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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#1
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630620/cloud-model-based-artificial-immune-network-for-complex-optimization-problem
#2
Mingan Wang, Shuo Feng, Jianming Li, Zhonghua Li, Yu Xue, Dongliang Guo
This paper proposes an artificial immune network based on cloud model (AINet-CM) for complex function optimization problems. Three key immune operators-cloning, mutation, and suppression-are redesigned with the help of the cloud model. To be specific, an increasing half cloud-based cloning operator is used to adjust the dynamic clone multipliers of antibodies, an asymmetrical cloud-based mutation operator is used to control the adaptive evolution of antibodies, and a normal similarity cloud-based suppressor is used to keep the diversity of the antibody population...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628172/trichomes-as-a-natural-biophysical-barrier-for-plants-and-their-bioinspired-applications
#3
Han Liu, Shaobao Liu, Jiaojiao Jiao, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
Nature has inspired mankind to create novel inventions with biomimetic structures and materials, where plants provide a significant source of inspiration. Plants have evolved a range of effective appendages, among which trichomes have attracted extensive research interest due to their enormous functions. It is important to understand trichome functions and corresponding mechanisms for their bioinspired applications. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the diverse functions of trichomes, with emphasis placed upon their roles as biophysical barriers that can create a complex three-dimensional (3D) network to help the plant adapt to severe environments...
June 19, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627887/controlling-the-catalytic-functions-of-dnazymes-within-constitutional-dynamic-networks-of-dna-nanostructures
#4
Shan Wang, Liang Yue, Zohar Shpilt, Alessandro Cecconello, Jason S Kahn, Jean-Marie Lehn, Itamar Willner
Mimicking complex cellular dynamic chemical networks being up-regulated or down-regulated by external triggers is one of the challenges in system chemistry. Constitutional dynamic networks, CDNs, composed of exchangeable components that respond to environmental triggers by self-adaption, provide general means to mimic biosystems. We use the structural and functional information encoded in nucleic acid nanostructures to construct effector (input)-triggered constitutional dynamic networks that reveal adaptable catalytic properties...
June 19, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627364/modulating-perceptual-complexity-and-load-reveals-degradation-of-the-visual-working-memory-network-in-ageing
#5
Sobanawartiny Wijeakumar, Vincent A Magnotta, John P Spencer
Previous neuroimaging studies have reported a posterior to anterior shift of activation in ageing (PASA). Here, we explore the nature of this shift by modulating load (1,2 or 3 items) and perceptual complexity in two variants of a visual working memory task (VWM): a 'simple' color and a 'complex' shape change detection task. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record changes in activation in younger (N=24) and older adults (N=24). Older adults exhibited PASA by showing lesser activation in the posterior cortex and greater activation in the anterior cortex when compared to younger adults...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626753/health-brokers-how-can-they-help-deal-with-the-wickedness-of-public-health-problems
#6
Celeste E van Rinsum, Sanne M P L Gerards, Geert M Rutten, Ien A M van de Goor, Stef P J Kremers
BACKGROUND: The role of health broker is a relatively new one in public health. Health brokers aim to create support for efforts to optimise health promotion in complex or even "wicked" public health contexts by facilitating intersectoral collaborations and by exchanging knowledge with different stakeholders. The current study aimed to explore the role of health brokers, by examining the motivational, contextual, and behaviour-related factors they have to deal with. METHODS: Fifteen professionals from various backgrounds and from various policy and practice organisations were recruited for a semistructured interview...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626467/mutation-in-hvcbp20-cap-binding-protein-20-adapts-barley-to-drought-stress-at-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-levels
#7
Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Anna Skubacz, Marek Marzec, Michal Slota, Marzena Kurowska, Monika Gajecka, Patrycja Gajewska, Tomasz Płociniczak, Krzysztof Sitko, Andrzej Pacak, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulinska, Iwona Szarejko
CBP20 (Cap-Binding Protein 20) encodes a small subunit of the cap-binding complex (CBC), which is involved in the conserved cell processes related to RNA metabolism in plants and, simultaneously, engaged in the signaling network of drought response, which is dependent on ABA. Here, we report the enhanced tolerance to drought stress of barley mutant in the HvCBP20 gene manifested at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptomic levels. Physiological analyses revealed differences between the hvcbp20.ab mutant and its WT in response to a water deficiency...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623335/complex-neuroanatomy-in-the-rostrum-of-the-isle-of-wight-theropod-neovenator-salerii
#8
Chris Tijani Barker, Darren Naish, Elis Newham, Orestis L Katsamenis, Gareth Dyke
