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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222363/very-short-term-reactive-forecasting-of-the-solar-ultraviolet-index-using-an-extreme-learning-machine-integrated-with-the-solar-zenith-angle
#1
Ravinesh C Deo, Nathan Downs, Alfio V Parisi, Jan F Adamowski, John M Quilty
Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219933/akt-signalling-as-a-mediator-of-cardiac-adaptation-to-low-birth-weight
#2
Kimberley Cw Wang, Kimberley J Botting, Song Zhang, Caroline McMillen, Doug A Brooks, Janna L Morrison
Intrauterine insults, such as poor nutrition and placental insufficiency, can alter cardiomyocyte development and this can have significant long-term implications for heart health. Consequently, epidemiological studies have shown that low birth weight babies have an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. In addition, intrauterine growth restriction can result in increased left ventricular hypertrophy, which is the strongest predictor for poor health outcomes in cardiac patients. The mechanisms responsible for these associations are not clear, but a suboptimal intrauterine environment can program alternative expression of genes such as cardiac IGF-2/H19, IGF-2R and AT1R through either an increase or decrease in DNA methylation or histone acetylation at specific loci...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219429/engaging-with-complexity-to-improve-the-health-of-indigenous-people-a-call-for-the-use-of-systems-thinking-to-tackle-health-inequity
#3
EDITORIAL
Alison Hernández, Ana Lorena Ruano, Bruno Marchal, Miguel San Sebastián, Walter Flores
The 400 million indigenous people worldwide represent a wealth of linguistic and cultural diversity, as well as traditional knowledge and sustainable practices that are invaluable resources for human development. However, indigenous people remain on the margins of society in high, middle and low-income countries, and they bear a disproportionate burden of poverty, disease, and mortality compared to the general population. These inequalities have persisted, and in some countries have even worsened, despite the overall improvements in health indicators in relation to the 15-year push to meet the Millennium Development Goals...
February 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212072/neural-network-based-solutions-for-stochastic-optimal-control-using-path-integrals
#4
Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Sivasubramanya Nadar Balakrishnan, Jerome R Busemeyer
In this paper, an offline approximate dynamic programming approach using neural networks is proposed for solving a class of finite horizon stochastic optimal control problems. There are two approaches available in the literature, one based on stochastic maximum principle (SMP) formalism and the other based on solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. However, in the presence of noise, the SMP formalism becomes complex and results in having to solve a couple of backward stochastic differential equations...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207396/hd-mtl-hierarchical-deep-multi-task-learning-for-large-scale-visual-recognition
#5
Jianping Fan, Tianyi Zhao, Zhenzhong Kuang, Yu Zheng, Ji Zhang, Jun Yu, Jinye Peng
In this paper, a hierarchical deep multi-task learning (HD-MTL) algorithm is developed to support large-scale visual recognition (e.g., recognizing thousands or even tens of thousands of atomic object classes automatically). First, multiple sets of multi-level deep features are extracted from different layers of deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs), and they are used to achieve more effective accomplishment of the coarseto- fine tasks for hierarchical visual recognition. A visual tree is then learned by assigning the visually-similar atomic object classes with similar learning complexities into the same group, which can provide a good environment for determining the interrelated learning tasks automatically...
February 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202911/what-rheumatologists-need-to-know-about-crispr-cas9
#6
REVIEW
Gary J Gibson, Maozhou Yang
CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology has taken the research world by storm since its use in eukaryotes was first proposed in 2012. Publications describing advances in technology and new applications have continued at an unrelenting pace since that time. In this Review, we discuss the application of CRISPR/Cas9 for creating gene mutations - the application that initiated the current avalanche of interest - and new developments that have largely answered initial concerns about its specificity and ability to introduce new gene sequences...
February 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186911/differentiation-free-multiswitching-neuroadaptive-control-of-strict-feedback-systems
#7
Jeng-Tze Huang, Thanh-Phong Pham
Issues of differentiation-free multiswitching neuroadaptive tracking control of strict-feedback systems are presented. It mainly consists of a set of nominal adaptive neural network compensators plus an auxiliary switched linear controller that ensures the semiglobally/globally ultimately uniformly bounded stability when the unknown nonlinearities are locally/globally linearly bounded, respectively. In particular, the so-called explosion of complexity is annihilated in two steps. First, a set of first-order low-pass filters are constructed for solving such a problem in the nominal neural compensators...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186408/functional-microgels-and-microgel-systems
#8
Felix A Plamper, Walter Richtering
Microgels are macromolecular networks swollen by the solvent in which they are dissolved. They are unique systems that are distinctly different from common colloids, such as, e.g., rigid nanoparticles, flexible macromolecules, micelles, or vesicles. The size of the microgel networks is in the range of several micrometers down to nanometers (then sometimes called "nanogels"). In a collapsed state, they might resemble hard colloids but they can still contain significant amounts of solvent. When swollen, they are soft and have a fuzzy surface with dangling chains...
