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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036763/effect-of-treadmill-exercise-on-skeletal-muscle-autophagy-in-rats-with-obesity-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet
#1
Do Keun Cho, Dong Hun Choi, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on body weight, blood biochemistry, and autophagy. METHODS: Triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and glucose levels were measured, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score was calculated, and the soleus muscle was analyzed for autophagy-related factors (Beclin-1, p62, LC3, Lamp-2) in rats with obesity induced by a high-fat diet...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036202/toxoplasma-gondii-induces-fak-src-stat3-signaling-during-infection-of-host-cells-that-prevents-parasite-targeting-by-autophagy
#2
Jose-Andres C Portillo, Luis Muniz-Feliciano, Yalitza Lopez Corcino, So Jung Lee, Jennifer Van Grol, Sarah J Parsons, William P Schiemman, Carlos S Subauste
Targeting of Toxoplasma gondii by autophagy is an effective mechanism by which host cells kill the protozoan. Thus, the parasite must avoid autophagic targeting to survive. Here we show that the mammalian cytoplasmic molecule Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) becomes activated during invasion of host cells. Activated FAK appears to accompany the formation of the moving junction (as assessed by expression the parasite protein RON4). FAK activation was inhibited by approaches that impaired β1 and β3 integrin signaling...
October 16, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034233/role-of-cardiolipin-in-mitochondrial-signaling-pathways
#3
REVIEW
Jan Dudek
The phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) is an essential constituent of mitochondrial membranes and plays a role in many mitochondrial processes, including respiration and energy conversion. Pathological changes in CL amount or species composition can have deleterious consequences for mitochondrial function and trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. Signaling networks monitor mitochondrial function and trigger an adequate cellular response. Here, we summarize the role of CL in cellular signaling pathways and focus on tissues with high-energy demand, like the heart...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024631/luteoloside-induces-g0-g1-arrest-and-pro-death-autophagy-through-the-ros-mediated-akt-mtor-p70s6k-signalling-pathway-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#4
Menglu Zhou, Shuying Shen, Xin Zhao, Xingguo Gong
Autophagy has attracted a great deal of interest in tumour therapy research in recent years. However, the anticancer effect of luteoloside, a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Gentiana macrophylla, on autophagy remains poorly understood in human lung cells. In the present study, we have investigated the anticancer effects of luteoloside on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and demonstrated that luteoloside effectively inhibited cancer cell proliferation, inducing G0/G1phase arrest associated with reduced expression of CyclinE, CyclinD1 and CDK4; we further found that treatment with luteoloside did not strongly result in apoptotic cell death in NSCLC (A549 and H292) cells...
October 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022195/high-lc3-beclin-expression-correlates-with-poor-survival-in-glioma-a-definitive-role-for-autophagy-as-evidenced-by-in-vitro-autophagic-flux
#5
Padmakrishnan Cj, Easwer Hv, Vinod Vijayakurup, Girish R Menon, Suresh Nair, Srinivas Gopala
Recent studies suggest the role of autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process, in determining the response of gliomas to treatment either positively or negatively. The study attempts to characterize autophagy in low and high-grade glioma by investigating the autophagic flux and clinical significance of autophagy proteins (LC3 and beclin 1) in a group of glioma patients. We evaluated the expression of autophagic markers in resected specimens of low-grade glioma (LGG) and high-grade glioma (HGG) tissues, by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
October 11, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019078/chitosan-zn-chelate-downregulates-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signal-pathway-of-inflammatory-response-and-cell-death-associated-proteins-compared-to-inorganic-zinc
#6
Luansha Hu, Saisai Cheng, Yuan Li, Shijie Geng, Yuanfei Ma, Xinyan Han
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of chitosan-zinc chelate (CS-Zn) on TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway and cell death-associated proteins in a weanling pig model. A total of 90 weaned piglets were allotted to three dietary treatments (the dietary treatments were as follows: (1) experimental diet with supplemental ZnSO4 (150 mg Zn/kg diet), (2) experimental diet with supplemental CS-Zn (150 mg Zn/kg diet), and (3) experimental diet with a supplemental mixture of chitosan and ZnSO4 (150 mg/kg Zn; the content of chitosan was equal to CS-Zn, which is according to molar basis))...