The discovery of large, complex, internal canals within the rostra of fossil reptiles has been linked with an enhanced tactile function utilised in an aquatic context, so far in pliosaurids, the Cretaceous theropod Spinosaurus, and the related spinosaurid Baryonyx. Here, we report the presence of a complex network of large, laterally situated, anastomosing channels, discovered via micro-focus computed tomography (μCT), in the premaxilla and maxilla of Neovenator, a mid-sized allosauroid theropod from the Early Cretaceous of the UK...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615505/topological-features-of-a-gene-co-expression-network-predict-patterns-of-natural-diversity-in-environmental-response
#9
David L Des Marais, Rafael F Guerrero, Jesse R Lasky, Samuel V Scarpino
Molecular interactions affect the evolution of complex traits. For instance, adaptation may be constrained by pleiotropic or epistatic effects, both of which can be reflected in the structure of molecular interaction networks. To date, empirical studies investigating the role of molecular interactions in phenotypic evolution have been idiosyncratic, offering no clear patterns. Here, we investigated the network topology of genes putatively involved in local adaptation to two abiotic stressors-drought and cold-in Arabidopsis thaliana Our findings suggest that the gene-interaction topologies for both cold and drought stress response are non-random, with genes that show genetic variation in drought expression response (eGxE) being significantly more peripheral and cold response genes being significantly more central than genes which do not show GxE...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612747/pathogenetic-insights-from-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
REVIEW
Iain B McInnes, Georg Schett
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease that causes progressive articular damage, functional loss, and comorbidity. The development of effective biologics and small-molecule kinase inhibitors in the past two decades has substantially improved clinical outcomes. Just as understanding of pathogenesis has led in large part to the development of drugs, so have mode-of-action studies of these specific immune-targeted agents revealed which immune pathways drive articular inflammation and related comorbidities...
June 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605363/assaying-protein-kinase-activity-with-radiolabeled-atp
#11
Aroon S Karra, Steve Stippec, Melanie H Cobb
Protein kinases are able to govern large-scale cellular changes in response to complex arrays of stimuli, and much effort has been directed at uncovering allosteric details of their regulation. Kinases comprise signaling networks whose defects are often hallmarks of multiple forms of cancer and related diseases, making an assay platform amenable to manipulation of upstream regulatory factors and validation of reaction requirements critical in the search for improved therapeutics. Here, we describe a basic kinase assay that can be easily adapted to suit specific experimental questions including but not limited to testing the effects of biochemical and pharmacological agents, genetic manipulations such as mutation and deletion, as well as cell culture conditions and treatments to probe cell signaling mechanisms...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602714/functional-analysis-of-bas2108-2109-two-component-system-evidence-for-protease-regulation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#12
Vatika Gupta, Neha Chaudhary, Somya Aggarwal, Nidhi Adlakha, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a major bioterrorism concern which has evolved complex regulatory mechanisms for its virulence factors. Secreted proteases play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of BA, however their regulation remains elusive. Two component systems (TCS) are often employed by bacteria to sense and adapt to the environmental perturbations. In several pathogens, TCS are commonly associated with the regulation of virulence factors including proteases. The genome of BA encodes 41 TCS pairs, however, the role of any TCS in regulation of its proteases is not known...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598801/improving-adolescent-access-and-services-in-a-large-primary-care-network-report-of-a-10-year-project
#13
Elizabeth M Alderman, Kim L Freeman, Katherine S Lobach
This report describes a decade long initiative to bring a unified approach and improved quality to the process and content of adolescent health care in a large and complex urban primary care network within an academic health system. The moving force was a voluntary multidisciplinary group who comprised the Montefiore Adolescent Primary Care Initiative, known as MAPCI, led by a physician subspecialist in Adolescent Medicine. A series of needs assessments formed the basis for a multipronged effort to create policies and procedures, educational activities and materials, changes in record-keeping and billing practices, and modification of staff attitudes and behavior that would enhance access and ensure confidentiality of services for the adolescent age group...
June 9, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595639/diet-shifts-provoke-complex-and-variable-changes-in-the-metabolic-networks-of-the-ruminal-microbiome
#14
Sara M Wolff, Melinda J Ellison, Yue Hao, Rebecca R Cockrum, Kathy J Austin, Michael Baraboo, Katherine Burch, Hyuk Jin Lee, Taylor Maurer, Rocky Patil, Andrea Ravelo, Tasia M Taxis, Huan Truong, William R Lamberson, Kristi M Cammack, Gavin C Conant
BACKGROUND: Grazing mammals rely on their ruminal microbial symbionts to convert plant structural biomass into metabolites they can assimilate. To explore how this complex metabolic system adapts to the host animal's diet, we inferred a microbiome-level metabolic network from shotgun metagenomic data. RESULTS: Using comparative genomics, we then linked this microbial network to that of the host animal using a set of interface metabolites likely to be transferred to the host...
