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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152819/the-application-of-systems-thinking-concepts-methods-and-tools-to-global-health-practices-an-analysis-of-case-studies
#1
Jessica Wilkinson, Morgan Goff, Evan Rusoja, Carl Hanson, Robert Chad Swanson
OBJECTIVES: This review of systems thinking (ST) case studies seeks to compile and analyse cases from ST literature and provide practitioners with a reference for ST in health practice. Particular attention was given to (1) reviewing the frequency and use of key ST terms, methods, and tools in the context of health, and (2) extracting and analysing longitudinal themes across cases. METHODS: A systematic search of databases was conducted, and a total of 36 case studies were identified...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148236/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-in-the-aetiology-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Yannis Gerakis, Claudio Hetz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by synaptic dysfunction and accumulation of abnormal aggregates formed by amyloid-β peptides or phophorylated Tau proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network is a salient feature of AD. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main compartment involved in protein folding and secretion and is drastically affected in AD neurons. ER stress triggers the activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a signal transduction pathway that enforces adaptive programs to recover homeostasis or trigger apoptosis of irreversibly damaged cells...
November 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145629/the-reactome-pathway-knowledgebase
#3
Antonio Fabregat, Steven Jupe, Lisa Matthews, Konstantinos Sidiropoulos, Marc Gillespie, Phani Garapati, Robin Haw, Bijay Jassal, Florian Korninger, Bruce May, Marija Milacic, Corina Duenas Roca, Karen Rothfels, Cristoffer Sevilla, Veronica Shamovsky, Solomon Shorser, Thawfeek Varusai, Guilherme Viteri, Joel Weiser, Guanming Wu, Lincoln Stein, Henning Hermjakob, Peter D'Eustachio
The Reactome Knowledgebase (https://reactome.org) provides molecular details of signal transduction, transport, DNA replication, metabolism, and other cellular processes as an ordered network of molecular transformations-an extended version of a classic metabolic map, in a single consistent data model. Reactome functions both as an archive of biological processes and as a tool for discovering unexpected functional relationships in data such as gene expression profiles or somatic mutation catalogues from tumor cells...
November 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141044/high-dimensional-linear-state-space-models-for-dynamic-microbial-interaction-networks
#4
Iris Chen, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Yu Gu, Jie Zhou, Xing Qiu, Hulin Wu
Medical researchers are increasingly interested in knowing how the complex community of micro-organisms living on human body impacts human health. Key to this is to understand how the microbes interact with each other. Time-course studies on human microbiome indicate that the composition of microbiome changes over short time periods, primarily as a consequence of synergistic and antagonistic interactions of the members of the microbiome with each other and with the environment. Knowledge of the abundance of bacteria-which are the predominant members of the human microbiome-in such time-course studies along with appropriate mathematical models will allow us to identify key dynamic interaction networks within the microbiome...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133314/decisional-needs-assessment-of-patients-with-complex-care-needs-in-primary-care-a-participatory-systematic-mixed-studies-review-protocol
#5
Mathieu Bujold, Pierre Pluye, France Légaré, Jeannie Haggerty, Genevieve C Gore, Reem El Sherif, Marie-Eve Poitras, Marie-Claude Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique Beaulieu, Paula L Bush, Yves Couturier, Beatrice Débarges, Justin Gagnon, Anik Giguère, Roland Grad, Vera Granikov, Serge Goulet, Catherine Hudon, Bernardo Kremer, Edeltraut Kröger, Irina Kudrina, Bertrand Lebouché, Christine Loignon, Marie-Therese Lussier, Cristiano Martello, Quynh Nguyen, Rebekah Pratt, Benoit Rihoux, Ellen Rosenberg, Isabelle Samson, Nicolas Senn, David Li Tang, Masashi Tsujimoto, Isabelle Vedel, Bruno Ventelou, Michel Wensing
INTRODUCTION: Patients with complex care needs (PCCNs) often suffer from combinations of multiple chronic conditions, mental health problems, drug interactions and social vulnerability, which can lead to healthcare services overuse, underuse or misuse. Typically, PCCNs face interactional issues and unmet decisional needs regarding possible options in a cascade of interrelated decisions involving different stakeholders (themselves, their families, their caregivers, their healthcare practitioners)...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132046/stress-relaxing-hyaluronic-acid-collagen-hydrogels-promote-cell-spreading-fiber-remodeling-and-focal-adhesion-formation-in-3d-cell-culture
#6
Junzhe Lou, Ryan Stowers, Sungmin Nam, Yan Xia, Ovijit Chaudhuri
The physical and architectural cues of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a critical role in regulating important cellular functions such as spreading, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Natural ECM is a complex viscoelastic scaffold composed of various distinct components that are often organized into a fibrillar microstructure. Hydrogels are frequently used as synthetic ECMs for 3D cell culture, but are typically elastic, due to covalent crosslinking, and non-fibrillar. Recent work has revealed the importance of stress relaxation in viscoelastic hydrogels in regulating biological processes such as spreading and differentiation, but these studies all utilize synthetic ECM hydrogels that are non-fibrillar...
