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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791556/clinical-aspects-in-patients-with-pulmonary-infection-caused-by-mycobacteria-of-the-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#1
José Tadeu Colares Monteiro, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Adriana Rodrigues Barretto, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Glenda Moraes Gonçalves, Ana Roberta Fusco da Costa, Maria Luiza Lopes, Margareth Pretti Dalcolmo
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical manifestations of patients with pulmonary infection caused by mycobacteria of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC), and to compare these manifestations with those of patients infected with other nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving 43 patients divided into two groups: the MABSC group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by MABSC (n = 17); and the NTM group, consisting of patients with pulmonary infection caused by NTM other than MABSC (n = 26)...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791542/impact-of-smoking-on-sputum-culture-conversion-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-brazil-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Michelle Cailleaux-Cezar, Carla Loredo, José Roberto Lapa E Silva, Marcus Barreto Conde
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of smoking on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatment outcomes and the two-month conversion rates for Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum cultures among patients with culture-confirmed PTB in an area with a moderate incidence of tuberculosis in Brazil. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of PTB patients diagnosed and treated at the Thoracic Diseases Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro between 2004 and 2012...
April 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791488/comparison-of-the-validity-of-smear-and-culture-conversion-as-a-prognostic-marker-of-treatment-outcome-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis
#3
Kefyalew Addis Alene, Kerri Viney, Hengzhong Yi, Emma S McBryde, Kunyun Yang, Liqiong Bai, Darren J Gray, Zuhui Xu, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has conditionally recommended the use of sputum smear microscopy and culture examination for the monitoring of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment. We aimed to assess and compare the validity of smear and culture conversion at different time points during treatment for MDR-TB, as a prognostic marker for end-of-treatment outcomes. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective observational cohort study using data obtained from Hunan Chest Hospital, China and Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788932/geographic-variation-in-the-aetiology-epidemiology-and-microbiology-of-bronchiectasis
#4
REVIEW
Ravishankar Chandrasekaran, Micheál Mac Aogáin, James D Chalmers, Stuart J Elborn, Sanjay H Chotirmall
Bronchiectasis is a disease associated with chronic progressive and irreversible dilatation of the bronchi and is characterised by chronic infection and associated inflammation. The prevalence of bronchiectasis is age-related and there is some geographical variation in incidence, prevalence and clinical features. Most bronchiectasis is reported to be idiopathic however post-infectious aetiologies dominate across Asia especially secondary to tuberculosis. Most focus to date has been on the study of airway bacteria, both as colonisers and causes of exacerbations...
May 22, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787364/effect-of-respiratory-achromobacter-spp-infection-on-pulmonary-function-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#5
R Recio, P Brañas, M T Martínez, F Chaves, M A Orellana
PURPOSE: Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are susceptible to infection with Achromobacter spp., although its clinical significance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of infection with Achromobacter spp. in CF patients. METHODS: CF outpatients with multiple sputum cultures and follow-up lung function tests were assigned to the case group (infected with Achromobacter spp.) or the control group (never infected with Achromobacter spp...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785214/etiological-trends-and-patterns-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-respiratory-infections
#6
Salma M Al-Zain Ahmed, Sara S Abdelrahman, Doua M Saad, Isra S Osman, Modasir G Osman, Eltahir A G Khalil
Background: Respiratory infections are one of the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases worldwide. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a major global health problem which is well established in developing countries. Good clinical suspicion and correct laboratory identification of respiratory infection causing organisms followed by the appropriate management are needed to compact both community-acquired and nosocomial infection respiratory infections...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779781/tag-array-gene-chip-rapid-diagnosis-anti-tuberculosis-drug-resistance-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-feasibility-study
#7
Wenjie Wu, Peng Cheng, Jingtong Lyu, Zehua Zhang, Jianzhong Xu
OBJECTIVE: We developed a Tag Array chip for detecting first- and second-line anti tuberculosis drug resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis and compared the analytical performance of the gene chip to that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). METHODS: From November 2011 to April 2016.234 consecutive culture-confirmed, clinically and imaging diagnosed patients with pulmonary tuberculosis from Southwest Hospital, Chongqing were enrolled into the study. Specimens collected during sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the pulmonary tuberculosis patients were subjected to M...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779492/pretreatment-chest-x-ray-severity-and-its-relation-to-bacterial-burden-in-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
S E Murthy, F Chatterjee, A Crook, R Dawson, C Mendel, M E Murphy, S R Murray, A J Nunn, P P J Phillips, Kasha P Singh, T D McHugh, S H Gillespie
BACKGROUND: Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. METHODS: Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al...
