant AS type, accounted for 42% of the observed AS events. Differential expression analysis revealed transcripts were preferentially expressed in different varieties and conditions...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913870/mimicry-in-butterflies-co-option-and-a-bag-of-magnificent-developmental-genetic-tricks
#6
REVIEW
Riddhi Deshmukh, Saurav Baral, A Gandhimathi, Muktai Kuwalekar, Krushnamegh Kunte
Butterfly wing patterns are key adaptations that are controlled by remarkable developmental and genetic mechanisms that facilitate rapid evolutionary change. With swift advancements in the fields of genomics and genetic manipulations, identifying the regulators of wing development and mimetic wing patterns has become feasible even in nonmodel organisms such as butterflies. Recent mapping and gene expression studies have identified single switch loci of major effects such as transcription factors and supergenes as the main drivers of adaptive evolution of mimetic and polymorphic butterfly wing patterns...
September 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904202/discrete-dynamical-modeling-of-influenza-infection-suggests-age-dependent-differences-in-immunity
#7
Ericka Keef, Li Ang Zhang, David Swigon, Alisa Urbano, G Bard Ermentrout, Michael Matuszewski, Franklin R Toapanta, Ted M Ross, Robert S Parker, Gilles Clermont
Immunosenescence, an age-related decline in immune function, is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Older hosts exhibit delayed onset of immunity and prolonged inflammation after an infection, leading to excess damage and greater likelihood of death. Our study applies a rule-based model to infer which components of immune response are most changed in an aged host. Two groups of BALB/c mice (age 12-16 wks and 72-76 wks) were infected at 2 inocula: a survivable 50 PFU dose and a lethal 500 PFU dose...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900680/coordinating-organismal-metabolism-during-protein-misfolding-in-the-er-through-the-unfolded-protein-response
#8
Vishwanatha K Chandrahas, Jaeseok Han, Randal J Kaufman
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cellular organelle responsible for folding of secretory and membrane proteins. Perturbance in ER homeostasis caused by various intrinsic/extrinsic stimuli challenges the protein-folding capacity of the ER, leading to an ER dysfunction, called ER stress. Cells have developed a defensive response to adapt and/or survive in the face of ER stress that may be detrimental to cell function and survival. When exposed to ER stress, the cell activates a complex and elaborate signaling network that includes translational modulation and transcriptional induction of genes...
September 13, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900120/recurrent-network-dynamics-reconciles-visual-motion-segmentation-and-integration
#9
N V Kartheek Medathati, James Rankin, Andrew I Meso, Pierre Kornprobst, Guillaume S Masson
In sensory systems, a range of computational rules are presumed to be implemented by neuronal subpopulations with different tuning functions. For instance, in primate cortical area MT, different classes of direction-selective cells have been identified and related either to motion integration, segmentation or transparency. Still, how such different tuning properties are constructed is unclear. The dominant theoretical viewpoint based on a linear-nonlinear feed-forward cascade does not account for their complex temporal dynamics and their versatility when facing different input statistics...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899503/salicylate-based-phytopharmaceuticals-induce-adaptive-cytokine-and-chemokine-network-responses-in-human-fibroblast-cultures
#10
Gudrun Ulrich-Merzenich, Frederik Hartbrod, Olaf Kelber, Jürgen Müller, Anna Koptina, Heike Zeitler
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines (CC) play a central role in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Neutralising antibodies for single proinflammatory cytokines have developed into a powerful, though expensive and not always curative therapeutic strategy for severe diseases. Considering the redundancy of CC functions, network (N) rather than single target approaches are essential. Phytopharmaceuticals, common adjuvant therapies, are known modulators of a broad spectrum of CCs, but as complex mixtures with multiple targets they have not been systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899359/transcript-profiling-of-the-immunological-interactions-between-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-serotype-7-and-the-host-by-dual-rna-seq
#11
Ping Li, Zhiwen Xu, Xiangang Sun, Yue Yin, Yi Fan, Jun Zhao, Xiyu Mao, Jianbo Huang, Fan Yang, Ling Zhu
BACKGROUND: The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new insights into this process are urgently needed to reveal the pathogenic and immune mechanisms underlying App infection. Here, we infected specific pathogen-free Mus musculus with App serotype 7 by intranasal inoculation to construct an acute hemorrhagic pneumonia infection model and isolated the infected lungs for analysis of the interactions by dual RNA-seq...
September 12, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893188/developing-genome-reduced-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-strains-for-the-production-of-secondary-metabolites
#12
Xuemei Shen, Zheng Wang, Xianqing Huang, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The current chassis organisms or various types of cell factories have considerable advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is necessary to develop various chassis for an efficient production of different bioproducts from renewable resources. In this context, synthetic biology offers unique potentialities to produce value-added products of interests. Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis and cell factories...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892802/regulation-of-cellulose-synthesis-in-response-to-stress
#13
REVIEW
Christopher Kesten, Alexandra Menna, Clara Sánchez-Rodríguez
The cell wall is a complex polysaccharide network that provides stability and protection to the plant and is one of the first layers of biotic and abiotic stimuli perception. A controlled remodeling of the primary cell wall is essential for the plant to adapt its growth to environmental stresses. Cellulose, the main component of plant cell walls is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases moving along cortical microtubule tracks. Recent advancements demonstrate a tight regulation of cellulose synthesis at the primary cell wall by phytohormone networks...
