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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102063/sputum-inflammatory-mediators-are-increased-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-culture-positive-asthmatics
#1
Michael A Ghebre, Dhananjay Desai, Amisha Singapuri, Joanne Woods, Laura Rapley, Suzanne Cohen, Athula Herath, Andrew J Wardlaw, Catherine H Pashley, Richard May, Chris E Brightling
Aspergillus fumigatus sensitization and culture in asthma are associated with disease severity and lung function impairment, but their relationship with airway inflammation is poorly understood. We investigated the profile of 24 sputum inflammatory mediators in A. fumigatus culture-positive or-negative moderate-to-severe asthmatics. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from a single center. A. fumigatus was cultured from 19 asthmatics. Asthma control, symptom score, lung function, and sputum cell count were not significantly different between the asthmatics with and without a positive A...
March 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101187/severe-pneumonia-due-to-infection-with-candida-krusei-in-a-case-of-suspected-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
Mingming Tan, Junwei Wang, Peiyang Hu, Bin Wang, Wanghua Xu, Jiao Chen
Candida krusei (C. krusei) pneumonia is a rare infection that is frequently associated with a poor outcome. The present study reports an unusual case of C. krusei pneumonia that was initially suspected to be a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) case. A 64-year-old Saudi Arabian male patient was admitted to our hospital with complaints of cough and dyspnea that persisted for 6 days. The patient presented fever (oral temperature, 38.5°C) and slight tachypnea (25 respirations/min). A chest computerized tomography demonstrated unclear lung fields, diffuse pathological changes in the two lungs and multiple lymphadenectasis in the retrocaval and para-aortic arch area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100601/the-use-of-selective-fungal-culture-media-increases-detection-rates-of-fungi-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-respiratory-tract
#3
Gina Hong, Heather B Miller, Sarah Allgood, Richard Lee, Noah Lechtzin, Sean X Zhang
The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing fungal detection rates for clinically important fungi (CIF) defined as Aspergillus species, Scedosporium species, Trichosporon species, and Exophiala dermatitidis in CF sputum using standard bacterial culture media and selective-fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) with chloramphenicol and gentamicin...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100191/diagnostic-dilemma-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-adults-with-severe-mental-illness-in-beijing-china
#4
Li Wang, Zhiguo Zhang, Qiuli Yan, Jie Lu, Baoyin Gao, Yanlin Zhao, Yu Pang
BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased significantly over the past decades, the certain populations with mental illness are at increased risk for tuberculosis infection and transmission. However, no studies have examined the performance of different laboratory examination methods among people with severe mental illness in China. METHODS: In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to evaluate the feasibility of three routine laboratory methods, including sputum microscopy, solid culture and GeneXpert, to diagnose tuberculosis patients with mental illness...
January 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095790/comparison-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-assay-and-smear-microscopy-with-culture-for-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-tuberculosis
#5
Baye Gelaw, Yitayal Shiferaw, Marta Alemayehu, Abate Assefa Bashaw
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death from infectious diseases worldwide. Sputum smear microscopy remains the most widely available pulmonary TB diagnostic tool particularly in resource limited settings. A highly sensitive diagnostic with minimal infrastructure, cost and training is required. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic performance of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in detecting M.tuberculosis infection in sputum sample compared to LED fluorescent smear microscopy and culture...
January 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095429/high-rates-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacteria-isolation-in-mozambican-children-with-presumptive-tuberculosis
#6
Elisa López-Varela, Alberto L García-Basteiro, Orvalho J Augusto, Oscar Fraile, Helder Bulo, Tasmiya Ira, Kizito Gondo, Jakko van Ingen, Denise Naniche, Jahit Sacarlal, Pedro L Alonso
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause disease which can be clinically and radiologically undistinguishable from tuberculosis (TB), posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in high TB settings. We aim to describe the prevalence of NTM isolation and its clinical characteristics in children from rural Mozambique. METHODS: This study was part of a community TB incidence study in children <3 years of age. Gastric aspirate and induced sputum sampling were performed in all presumptive TB cases and processed for smear testing using fluorochrome staining and LED Microscopy, liquid and solid culture, and molecular identification by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#7
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#8
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066704/acute-pulmonary-embolism-leading-to-cavitation-and-large-pulmonary-abscess-a-rare-complication-of-pulmonary-infarction
#9
Matthew T Koroscil, Timothy R Hauser
Pulmonary infarction is an infrequent complication of pulmonary embolism due to the dual blood supply of the lung. Autopsy studies have reported cavitation to occur in only 4-5% of all pulmonary infarctions with an even smaller proportion of these cases becoming secondarily infected. Patients with infected cavitating pulmonary infarction classically present with fever, positive sputum culture, and leukocytosis days to weeks following acute pulmonary embolism. We describe a rare case of acute pulmonary embolism with pulmonary infarction leading to cavitation and subsequent abscess formation requiring left lower lobe resection...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063795/effect-of-new-tuberculosis-diagnostic-technologies-on-community-based-intensified-case-finding-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Gregory L Calligaro, Lynn S Zijenah, Jonathan G Peter, Grant Theron, Virginia Buser, Ruth McNerney, Wilbert Bara, Tsitsi Bandason, Ureshnie Govender, Michele Tomasicchio, Liezel Smith, Bongani M Mayosi, Keertan Dheda
BACKGROUND: Inadequate case detection results in high levels of undiagnosed tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Data for the effect of new diagnostic tools when used for community-based intensified case finding are not available, so we investigated whether the use of sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF and the Determine TB LAM urine test in two African communities could be effective. METHODS: In a pragmatic, randomised, parallel-group trial with individual randomisation stratified by country, we compared sputum Xpert-MTB/RIF, and if HIV-infected, the Determine TB LAM urine test (novel diagnostic group), with laboratory-based sputum smear microscopy (routine diagnostic group) for intensified case finding in communities with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence in Cape Town, South Africa, and Harare, Zimbabwe...
