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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#1
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919314/advances-in-the-neuroscience-of-intelligence-from-brain-connectivity-to-brain-perturbation
#2
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi
Our view is that intelligence, as expression of the complexity of the human brain and of its evolutionary path, represents an intriguing example of "system level brain plasticity": tangible proofs of this assertion lie in the strong links intelligence has with vital brain capacities as information processing (i.e., pure, rough capacity to transfer information in an efficient way), resilience (i.e., the ability to cope with loss of efficiency and/or loss of physical elements in a network) and adaptability (i...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918238/genome-wide-mirnas-expression-profiles-of-schistosoma-japonicum-schistosomula-in-response-to-artesunate
#3
Qing-Ming Kong, Xiao Zhu, Qun-Bo Tong, Bin Zheng, Na-Yu Shi, Di Lou, Jian-Zu Ding, Jian-Ping Jia, Xiao-Heng Chen, Rui Chen, Shao-Hong Lu
AIM: miRNAs play a significant role in pharmacogenomics and are likely to be important in the molecular mechanism of atesunate (ART) effects on Schistosoma japonicum. METHODS: We sequenced the RNAs using an Illumina (Solexa) DNA sequencer and compared the relative expression levels of the miRNAs in 10-day-old schistosomula from ART and the parallel control group. RESULTS: We characterized 95 known miRNAs from S. japonicum schistosomula individuals, including 38 novel miRNA families...
December 5, 2016: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916196/adaptive-activation-of-a-stress-response-pathway-improves-learning-and-memory-through-gs-and-%C3%AE-arrestin-1-regulated-lactate-metabolism
#4
Jun-Hong Dong, Yi-Jing Wang, Min Cui, Xiao-Jing Wang, Wen-Shuai Zheng, Ming-Liang Ma, Fan Yang, Dong-Fang He, Qiao-Xia Hu, Dao-Lai Zhang, Shang-Lei Ning, Chun-Hua Liu, Chuan Wang, Yue Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Fan Yi, Amy Lin, Alem W Kahsai, Thomas Joseph Cahill, Zhe-Yu Chen, Xiao Yu, Jin-Peng Sun
BACKGROUND: Stress is a conserved physiological response in mammals. Whereas moderate stress strengthens memory to improve reactions to previously experienced difficult situations, too much stress is harmful. METHODS: We used specific β-adrenergic agonists, as well as β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and arrestin knockout models, to study the effects of adaptive β2AR activation on cognitive function using Morris water maze and object recognition experiments. We used molecular and cell biological approaches to elucidate the signaling subnetworks...
October 13, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910743/decoding-the-polyphyletic-flexibility-of-allosteric-modular-networks-progress-and-perspectives
#5
Yanan Yu, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang
Advances in identifying architecture of modules and elucidating their modes of action are gradually improving the decoding of complex relationships between phenotypic robustness and genotypic networks. However, approaches to detecting modules have largely focused on identifying modules in static graphs. In this review, we attempt to reveal the mechanism of polyphyletic architectural transformation based on modular boundary evolutions and different oscillating factors. With the rapid progress in probing into the detailed structural model of modular networks, flexible modular organization manifests a key adaptive balancing ability of allosterically regulating or reconstructing intermodular and intramodular states to uncover the novel biological alterations beyond engineering properties...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903719/the-segregation-and-integration-of-distinct-brain-networks-and-their-relationship-to-cognition
#6
Jessica R Cohen, Mark D'Esposito
: A critical feature of the human brain that gives rise to complex cognition is its ability to reconfigure its network structure dynamically and adaptively in response to the environment. Existing research probing task-related reconfiguration of brain network structure has concluded that, although there are many similarities in network structure during an intrinsic, resting state and during the performance of a variety of cognitive tasks, there are meaningful differences as well. In this study, we related intrinsic, resting state network organization to reconfigured network organization during the performance of two tasks: a sequence tapping task, which is thought to probe motor execution and likely engages a single brain network, and an n-back task, which is thought to probe working memory and likely requires coordination across multiple networks...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899637/a-genome-wide-dosage-suppressor-network-reveals-genomic-robustness
#7
Biranchi Patra, Yoshiko Kon, Gitanjali Yadav, Anthony W Sevold, Jesse P Frumkin, Ravishankar R Vallabhajosyula, Arend Hintze, Bjørn Østman, Jory Schossau, Ashish Bhan, Bruz Marzolf, Jenna K Tamashiro, Amardeep Kaur, Nitin S Baliga, Elizabeth J Grayhack, Christoph Adami, David J Galas, Alpan Raval, Eric M Phizicky, Animesh Ray
Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions of which 642 are novel. This collection has several distinctive features, including high co-occurrence of mutant-suppressor pairs within protein modules, highly correlated functions between the pairs and higher diversity of functions among the co-suppressors than previously observed...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898384/passivity-and-output-synchronization-of-complex-dynamical-networks-with-fixed-and-adaptive-coupling-strength
#8
Jin-Liang Wang, Huai-Ning Wu, Tingwen Huang, Shun-Yan Ren, Jigang Wu
This paper considers a complex dynamical network model, in which the input and output vectors have different dimensions. We, respectively, investigate the passivity and the relationship between output strict passivity and output synchronization of the complex dynamical network with fixed and adaptive coupling strength. First, two new passivity definitions are proposed, which generalize some existing concepts of passivity. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov functional, some sufficient conditions ensuring the passivity, input strict passivity and output strict passivity are derived for the complex dynamical network with fixed coupling strength...