November 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129785/advances-in-hypoxia-inducible-factor-biology
#7
REVIEW
Hani Choudhry, Adrian L Harris
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a central regulator for detecting and adapting to cellular oxygen levels, transcriptionally activates genes modulating oxygen homeostasis and metabolic activation. Beyond this, HIF influences many other processes. Hypoxia, in part through HIF-dependent mechanisms, influences epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation, which modulate hypoxia-responsive gene expression in cells. Hypoxia profoundly affects expression of many noncoding RNAs classes that have clinicopathological implications in cancer...
November 8, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127110/pathways-of-cellular-proteostasis-in-aging-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Courtney L Klaips, Gopal Gunanathan Jayaraj, F Ulrich Hartl
Ensuring cellular protein homeostasis, or proteostasis, requires precise control of protein synthesis, folding, conformational maintenance, and degradation. A complex and adaptive proteostasis network coordinates these processes with molecular chaperones of different classes and their regulators functioning as major players. This network serves to ensure that cells have the proteins they need while minimizing misfolding or aggregation events that are hallmarks of age-associated proteinopathies, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#9
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126286/deep-learning-for-tumor-classification-in-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#10
Jens Behrmann, Christian Etmann, Tobias Boskamp, Rita Casadonte, Jörg Kriegsmann, Peter Maass
Motivation: Tumor classification using Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) data has a high potential for future applications in pathology. Due to the complexity and size of the data, automated feature extraction and classification steps are required to fully process the data. Since mass spectra exhibit certain structural similarities to image data, deep learning may offer a promising strategy for classification of IMS data as it has been successfully applied to image classification. Results: Methodologically, we propose an adapted architecture based on deep convolutional networks to handle the characteristics of mass spectrometry data, as well as a strategy to interpret the learned model in the spectral domain based on a sensitivity analysis...
November 8, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124391/implementing-a-digital-real-time-hydrocephalus-and-shunt-registry-to-evaluate-contemporary-pattern-of-care-and-surgical-outcome-in-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#11
Hans Christoph Bock, Maximilian Kanzler, Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Hans Christoph Ludwig
OBJECTIVE: Treatment monitoring and outcome evaluation in pediatric hydrocephalus require gapless documentation regarding surgical and clinical follow-up data beginning from day 1 of treatment in order to apply high quality of care. Endoscopic procedures, shunt insertion and revision surgeries, and individual modifications of valve hardware or pressure settings during follow-up as well as established outcome measurements are highly relevant for complete illustration of the patient's hydrocephalus histories...
November 9, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121482/feasibility-of-coupling-a-thermal-optical-carbon-analyzer-to-a-quadrupole-mass-spectrometer-for-enhanced-pm2-5-speciation
#12
Gustavo M Riggio, Judith C Chow, Paul M Cropper, Xiaoliang Wang, Reddy L N Yatavelli, Xufei Yang, John G Watson
A thermal/optical carbon analyzer (TOA), normally used for quantification of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 speciation networks, was adapted to direct thermally-evolved gases to an electron impact quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), creating a TOA-QMS. This approach produces spectra similar to those obtained by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), but the ratios of the mass to charge (m/z) signals differ and must be re-measured using laboratory-generated standards. Linear relationships are found between TOA-QMS signals and ammonium (NH4(+)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and sulfate (SO4(2-)) standards...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119945/mechanical-force-induces-mitochondrial-fission
#13
Sebastian Carsten Johannes Helle, Qian Feng, Mathias J Aebersold, Luca Hirt, Raphael R Grüter, Afshin Vahid, Andrea Sirianni, Serge Mostowy, Jess G Snedeker, Anđela Šarić, Timon Idema, Tomaso Zambelli, Benoît Kornmann
Eukaryotic cells are densely packed with macromolecular complexes and intertwining organelles, continually transported and reshaped. Intriguingly, organelles avoid clashing and entangling with each other in such limited space. Mitochondria form extensive networks constantly remodeled by fission and fusion. Here, we show that mitochondrial fission is triggered by mechanical forces. Mechano-stimulation of mitochondria - via encounter with motile intracellular pathogens, via external pressure applied by an atomic force microscope, or via cell migration across uneven microsurfaces - results in the recruitment of the mitochondrial fission machinery, and subsequent division...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114054/three-dimensional-visualization-and-a-deep-learning-model-reveal-complex-fungal-parasite-networks-in-behaviorally-manipulated-ants