May 21, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773475/concordance-between-aspergillus-specific-precipitating-antibody-and-igg-in-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#9
Kazuki Harada, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Akemi Saito, Yuma Fukutomi, Jun Tanaka, Katsuyoshi Tomomatsu, Masami Taniguchi, Koichiro Asano
BACKGROUND: Several serological tests for specific precipitin or IgG are available to demonstrate type III hypersensitivity reactions to Aspergillus species and are essential for infectious fungal disease diagnosis. These assays are also important for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) diagnosis; however, their concordance in ABPA was not well studied. METHODS: Fifty-two ABPA patients diagnosed based on ISHAM criteria were enrolled. Precipitins and IgG specific to Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergillusniger, Aspergillusflavus, or Aspergillusterreus were measured using Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion tests and ImmunoCAP method, respectively...
May 15, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769279/microbial-interactions-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-airway
#10
Ann M Granchelli, Frederick R Adler, Ruth H Keogh, Christiana Kartsonaki, David R Cox, Theodore G Liou
Interactions in the airway ecology of cystic fibrosis may alter organism persistence and clinical outcomes. Better understanding of such interactions could guide clinical decisions. We fitted logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to longitudinal two-year patient cohorts in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry, 2003-2011 to study associations between airway organisms present in each calendar year and their presence in the subsequent year. Models were adjusted for clinical characteristics and multiple observations per patient and tested for sensitivity to cystic fibrosis-specific treatments...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769160/cross-border-outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-linked-to-a-university-in-romania
#11
O Popovici, Ph Monk, D Chemtob, D Chiotan, P J Freidlin, R Groenheit, M Haanperä, D Homorodean, M Mansjö, E Robinson, E Rorman, G Smith, H Soini, M J Van Der Werf
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) poses a threat to public health due to its complicated, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. A cluster of three XDR TB cases was detected among foreign medical students of a Romanian university. The contact investigations included tuberculin skin testing or interferon gamma release assay, chest X-ray, sputum smear microscopy, culture, drug susceptibility testing, genotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and were addressed to students, personnel of the university, family members or other close contacts of the cases...
May 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758450/comparison-of-traditional-microbiological-culture-and-16s-polymerase-chain-reaction-analyses-for-identification-of-preoperative-airway-colonization-for-patients-undergoing-lung-resection
#12
Samuel H Howitt, Diana Blackshaw, Eustace Fontaine, Ibrahim Hassan, Ignacio Malagon
PURPOSE: Preoperative airway colonization is associated with increased risk of postoperative respiratory complications following lung resection. This study compares the rates of preoperative lower respiratory tract colonization identified by traditional culture and novel 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples for 49 lung resection patients underwent culture and 16S PCR analyses...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755068/-tuberculous-pleurisy-diagnosed-by-thoracoscopic-lung-biopsy
#13
Jun Yamamoto, Miho Nishiura, Takanori Ohata, Ho Namkoong, Shinji Sakaguchi, Fumitake Saito, Hideki Yuki
A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pleural effusion and unknown fever. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was not detected by culture of pleural effusion and sputum and gastric fluid. Pleural fluid was serous and exudative, and cytological examination showed no malignant cells. Computed tomography revealed a little pleural thickening of the right middle lobe and massive pleural effusion. As acute pleurisy was suspected based on the findings of imaging studies, thoracoscopy was performed under general anesthesia...
March 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740714/xpert-mtb-rif-diagnosis-of-childhood-tuberculosis-from-sputum-and-stool-samples-in-a-high-tb-hiv-prevalent-setting
#14
Patrick Orikiriza, Margaret Nansumba, Dan Nyehangane, Mathieu Bastard, Ivan Taremwa Mugisha, Denis Nansera, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Elias Kumbakumba, Maryline Bonnet
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a major advance for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in high-burden countries but is limited in children by their difficulty to produce sputum. We investigated TB in sputum and stool from children with the aim of improving paediatric TB diagnosis. A prospective cohort of children with presumptive TB, provided two sputum or induced sputum at enrolment in a regional referral hospital in Uganda. Stool was collected from those started on TB treatment. All specimen were tested for Xpert MTB/RIF, mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT), Lowenstein Jensen cultures and microscopy (except stool)...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739378/higher-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-are-associated-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-patients-in-a-low-income-tropical-setting-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Cuthbert Musarurwa, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Doreen Zvipo Mhandire, Tsitsi Bandason, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Maria Mary Chipiti, Marshall Wesley Munjoma, Witmore Bayayi Mujaji
BACKGROUND: The inherent risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) in HIV- infected individuals is further enhanced by hypovitaminosis D. Interventions that offset HIV-associated immune deterioration potentially arrest disease progression and incidence of opportunistic infections including TB. Despite conflicting reports on association between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and risk of TB, vitamin D (VD) supplementation remains a promising intervention. METHODS: We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study on 145 HIV+ /pulmonary TB+ (PTB) and 139 HIV+ /PTB- hospitalised patients to investigate association of vitamin D status and risk of PTB...