November 24, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895163/g-protein-coupled-receptor-kinase-2-grk2-as-a-potential-modulator-of-the-hallmarks-of-cancer
#9
Laura Nogues, Clara Reglero, Veronica Rivas, Maria Neves, Petronila Penela, Federico Mayor
Malignant features such as sustained proliferation, refractoriness to growth suppressors, resistance to cell death or aberrant motility and metastasis can be triggered by a variety of mutations and signaling adaptations. Signaling nodes can act as cancer-associated factors by cooperating with oncogene-governed pathways or participating in compensatory transduction networks to strengthen tumor properties. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is arising as one of such nodes. Via its complex network of connections with other cellular proteins, GRK2 contributes to the modulation of basic cellular functions such as cell proliferation, survival or motility, and is involved in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation or angiogenic processes...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890008/functional-connectivity-analysis-of-brain-default-mode-networks-using-hamiltonian-path
#10
Zhuqing Jiao, Kai Ma, Huan Wang, Ling Zou, Jianbo Xiang
The aim of this study is to introduce Hamiltonian path to analyze functional connectivity of brain default mode networks (DMNs). Firstly, the brain DMNs in resting state are constructed with the employment of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. Then, the Dijkstra algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path length of the node which represents each brain region, and the Hamiltonian path of the default network is solved through the improved adaptive ant colony algorithm. Finally, complex network analysis methods are introduced to discuss the node and network properties of brain functional connectivity in both normal subjects and stroke patients...
November 24, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886593/the-evolution-of-micrornas-in-plants
#11
REVIEW
Jie Cui, Chenjiang You, Xuemei Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a central player in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and are involved in numerous biological processes in eukaryotes. Knowledge of the origins and divergence of miRNAs paves the way for a better understanding of the complexity of the regulatory networks that they participate in. The biogenesis, degradation, and regulatory activities of miRNAs are relatively better understood, but the evolutionary history of miRNAs still needs more exploration. Inverted duplication of target genes, random hairpin sequences and small transposable elements constitute three main models that explain the origination of miRNA genes (MIR)...
November 22, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882334/crosstalk-between-innate-lymphoid-cells-and-other-immune-cells-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#12
REVIEW
Fabian Flores-Borja, Sheeba Irshad, Peter Gordon, Felix Wong, Ibrahim Sheriff, Andrew Tutt, Tony Ng
Our knowledge and understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) have been recently expanded with the recognition of the important role of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Three different groups of ILC have been described based on their ability to produce cytokines that mediate the interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells in a variety of immune responses in infection, allergy, and autoimmunity. However, recent evidence from experimental models and clinical studies has demonstrated that ILC contribute to the mechanisms that generate suppressive or tolerant environments that allow tumor regression or progression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881881/spintronic-nanodevices-for-bioinspired-computing
#13
Julie Grollier, Damien Querlioz, Mark D Stiles
Bioinspired hardware holds the promise of low-energy, intelligent, and highly adaptable computing systems. Applications span from automatic classification for big data management, through unmanned vehicle control, to control for biomedical prosthesis. However, one of the major challenges of fabricating bioinspired hardware is building ultra-high-density networks out of complex processing units interlinked by tunable connections. Nanometer-scale devices exploiting spin electronics (or spintronics) can be a key technology in this context...