February 10, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186146/dynamics-of-epidemic-diseases-on-a-growing-adaptive-network
#9
Güven Demirel, Edmund Barter, Thilo Gross
The study of epidemics on static networks has revealed important effects on disease prevalence of network topological features such as the variance of the degree distribution, i.e. the distribution of the number of neighbors of nodes, and the maximum degree. Here, we analyze an adaptive network where the degree distribution is not independent of epidemics but is shaped through disease-induced dynamics and mortality in a complex interplay. We study the dynamics of a network that grows according to a preferential attachment rule, while nodes are simultaneously removed from the network due to disease-induced mortality...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184226/clathrin-in-chara-australis-molecular-analysis-and-involvement-in-charasome-degradation-and-constitutive-endocytosis
#10
Marion C Hoepflinger, Margit Hoeftberger, Aniela Sommer, Christina Hametner, Ilse Foissner
Charasomes are convoluted plasma membrane domains in characean green algae. They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. Charasomes are involved in the acidification of their aqueous environment, thereby facilitating photosynthesis-dependent carbon uptake. Charasome formation is reversible to allow cells to adapt to different light conditions. Here, we show that darkness-induced degradation of charasomes involves the formation of coated pits and coated vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179572/spectrin-%C3%AE-v-adaptive-mutations-and-changes-in-subcellular-location-correlate-with-emergence-of-hair-cell-electromotility-in-mammalians
#11
Matteo Cortese, Samantha Papal, Francisco Pisciottano, Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Jean-Pierre Hardelin, Christine Petit, Lucia Florencia Franchini, Aziz El-Amraoui
The remarkable hearing capacities of mammals arise from various evolutionary innovations. These include the cochlear outer hair cells and their singular feature, somatic electromotility, i.e., the ability of their cylindrical cell body to shorten and elongate upon cell depolarization and hyperpolarization, respectively. To shed light on the processes underlying the emergence of electromotility, we focused on the βV giant spectrin, a major component of the outer hair cells' cortical cytoskeleton. We identified strong signatures of adaptive evolution at multiple sites along the spectrin-βV amino acid sequence in the lineage leading to mammals, together with substantial differences in the subcellular location of this protein between the frog and the mouse inner ear hair cells...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178926/framework-for-the-establishment-of-a-feasible-tailored-and-effective-perinatal-education-programme
#12
Isabel Artieta-Pinedo, Carmen Paz-Pascual, Gonzalo Grandes, Maite Espinosa
BACKGROUND: Antenatal education needs to be renewed and adapted to the needs of women. OBJECTIVES: to assess women needs, identify factors that influence the desired outcomes, and propose a framework for developing new perinatal education based on the guidance published by the UK Medical Research Council for the development and evaluation of complex interventions in primary care. METHODS: For this study: (a) four focus group sessions were held from October to November 2010 in Bizkaia (Spain) with 30 women exploring their needs during pregnancy and postpartum; (b) two literature reviews were conducted on women's needs at these times and theoretical models of healthcare education; and (c) seven discussion and consensus sessions were run with a group of experts composed of midwifes, gynaecologists, paediatricians, and paediatric and postpartum nurses...
February 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174135/a-system-of-recurrent-neural-networks-for-modularising-parameterising-and-dynamic-analysis-of-cell-signalling-networks
#13
S Samarasinghe, H Ling
In this paper, we show how to extend our previously proposed novel continuous time Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) approach that retains the advantage of continuous dynamics offered by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) while enabling parameter estimation through adaptation, to larger signalling networks using a modular approach. Specifically, the signalling network is decomposed into several sub-models based on important temporal events in the network. Each sub-model is represented by the proposed RNN and trained using data generated from the corresponding ODE model...