May 8, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725275/td-gc-ms-analysis-of-volatile-markers-emitted-from-mono-and-co-cultures-of-enterobacter-cloacae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-artificial-sputum
#16
Oluwasola Lawal, Hugo Knobel, Hans Weda, Tamara M E Nijsen, Royston Goodacre, Stephen J Fowler
Introduction: Infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) can be caused by one or more pathogens. Current methods for identifying these pathogenic microbes often require invasive sampling, and can be time consuming, due to the requirement for prolonged cultural enrichment along with selective and differential plating steps. This results in delays in diagnosis which in such critically ill patients can have potentially life-threatening consequences. Therefore, a non-invasive and timely diagnostic method is required...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724920/delamanid-for-rifampicin-resistant-tuberculosis-a-retrospective-study-from-south-africa
#17
Erika Mohr, Jennifer Hughes, Anja Reuter, Laura Trivino Duran, Gabriella Ferlazzo, Johnny Daniels, Virginia De Avezedo, Yulene Kock, Sarah Jane Steele, Amir Shroufi, Serge Ade, Natavan Alikhanova, Guido Benedetti, Jeffrey Edwards, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Experience with delamanid (Dlm) is limited, particularly among HIV-positive individuals. We describe early efficacy and safety from a programmatic setting in South Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients receiving Dlm-containing treatment regimens between November 2015 and August 2017. Twelve-month interim outcomes, sputum culture conversion (SCC) by months-2 and 6, serious adverse events (SAEs), and QTcF data were reported...
May 3, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720430/evaluation-of-a-rapid-diagnostic-test-for-the-detection-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#18
Kate L Woods, Latsaniphone Boutthasavong, Caoimhe NicFhogartaigh, Sue J Lee, Viengmon Davong, David P AuCoin, David A B Dance
Burkholderia pseudomallei causes significant global morbidity and mortality, with the highest disease burden in parts of Asia where culture-based diagnosis is often not available. We prospectively evaluated the Active Melioidosis Detect (AMD, InBios International, USA) lateral flow immunoassay (LFI) for rapid detection of B. pseudomallei in turbid blood cultures, pus, sputum, sterile fluid, urine, and sera. Performance was compared to B. pseudomallei detection using monoclonal antibody latex agglutination (LA) and immunofluorescence assays (IFA), with culture as the gold standard...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718745/use-of-whole-genome-sequencing-in-surveillance-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis
#19
Ruth McNerney, Matteo Zignol, Taane G Clark
The threat of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is of global concern. Current efforts to monitor resistance rely on phenotypic testing where cultured bacteria are exposed to critical concentrations of the drugs. Capacity for such testing is low in TB endemic countries. Drug resistance is caused by mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome and whole genome sequencing to detect these mutations offers an alternative means of assessing resistance. Areas covered: The challenges of assessing TB drug resistance are discussed...
May 2, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718390/greater-early-bactericidal-activity-at-higher-rifampicin-doses-revealed-by-modeling-and-clinical-trial-simulations
#20
Robin J Svensson, Elin M Svensson, Rob E Aarnoutse, Andreas H Diacon, Rodney Dawson, Stephen H Gillespie, Mischka Moodley, Martin J Boeree, Ulrika S H Simonsson
Background: The current rifampicin dose (10 mg/kg) is sub-optimal for treating tuberculosis. The PanACEA HIGHRIF1 trial evaluated pharmacokinetics and early bactericidal activity with rifampicin doses up to 40 mg/kg. Conventional statistics revealed no significant exposure-response relationship. Our objective was to explore exposure-response for high dose rifampicin using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling and to predict early bactericidal activity of 50 mg/kg rifampicin. Methods: Data included time-to-positivity of sputum in liquid culture from 83 tuberculosis patients treated with 10 (n=8), 20, 25, 30, 35 or 40 (n=15/group) mg/kg rifampicin for 7 days (clinicaltrials...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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