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Beclin 1

Haoyuan Jia, Zhaofeng Liang, Xu Zhang, Juanjuan Wang, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
Autophagy is a cell digestion process that determines cell fate by promoting cell survival or inducing cell death in a cell context-dependent manner. Several classical signaling pathways, such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin, tightly regulate autophagy. 14-3-3 proteins regulate various signaling pathways by phosphorylation-dependent binding with partner proteins. 14-3-3 proteins also regulate autophagy by binding with autophagy-related proteins such as Beclin-1 and hVPS34. This review summarizes the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the control of autophagy in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and other pathological conditions...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Fei-Juan Kong, Lei-Lei Ma, Jun-Jie Guo, Lin-Hao Xu, Yun Li, Shen Qu
Diabetes mellitus is a significant global public health problem depicting a rising prevalence worldwide. As a serious complication of diabetes, diabetes-associated cognitive decline is attracting increasing attention. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully determined. Both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy have been reported to modulate neuronal survival and death and be associated with several neurodegenerative diseases...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
Pei Jiang, Yujin Guo, Ruili Dang, Mengqi Yang, Dehua Liao, Huande Li, Zhen Sun, Qingyan Feng, Pengfei Xu
BACKGROUND: The NLRP3 inflammasome activation and neuroinflammation are known to be involved in the pathology of depression, whereas autophagy has multiple effects on immunity, which is partly mediated by the regulation of inflammasome and clearance of proinflammatory cytokines. Given the emerging evidence that autophagy dysfunction plays an essential role in depression, it is very likely that autophagy may interact with the inflammatory process in the development and treatment of depression...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Hsuan-Wen Chiu, Yu-Chin Su, Jiann-Ruey Hong
The betanodavirus B2 protein targets the mitochondria and acts as a "death factor", but its effect on lung cancer cells is unknown. We examined the effect of the B2 protein on triggering apoptosis or necroptosis via P53-dependent and P53-independent pathways and increased in suppression of autophagy. The B2 protein targets the mitochondria of A549 (P53+/+) and H1299 (P53-/-) lung cancer cells due to a specific signal sequence (41RTFVISAHAA50). This triggers generation of reactive oxygen species within the mitochondria, and a minor stress response in A549 cells, but a strong stress response in H1299 cells...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Shu-Chuan Lin, Pei-Yi Chu, Wan-Ting Liao, Meng-Yu Wu, Kuan-Hao Tsui, Li-Te Lin, Chih-Hao Huang, Li-Li Chen, Chia-Jung Li
Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), the main component of licorice root extracts, has been shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in various types of cancers. However, the molecular mechanism of its anticancer activity remains poorly understood and warrants further investigation. MDA-MB‑231 cells were treated with various concentrations of GA and the cytotoxic effects of GA were determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle status were detected by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (∆Ψm) were assessed using DCFDA, MitoSOX and JC-1 staining...
November 29, 2017: Oncology Reports
Xian-Ling Guo, Fei Hu, Hui Wang, Jue-Min Fang, Zhong-Ζheng Zhu, Li-Χin Wei, Qing Xu
Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent process involved in protein and organelle degradation. It has been suggested that autophagy is activated in nutrient-deficient condition and plays an important role in protecting cells from nutrient shortage. However, the effect of autophagy on chemotherapy during nutrient deficiency has been rarely researched. In the present study, we discovered that hepatocarcinoma cells exhibit chemoinsensitivity accompanied by the activation of autophagy when cultured in nutrient-deprived medium...