September 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887468/the-network-of-plants-volatile-organic-compounds
#14
Gianna Vivaldo, Elisa Masi, Cosimo Taiti, Guido Caldarelli, Stefano Mancuso
Plants emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is involved in a wide class of ecological functions, as VOCs play a crucial role in plants interactions with biotic and abiotic factors. Accordingly, they vary widely across species and underpin differences in ecological strategy. In this paper, VOCs spontaneously emitted by 109 plant species (belonging to 56 different families) have been qualitatively and quantitatively analysed in order to provide an alternative classification of plants species. In particular, by using bipartite networks methodology from Complex Network Theory, and through the application of community detection algorithms, we show that is possible to classify species according to chemical classes such as terpenes and sulfur compounds...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887176/ecoacoustic-codes-and-ecological-complexity
#15
Almo Farina
Multi-layer communication and sensing network assures the exchange of relevant information between animals and their umwelten, imparting complexity to the ecological systems. Individual soniferous species, the acoustic community, and soundscape are the three main operational levels that comprise this multi-layer network. Acoustic adaptation and acoustic niche are two more important mechanisms that regulate the acoustic performances at the first level while the acoustic community model explains the complexity of the interspecific acoustic network at the second level...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885146/adaptive-neural-network-control-of-a-flapping-wing-micro-aerial-vehicle-with-disturbance-observer
#16
Wei He, Zichen Yan, Changyin Sun, Yunan Chen
The research of this paper works out the attitude and position control of the flapping wing micro aerial vehicle (FWMAV). Neural network control with full state and output feedback are designed to deal with uncertainties in this complex nonlinear FWMAV dynamic system and enhance the system robustness. Meanwhile, we design disturbance observers which are exerted into the FWMAV system via feedforward loops to counteract the bad influence of disturbances. Then, a Lyapunov function is proposed to prove the closed-loop system stability and the semi-global uniform ultimate boundedness of all state variables...
October 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883813/a-structural-and-functional-elucidation-of-the-rumen-microbiome-influenced-by-various-diets-and-microenvironments
#17
Simon Deusch, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jürgen Conrad, Uwe Beifuss, Markus Rodehutscord, Jana Seifert
The structure and function of the microbiome inhabiting the rumen are, amongst other factors, mainly shaped by the animal's feed intake. Describing the influence of different diets on the inherent community arrangement and associated metabolic activities of the most active ruminal fractions (bacteria and archaea) is of great interest for animal nutrition, biotechnology, and climatology. Samples were obtained from three fistulated Jersey cows rotationally fed with corn silage, grass silage or grass hay, each supplemented with a concentrate mixture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877490/adaptive-response-of-actin-bundles-under-mechanical-stress
#18
Florian Rückerl, Martin Lenz, Timo Betz, John Manzi, Jean-Louis Martiel, Mahassine Safouane, Rajaa Paterski-Boujemaa, Laurent Blanchoin, Cécile Sykes
Actin is one of the main components of the architecture of cells. Actin filaments form different polymer networks with versatile mechanical properties that depend on their spatial organization and the presence of cross-linkers. Here, we investigate the mechanical properties of actin bundles in the absence of cross-linkers. Bundles are polymerized from the surface of mDia1-coated latex beads, and deformed by manipulating both ends through attached beads held by optical tweezers, allowing us to record the applied force...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874547/biodiversity-promotes-primary-productivity-and-growing-season-lengthening-at-the-landscape-scale
#19
Jacqueline Oehri, Bernhard Schmid, Gabriela Schaepman-Strub, Pascal A Niklaus
Experiments have shown positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships in small plots with model communities established from species pools typically comprising few dozen species. Whether patterns found can be extrapolated to complex, nonexperimental, real-world landscapes that provide ecosystem services to humans remains unclear. Here, we combine species inventories from a large-scale network of 447 1-km(2) plots with remotely sensed indices of primary productivity (years 2000-2015). We show that landscape-scale productivity and its temporal stability increase with the diversity of plants and other taxa...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868254/mitochondria-associated-membranes-as-networking-platforms-and-regulators-of-cancer-cell-fate
#20
REVIEW
Maria Livia Sassano, Alexander R van Vliet, Patrizia Agostinis
The tight cross talk between two essential organelles of the cell, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, is spatially and functionally regulated by specific microdomains known as the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). MAMs are hot spots of Ca(2+) transfer between the ER and mitochondria, and emerging data indicate their vital role in the regulation of fundamental physiological processes, chief among them mitochondria bioenergetics, proteostasis, cell death, and autophagy. Moreover, and perhaps not surprisingly, it has become clear that signaling events regulated at the ER-mitochondria intersection regulate key processes in oncogenesis and in the response of cancer cells to therapeutics...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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