June 8, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595053/the-brain-as-an-efficient-and-robust-adaptive-learner
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Denève, Alireza Alemi, Ralph Bourdoukan
Understanding how the brain learns to compute functions reliably, efficiently, and robustly with noisy spiking activity is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Most sensory and motor tasks can be described as dynamical systems and could presumably be learned by adjusting connection weights in a recurrent biological neural network. However, this is greatly complicated by the credit assignment problem for learning in recurrent networks, e.g., the contribution of each connection to the global output error cannot be determined based only on locally accessible quantities to the synapse...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592249/ixora-rubiaceae-on-the-philippines-crossroad-or-cradle
#16
Cecilia I Banag, Arnaud Mouly, Grecebio Jonathan D Alejandro, Birgitta Bremer, Ulrich Meve, Guido W Grimm, Sigrid Liede-Schumann
BACKGROUND: The Philippine archipelago is globally one of the most important model island systems for studying evolutionary processes. However, most plant species on this archipelago have not yet been studied in sufficient detail. The main aim of this study is to unravel the evolutionary history and biogeographic relationships of the Philippine members of the pantropical genus Ixora. RESULTS: The complex plastid and nuclear divergence patterns in Philippine Ixora, documented using tree and network approaches, reveal a highly dynamic evolution in Ixora, involving several phases of radiation and recolonization...
June 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587860/the-oyster-immunity
#17
Lingling Wang, Xiaorui Song, Linsheng Song
Oysters, the common name for a number of different bivalve molluscs, are the worldwide aquaculture species and also play vital roles in the function of ecosystem. As invertebrate, oysters have evolved an integrated, highly complex innate immune system to recognize and eliminate various invaders via an array of orchestrated immune reactions, such as immune recognition, signal transduction, synthesis of antimicrobial peptides, as well as encapsulation and phagocytosis of the circulating haemocytes. The hematopoietic tissue, hematopoiesis, and the circulating haemocytes have been preliminary characterized, and the detailed annotation of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas genome has revealed massive expansion and functional divergence of innate immune genes in this animal...
June 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587758/epigenetics-for-plant-improvement-current-knowledge-and-modeling-avenues
#18
REVIEW
Philippe Gallusci, Zhanwu Dai, Michel Génard, Arnaud Gauffretau, Nathalie Leblanc-Fournier, Céline Richard-Molard, Denis Vile, Sophie Brunel-Muguet
Epigenetic variations are involved in the control of plant developmental processes and participate in shaping phenotypic plasticity to the environment. Intense breeding has eroded genetic diversity, and epigenetic diversity now emerge as a new source of phenotypic variations to improve adaptation to changing environments and ensure the yield and quality of crops. Here, we review how the characterization of the stability and heritability of epigenetic variations is required to drive breeding strategies, which can be assisted by process-based models...
June 3, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587085/a-novel-complex-coefficient-in-band-interference-suppression-algorithm-for-cognitive-ultra-wide-band-wireless-sensors-networks
#19
Hailiang Xiong, Wensheng Zhang, Hongji Xu, Zhengfeng Du, Huaibin Tang, Jing Li
With the rapid development of wireless communication systems and electronic techniques, the limited frequency spectrum resources are shared with various wireless devices, leading to a crowded and challenging coexistence circumstance. Cognitive radio (CR) and ultra-wide band (UWB), as sophisticated wireless techniques, have been considered as significant solutions to solve the harmonious coexistence issues. UWB wireless sensors can share the spectrum with primary user (PU) systems without harmful interference...
May 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586288/genomic-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-the-drosophila-immune-response
#20
Angela M Early, Andrew G Clark
As environments and pathogen landscapes shift, host defenses must evolve to remain effective. Due to this selection pressure, among-species comparisons of genetic sequence data often find immune genes to be among the fastest evolving genes across the genome. The full extent and nature of these immune adaptations, however, remain largely unexplored. In a recent study, we analyzed patterns of selection within distinct components of the Drosophila melanogaster immune pathway. While we found evidence of positive selection within some immune processes, immune genes were not universally characterized by signatures of strong selection...
June 6, 2017: Fly
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