November 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
Yudi Han, Lihai Zhang, Yaling Xing, Licheng Zhang, Xiaojuan Chen, Peifu Tang, Zhongbin Chen
Autophagy may be a major mechanism by which osteoblasts (OBs) protect against the negative effects of chronic glucocorticoid (GC) usage. OBs are closely associated with the remodeling that occurs in GC‑induced osteoporosis (GIO). In osteocytes, in response to stress induced by GCs, several pathways are activated, including cell necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy. However, the role of autophagy in OBs following treatment with excess GCs has not been addressed. In the current study, confocal microscopy observation of green fluorescent protein‑microtubule‑associated protein 1 light chain 3β (LC3) punctuate, and western blotting for LC3Ⅱ and Beclin 1 were performed for detection of autophagy in the MC3T3‑E1 osteoblastic cell line...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Feng Tang, Tian-Lun Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of ECs function and play a vital role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Among them, miR-126 is a crucial regulator of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cells (ECs) death and autophagy have been described in cells to cope with the progression of atherosclerosis. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of miR-126 on atherosclerosis in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the potential roles of autophagy flux in these processes...
December 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Xiao-Cheng Li, Qi-Kuan Hu, Ling Chen, Si-Yang Liu, Shi Su, Hong Tao, Lin-Na Zhang, Tao Sun, Lan-Jie He
Although autophagy has been proposed to play an emerging role in diabetic neuropathy, autophagy and its possible role remains unclear. Moreover, only few studies about diabetes have explored the autophagy mediated by heat shock protein beta-8 (HSPB8) and Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3). In the present study, we examined the autophagy induced by high glucose levels in an in vivo rat model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and an in vitro model of retinal ganglion cell-5 (RGC5) cells under high glucose conditions...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Geetika Garg, Sandeep Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) is a rich source of sulfur-containing amino acids and is consumed as a functional food, incorporating a wide range of nutritional attributes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of WPC on rat brain during aging. Young (4 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC (300 mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), lipid hydroperoxide (LHP), total thiol (T-SH), protein carbonyl (PC), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) were measured in brain of control and experimental groups...
December 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Soojin Kim, Seung Yun Han, Kwang Sik Yu, Daewon Han, Hyo-Ju Ahn, Jae-Eun Jo, Jin-Hoi Kim, Jongdae Shin, Hwan-Woo Park
Chronic exposure to hydrophobic bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) in the liver during cholestasis causes hepatotoxicity and inflammatory response. However, the detailed mechanisms regarding the role of autophagy in cholestatic hepatotoxicity remain largely unknown. Here we determined autophagic clearance in livers of bile duct-ligated mice, in which bile acids accumulate, and in human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with CDCA and CA. The accumulation of bile acids caused defective autophagic clearance, shown by the accumulation of insoluble p62 and ubiquitinated proteins and cell death accompanied by caspase-3 processing...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ying Liu, Yan Zhang, Jilong Zou, Lixin Yan, Xiufeng Yu, Peng Lu, Xiaomeng Wu, Qiaozhi Li, Rui Gu, Daling Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone tissue. Although treatment effectiveness has improved, the OS survival rate has fluctuated in recent years. Andrographolide (AG) has been reported to have antitumor activity against a variety of tumors. Our aim was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of AG in human osteosarcoma. METHODS: Cell viability and morphological changes were assessed by MTT and live/dead assays...
November 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Xiao-Yu Cheng, Si-Yue Li, Cheng-Jie Mao, Mei-Xia Wang, Jing Chen, Fen Wang, Guang-Hui Wang, Wen-Bin Deng, Xiao-Kang Li, Chun-Feng Liu
Serum response factor (SRF), a transcription factor highly expressed in neurons, is involved in neuronal survival and the pathogenesis of some neurodegenerative disorders. The ablation of SRF renders the midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons vulnerable to 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report decreased SRF levels in the substantia nigra (SN) of rotenone-treated rats that was associated with the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons...