#14
Maridel A Fredericksen, Yizhe Zhang, Missy L Hazen, Raquel G Loreto, Colleen A Mangold, Danny Z Chen, David P Hughes
Some microbes possess the ability to adaptively manipulate host behavior. To better understand how such microbial parasites control animal behavior, we examine the cell-level interactions between the species-specific fungal parasite Ophiocordyceps unilateralis sensu lato and its carpenter ant host (Camponotus castaneus) at a crucial moment in the parasite's lifecycle: when the manipulated host fixes itself permanently to a substrate by its mandibles. The fungus is known to secrete tissue-specific metabolites and cause changes in host gene expression as well as atrophy in the mandible muscles of its ant host, but it is unknown how the fungus coordinates these effects to manipulate its host's behavior...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#15
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112379/high-throughput-chemical-probing-of-full-length-protein-protein-interactions
#16
James M Song, Arya Menon, Dylan C Mitchell, Oleta T Johnson, Amanda L Garner
Human biology is regulated by a complex network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and disruption of this network has been implicated in many diseases. However, the targeting of PPIs remains a challenging area for chemical probe and drug discovery. Although many methodologies have been put forth to facilitate these efforts, new technologies are still needed. Current biochemical assays for PPIs are typically limited to motif-domain and domain-domain interactions, and assays that will enable the screening of full-length protein systems, which are more biologically relevant, are sparse...
November 14, 2017: ACS Combinatorial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111840/ecg-beat-classification-using-empirical-mode-decomposition-and-mixture-of-features
#17
Santanu Sahoo, Monalisa Mohanty, Suresh Behera, Sukanta Kumar Sabut
Computer-aided analysis is useful in predicting arrhythmia conditions of the heart by analysing the recorded ECG signals. In this work, we proposed a method to detect, extract informative features to classify six types of heartbeat of ECG signals obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The powerful discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to eliminate different sources of noises. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) with adaptive thresholding has been used to detect precise R-peaks and QRS complex. The significant features consists of temporal, morphological and statistical were extracted from the processed ECG signals and combined to form a set of features...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111181/secreted-immunoregulatory-proteins-in-the-skin
#18
Katharina Noske
The skin, thought initially to protect the body passively from pathogenic organisms and other environmental insults, is now recognised additionally as a sophisticated immune organ that actively regulates local immunity. Studies linking local innate and adaptive immunity to skin health and disease have revealed a complex network of cell communication and cytokine signalling. Here, we review the last 10 years of literature on this topic, and its relevance to skin immunity.
October 26, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107940/structure-of-the-human-mhc-i-peptide-loading-complex
#19
Andreas Blees, Dovile Januliene, Tommy Hofmann, Nicole Koller, Carla Schmidt, Simon Trowitzsch, Arne Moeller, Robert Tampé
The peptide-loading complex (PLC) is a transient, multisubunit membrane complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that is essential for establishing a hierarchical immune response. The PLC coordinates peptide translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum with loading and editing of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. After final proofreading in the PLC, stable peptide-MHC-I complexes are released to the cell surface to evoke a T-cell response against infected or malignant cells. Sampling of different MHC-I allomorphs requires the precise coordination of seven different subunits in a single macromolecular assembly, including the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP1 and TAP2, jointly referred to as TAP), the oxidoreductase ERp57, the MHC-I heterodimer, and the chaperones tapasin and calreticulin...
November 6, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107022/error-blindness-and-motivational-significance-shifts-in-networks-centering-on-anterior-insula-co-vary-with-error-awareness-and-pupil-dilation
#20
Helga A Harsay, Michael X Cohen, Marcus Spaan, Wouter D Weeda, Sander Nieuwenhuis, K Richard Ridderinkhof
This investigation aims to further our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the awareness of one's erroneous actions. While all errors are registered as such in the rostral cingulate zone, errors enter awareness only when the anterior insula cortex is activated. Aware but not unaware errors elicit autonomic nervous system reactivity. Our aim is to investigate the hypothesis that activation in the insula during error awareness is related to autonomic arousal and to inter-regional interactions with other areas of the brain...
October 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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