October 2016: Proceedings of the IEEE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881879/scout-simultaneous-time-segmentation-and-community-detection-in-dynamic-networks
#14
Yuriy Hulovatyy, Tijana Milenković
Many evolving complex real-world systems can be modeled via dynamic networks. An important problem in dynamic network research is community detection, which finds groups of topologically related nodes. Typically, this problem is approached by assuming either that each time point has a distinct community organization or that all time points share a single community organization. The reality likely lies between these two extremes. To find the compromise, we consider community detection in the context of the problem of segment detection, which identifies contiguous time periods with consistent network structure...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881075/modelling-microbial-metabolic-rewiring-during-growth-in-a-complex-medium
#15
Marco Fondi, Emanuele Bosi, Luana Presta, Diletta Natoli, Renato Fani
BACKGROUND: In their natural environment, bacteria face a wide range of environmental conditions that change over time and that impose continuous rearrangements at all the cellular levels (e.g. gene expression, metabolism). When facing a nutritionally rich environment, for example, microbes first use the preferred compound(s) and only later start metabolizing the other one(s). A systemic re-organization of the overall microbial metabolic network in response to a variation in the composition/concentration of the surrounding nutrients has been suggested, although the range and the entity of such modifications in organisms other than a few model microbes has been scarcely described up to now...
November 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880735/automatic-3d-liver-segmentation-based-on-deep-learning-and-globally-optimized-surface-evolution
#16
Peijun Hu, Fa Wu, Jialin Peng, Ping Liang, Dexing Kong
The detection and delineation of the liver from abdominal 3D computed tomography (CT) images are fundamental tasks in computer-assisted liver surgery planning. However, automatic and accurate segmentation, especially liver detection, remains challenging due to complex backgrounds, ambiguous boundaries, heterogeneous appearances and highly varied shapes of the liver. To address these difficulties, we propose an automatic segmentation framework based on 3D convolutional neural network (CNN) and globally optimized surface evolution...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872501/synchronization-of-heterogeneous-oscillators-under-network-modifications-perturbation-and-optimization-of-the-synchrony-alignment-function
#17
Dane Taylor, Per Sebastian Skardal, Jie Sun
Synchronization is central to many complex systems in engineering physics (e.g., the power-grid, Josephson junction circuits, and electro-chemical oscillators) and biology (e.g., neuronal, circadian, and cardiac rhythms). Despite these widespread applications-for which proper functionality depends sensitively on the extent of synchronization-there remains a lack of understanding for how systems can best evolve and adapt to enhance or inhibit synchronization. We study how network modifications affect the synchronization properties of network-coupled dynamical systems that have heterogeneous node dynamics (e...
2016: SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863724/-which-approach-of-therapeutic-education-te-for-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer-experience-from-the-te-working-group-of-go-aja
#18
Nadège Corradini, Loïc Dagorne, Marielle Retailleau, Françoise Rédini, Hélène Sudour-Bonnange, Leila Gofti-Laroche, Anne Le Rhun, Nathalie Gaspar
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic education (TE) is a practice developed over 40 years at an international level to give people with chronic illness the skills necessary to help them better manage their disease. The lengthening survival time of cancer patients as well as changes in the patient-caregiver relationship have contributed to the development of TE in oncologic diseases. Every year in France, about 1900 adolescents and young adults (15-25 years old) are diagnosed with cancer which is the second leading cause of death in this age group...
November 15, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846794/genome-and-catabolic-subproteomes-of-the-marine-nutritionally-versatile-sulfate-reducing-bacterium-desulfococcus-multivorans-dsm-2059
#19
Marvin Dörries, Lars Wöhlbrand, Michael Kube, Richard Reinhardt, Ralf Rabus
BACKGROUND: Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are key players of the carbon- and sulfur-cycles in the sediments of the world's oceans. Habitat relevant SRBs are often members of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus clade belonging to the deltaproteobacterial family of Desulfobacteraceae. Despite this environmental recognition, their molecular (genome-based) physiology and their potential to contribute to organic carbon mineralization as well as to adapt to changing environmental conditions have been scarcely investigated...
November 15, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845208/optogenetics-bringing-light-into-the-darkness-of-mammalian-signal-transduction
#20
REVIEW
Wignand W D Mühlhäuser, Adrian Fischer, Wilfried Weber, Gerald Radziwill
Cells receive many different environmental clues to which they must adapt accordingly. Therefore, a complex signal transduction network has evolved. Cellular signal transduction is a highly dynamic process, in which the specific outcome is a result of the exact spatial and temporal resolution of single sub-events. While conventional techniques, like chemical inducer systems, have led to a sound understanding of the architecture of signal transduction pathways, the spatiotemporal aspects were often impossible to resolve...
November 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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