November 28, 2017: Neuroscience
Klára Megyeri, László Orosz, Szilvia Bolla, Lilla Erdei, Zsolt Rázga, György Seprényi, Edit Urbán, Kornélia Szabó, Lajos Kemény
Propionibacterium acnes is a dominant member of the cutaneous microbiota. Herein, we evaluate the effects of different P. acnes strains and propionic acid on autophagy in keratinocytes. Our results showed that P. acnes strain 889 altered the architecture of the mitochondrial network, elevated the levels of LC3B-II, Beclin-1 and phospho-AMPKα, stimulated autophagic flux, facilitated intracellular redistribution of LC3B, increased average number of autophagosomes per cell, and enhanced development of acidic vesicular organelles in the HPV-KER cell line...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Chih-Wen Lin, Chih-Che Lin, Po-Huang Lee, Gin-Ho Lo, Pei-Min Hsieh, Kah Wee Koh, Chih-Yuan Lee, Yao-Li Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Jee-Fu Huang, Wang-Long Chuang, Yaw-Sen Chen, Ming-Lung Yu
The remnant liver's ability to regenerate may affect post-hepatectomy immediate mortality. The promotion of autophagy post-hepatectomy could enhance liver regeneration and reduce mortality. This study aimed to identify predictive factors of immediate mortality after surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 535 consecutive HCC patients who had undergone their first surgical resection in Taiwan were enrolled between 2010 and 2014. Clinicopathological data and immediate mortality, defined as all cause-mortality within three months after surgery, were analyzed...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Hossein Zeinali, Mehrdad Roghani
Inflammation is a common hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders. Systemic inflammation is usually associated with cognitive deficits. Scutellarin is a flavone with established antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, the effect of this flavone in prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive deficit was evaluated. LPS was i.p. injected at a dose of 500μg/kg/day and scutellarin was administered i.p. at doses of 5, 25, or 50mg/kg/day. Treatment of LPS-injected rats with scutellarin dose-dependently ameliorated deficits of spatial recognition memory in Y maze, discrimination index in novel object discrimination task, and retention and recall index in passive avoidance test...
November 27, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
Fahd Boutouja, Rebecca Brinkmeier, Thomas Mastalski, Fouzi El Magraoui, Harald W Platta
Autophagy contributes to cellular homeostasis through the degradation of various intracellular targets such as proteins, organelles and microbes. This relates autophagy to various diseases such as infections, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. A central component of the autophagy machinery is the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex, which generates the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The catalytic subunit of this complex is the lipid-kinase VPS34, which associates with the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the multivalent adaptor protein BECLIN 1...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew J Ranaghan, Michael A Durney, Michael F Mesleh, Patrick R McCarren, Colin W Garvie, Douglas S Daniels, Kimberly L Carey, Adam P Skepner, Beth Levine, José Perez
Beclin-1 (BECN1) is an essential component of macroautophagy. This process is a highly-conserved survival mechanism that recycles damaged cellular components or pathogens by encasing them in a bilayer vesicle that fuses with a lysosome to enable degradation of the vesicular contents. Mutations or altered expression profiles of BECN1 have been linked to various cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Viruses, including HIV and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1), are also known to specifically target BECN1 as a means to evade host defense mechanisms...
November 29, 2017: Biochemistry
Yang Yu, Xiuquan Wu, Jingnan Pu, Peng Luo, Wenke Ma, Jiu Wang, Jialiang Wei, Yuanxin Wang, Zhou Fei
Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum, which exhibits several beneficial effects, including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anti-oxidation. However, the mechanism by which LBP protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury remains obscure. In this study, we found that LBP pretreatment greatly attenuated oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. LBP also suppressed OGD/R-induced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and ameliorated oxidative stress...
November 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Nicole O Moura-Martiniano, Erik Machado-Ferreira, Gilberto S Gazêta, Carlos Augusto Gomes Soares
Ticks endure stressful off-host periods and perform as vectors of a diversity of infectious agents, thus engaging pathways that expectedly demand for autophagy. Little is known of ticks' autophagy, a conserved eukaryotic machinery assisting in homeostasis processes that also participates in tissue-dependent metabolic functions. Here, the autophagy-related ATG4 (autophagin-1), ATG6 (beclin-1) and ATG8 (LC3) mRNAs from the human diseases vector Amblyomma sculptum and the cattle-tick Rhipicephalus microplus were identified...
November 27, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
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