February 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167863/biomechanical-cell-regulatory-networks-as-complex-adaptive-systems-in-relation-to-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Razia Abdool Gafaar Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Physiological structure and function of cells are maintained by ongoing complex dynamic adaptive processes in the intracellular molecular pathways controlling the overall profile of gene expression, and by genes in cellular gene regulatory circuits. Cytogenetic mutations and non-genetic factors such as chronic inflammation or repetitive trauma, intrinsic mechanical stresses within extracellular matrix may induce redirection of gene regulatory circuits with abnormal reactivation of embryonic developmental programmes which can now drive cell transformation and cancer initiation, and later cancer progression and metastasis...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164205/single-cell-resolution-of-intracellular-t-cell-ca-2-dynamics-in-response-to-frequency-based-h2o2-stimulation
#15
Ariel S Kniss-James, Catherine A Rivet, Loice Chingozha, Hang Lu, Melissa L Kemp
Adaptive immune cells, such as T cells, integrate information from their extracellular environment through complex signaling networks with exquisite sensitivity in order to direct decisions on proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine production. These signaling networks are reliant on the interplay between finely tuned secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) and H2O2. Frequency response analysis, originally developed in control engineering, is a tool used for discerning complex networks. This analytical technique has been shown to be useful for understanding biological systems and facilitates identification of the dominant behaviour of the system...
February 6, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155257/cell-wall-proteome-analysis-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-mature-stems
#16
Harold Duruflé, Hélène San Clemente, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Christophe Dunand, Elisabeth Jamet
Plant stems carry flowers necessary for species propagation and need to be adapted to mechanical disturbance and environmental factors. The stem cell walls are different from other organs and can modify their rigidity or viscoelastic properties for the integrity and the robustness required to withstand mechanical impacts and environmental stresses. Plant cell wall is composed of complex polysaccharide networks also containing cell wall proteins (CWPs) crucial to perceive and limit the environmental effects...
February 2, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151556/probing-nano-organization-of-astroglia-with-multi-color-super-resolution-microscopy
#17
Janosch P Heller, Piotr Michaluk, Kohtaroh Sugao, Dmitri A Rusakov
Astroglia are essential for brain development, homeostasis, and metabolic support. They also contribute actively to the formation and regulation of synaptic circuits, by successfully handling, integrating, and propagating physiological signals of neural networks. The latter occurs mainly by engaging a versatile mechanism of internal Ca(2+) fluctuations and regenerative waves prompting targeted release of signaling molecules into the extracellular space. Astroglia also show substantial structural plasticity associated with age- and use-dependent changes in neural circuitry...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149304/identification-of-submergence-responsive-micrornas-and-their-targets-reveals-complex-mirna-mediated-regulatory-networks-in-lotus-nelumbo-nucifera-gaertn
#18
Qijiang Jin, Yingchun Xu, Neil Mattson, Xin Li, Bei Wang, Xiao Zhang, Hongwei Jiang, Xiaojing Liu, Yanjie Wang, Dongrui Yao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs with important regulatory functions in plant development and stress responses. However, their population abundance in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) has so far been poorly described, particularly in response to stresses. In this work, submergence-related miRNAs and their target genes were systematically identified, compared, and validated at the transcriptome-wide level using high-throughput sequencing data of small RNA, Mrna, and the degradome. A total of 128 known and 20 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed upon submergence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147353/anti-cytokine-strategies-beyond-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-therapy-pathophysiology-and-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Gerhard Rogler, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl
Cytokines are small proteins produced by a broad range of cells important in cell signaling. They include interleukins, but also chemokines, interferons, and tumor necrosis factors (TNF). They play an important role for communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. The cytokine network is complex and, therefore, therapeutic interventions are difficult. The first anti-cytokine strategy successfully introduced into IBD therapy was the neutralization of TNF by antibodies. Beyond targeting this cytokine anti-IL-23 strategies were demonstrated to be of therapeutic benefit in IBD...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145690/higher-order-constitutional-dynamic-networks-2%C3%A3-3-and-3%C3%A3-3-networks-displaying-multiple-synergistic-and-competitive-hierarchical-adaptation
#20
Guangwen Men, Jean-Marie Lehn
The present study investigates the constitutional dynamic networks (CDNs) underlying dynamic covalent libraries (DCLs) that extend beyond the [2×2] case toward higher orders, namely [2×3] and [3×3] CDNs involving respectively six and nine constituents generated from the recombination of five and six components linked through reversible chemical reactions. It explores the behavior of such systems under the action of one or two effectors. More specifically and for the sake of proof of principle, it makes use of DCLs involving dynamic organic ligands and analyzes their single and double adaptive response under the action of one and two metal cation effectors...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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