January 4, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060882/secretion-of-proteases-by-an-opportunistic-fungal-pathogen-scedosporium-aurantiacum
#11
Zhiping Han, Liisa Kautto, Helena Nevalainen
Scedosporium aurantiacum is an opportunistic filamentous fungus increasingly isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, and is especially prevalent in Australia. At the moment, very little is known about the infection mechanism of this fungus. Secreted proteases have been shown to contribute to fungal virulence in several studies with other fungi. Here we have compared the profiles of proteases secreted by a clinical isolate Scedosporium aurantiacum (WM 06.482) and an environmental strain (WM 10...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#12
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059171/comparison-of-sputum-microbiome-of-legionellosis-associated-patients-and-other-pneumonia-patients-indications-for-polybacterial-infections
#13
Hila Mizrahi, Avi Peretz, René Lesnik, Yana Aizenberg-Gershtein, Sara Rodríguez-Martínez, Yehonatan Sharaby, Nina Pastukh, Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G Höfle, Malka Halpern
Bacteria of the genus Legionella cause water-based infections resulting in severe pneumonia. Here we analyze and compare the bacterial microbiome of sputum samples from pneumonia patients in relation to the presence and abundance of the genus Legionella. The prevalence of Legionella species was determined by culture, PCR, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Nine sputum samples out of the 133 analyzed were PCR-positive using Legionella genus-specific primers. Only one sample was positive by culture. Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing analyses of Legionella-positive and Legionella-negative sputum samples, confirmed that indeed, Legionella was present in the PCR-positive sputum samples...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057059/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-caused-by-mucoid-serotype-3-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Naomi Sugimoto, Yuka Yamagishi, Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Among the different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 3 has received global attention. We report the fatal case of a 76-year-old Japanese man who had an invasive pneumococcal disease associated with pneumonia caused by serotype 3 S. pneumoniae. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient had a history of hypertension, laryngeal cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following a cerebral arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage, he underwent surgery to remove the hematoma and began rehabilitation...
January 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054289/procalcitonin-is-a-poor-predictor-of-non-infectious-fever-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit
#15
Karin Halvorson, Sameer Shah, Corey Fehnel, Bradford Thompson, N Stevenson Potter, Mitchell Levy, Linda Wendell
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common occurrence in the Neurocritical Care Unit (NCCU). It is reported that up to 50 % of these fevers are associated with a non-infectious source. As this is a diagnosis of exclusion, a complete fever evaluation must be done to rule out infection. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been identified as a possible biomarker to distinguish infectious from non-infectious etiologies of fever. We hypothesized that PCT could be used as a predictor of infectious fever in febrile patients with intracranial hemorrhage admitted to the NCCU...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050363/first-line-anti-tb-drug-resistance-in-an-urban-area-of-odisha-india
#16
Dasarathi Das, Prakasini Satapathy, Biswanath Murmu
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance is a major cause for increasing the global burden of Tuberculosis (TB). However in countries with larger geographical areas and different climatic conditions like India the prevalence of drug resistance varies from place to place. Information on anti-TB drug resistance patterns particularly among newly diagnosed cases is crucial for planning an effective TB control program. AIM: To determine the prevalence of resistance against first line anti-TB drugs and Multi Drug Resistance (MDR) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043788/comparison-of-bacteriological-conversion-and-treatment-outcomes-among-mdr-tb-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-in-mexico-preliminary-data
#17
M Muñoz-Torrico, J Caminero Luna, G B Migliori, L D'Ambrosio, J L Carrillo-Alduenda, H Villareal-Velarde, A Torres-Cruz, H Flores-Ergara, D Martínez-Mendoza, C García-Sancho, R Centis, M Á Salazar-Lezama, R Pérez-Padilla
: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-known risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). However, it is not known to what extent DM affects the outcome in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) treated with second-line anti-TB drugs. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiological evolution (sputum smear and culture conversion) and final outcomes of MDR/XDR-TB patients with and without DM, managed at the national TB reference centre in Mexico City...
December 30, 2016: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043641/association-of-slow-recovery-of-mycobacterium-africanum-infected-patients-posttreatment-with-high-content-of-persister-like-bacilli-in-pretreatment-sputum
#18
Leopold D Tientcheu, Andrew Bell, Oumie Secka, Abigail Ayorinde, Jacob Otu, Nathalie J Garton, Jayne S Sutherland, Martin O Ota, Martin Antonio, H M Dockrell, Beate Kampmann, Michael R Barer
OBJECTIVES/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium africanum that causes 40% of tuberculosis (TB) in West Africa grows more slowly in culture and has similar transmission capacity compared with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but M. africanum-exposed contacts progress more slowly to active disease. The presence of lipid body (LB) containing M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) cells in sputum samples has been associated with mycobacterial transcriptomes indicating slow or no growth and persister-like antibiotic tolerance...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043630/effective-testing-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-using-xpert-mtb-rif-assay-for-stool-specimens-in-immunocompetent-pakistani-children
#19
Zahra Hasan, Fehmina Arif, Sadia Shakoor, Aisha Mehnaz, Alnoor Akber, Akbar Kanji, Mussarat Ashraf, Rumina Hasan
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is largely a paucibacillary disease and difficult to diagnose. It is difficult to obtain a sputum or gastric aspirate (GA) sample, and patients are often undiagnosed and treated empirically. Stool is a noninvasive specimen not usually used for TB testing in Pakistan. We investigated the value of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in children with pulmonary TB cases, by performing comparative testing of GA and stool samples...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#20
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
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