October 10, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993461/brucella-abortus-promotes-a-fibrotic-phenotype-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-with-concomitant-autophagy-pathway-activation
#7
Paula Constanza Arriola Benitez, Ayelén Ivana Pesce Viglietti, Claudia Karina Herrmann, Vida A Dennis, Diego José Comerci, Guillermo Hernán Giambartolomei, María Victoria Delpino
The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. The present study demonstrates that B. abortus infection induces the activation of the autophagic pathway in hepatic stellate cells to create a microenvironment that promote a profibrogenic phenotype through the induction of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagen deposition and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion. Autophagy was revealed by up-regulation of the LC3II/LC3I ratio and beclin-1 expression as well as inhibition of p62 expression in infected cells...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993455/ehrlichia-activation-of-wnt-pi3k-mtor-signaling-inhibits-autolysosome-generation-and-autophagic-destruction-by-the-mononuclear-phagocyte
#8
Taslima T Lina, Tian Luo, Thangam-Sudha Velayutham, Seema Das, Jere W McBride
In multicellular organisms, autophagy is induced as an innate defense mechanism. Notably, the obligate intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, resides in early endosome-like vacuoles and circumvents lysosomal fusion through an unknown mechanism, thereby avoiding destruction in the autophagolysosome. In this study, we reveal that Wnt signaling plays a crucial role in inhibition of lysosomal fusion and autolysosomal destruction of ehrlichiae. During early infection, autophagosomes fuse with ehrlichial vacuoles to form an amphisome indicated by presence of autophagy markers such as LC3, Beclin-1 and p62...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990778/benzo-a-pyrene-induces-autophagic-and-pyroptotic-death-simultaneously-in-hl-7702-human-normal-liver-cells
#9
Li Yuan, Junyi Liu, Hong Deng, Chunxia Gao
As a common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound, benzo(α)pyrene (BaP) is readily produced in processing of oil and fatty foods. It is not only a strong carcinogen, but also a substance with strong immunotoxicity and reproduction toxicity. Autophagy and pyroptosis are two types of programmed cell death. Whether or not BaP damages body tissues via autophagy or pyroptosis remains unknown. The present study investigated the effects of BaP on autophagy and pyroptosis in HL-7702 cells. The results showed that BaP induced cell death in HL-7702 cells, enhanced the intracellular levels of ROS, arrested cell cycle at the S phase...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989537/effect-of-inhibiting-beclin-1-expression-on-autophagy-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Lin Liu, Wei-Min Zhao, Xin-Hui Yang, Zhen-Qiang Sun, Hui-Zhen Jin, Cheng Lei, Bo Jin, Hai-Jiang Wang
The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms and effect of Beclin-1 on autophagy, proliferation and apoptosis in the colorectal cancer (CRC) HCT116 and SW620 cells. Beclin-1 was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in HTC116 and SW620 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot were used to measure the expression of Beclin-1. The percentage of apoptotic cells was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry (FCM). Cell cycle and cell proliferation were analyzed by FCM and the MTT assay...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985493/kaempferol-alleviates-ox-ldl-induced-apoptosis-by-up-regulation-of-autophagy-via-inhibiting-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway-in-human-endothelial-cells
#11
Jianbo Che, Bing Liang, Yuan Zhang, Yi Wang, Jianyu Tang, Gongning Shi
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) has been reported to induce apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) and contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. Kaempferol has been shown to possess antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of kaempferol on ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its possible molecular basis. The results showed that kaempferol alleviated ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. Kaempferol increased the ratio of LC3-II/I and beclin-1 level in ox-LDL-induced HUVECs...
August 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984290/role-of-autophagy-in-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-induced-cell-death-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#12
Y Furukawa, A Takasu, Y Yura
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widely studied viruses for oncolytic virotherapy. In squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells, the role of autophagy induced by neurovirulence gene-deficient HSV-1s in programmed cell death has not yet been elucidated. The oncolytic HSV-1 strain RH2, which lacks the γ34.5 gene and induces the fusion of human SCC cells, was used. RH2 replicated and induced cell death in SCC cells. RH2 infection was accompanied by the aggregation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cytoplasm, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the formation of double-membrane vacuoles containing cell contents...
October 6, 2017: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983604/sanggenon%C3%A2-c-protects-against-cardiomyocyte-hypoxia-injury-by-increasing-autophagy
#13
Yang Gu, Lu Gao, Yu Chen, Zhuo Xu, Kun Yu, Dongying Zhang, Gang Zhang, Xiwen Zhang
Sanggenon C is isolated from Morus alba, a plant that has been used for anti‑inflammatory purposes in Oriental medicine. Little is known about the effect of Sanggenon C on cardiomyocyte hypoxia injury. This study, using H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts, was designed to determine the effects of Sanggenon C on cardiomyocyte hypoxia injury. Inflammatory cytokine levels were measured by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, reactive oxygen species were measured by 2',7'‑dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescent probe, autophagy was detected using the LC3II/I ratio and cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983596/cisd2-promotes-the-proliferation-of-glioma-cells-via-suppressing-beclin%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-mediated-autophagy-and-is-targeted-by-microrna%C3%A2-449a
#14
Ai-Gang Sun, Fan-Guo Meng, Ming-Guang Wang
CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2) has been found to be important in carcinogenesis. However, the role of CISD2 in glioma remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of CISD2 in glioma using the reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, co‑immunoprecipitation assay, immunofluorescence staining and other methods. The results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of CISD2 were found to be upregulated in glioma tissues, compared with the levels in matched normal tissues...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983594/microrna%C3%A2-24%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-5p-promotes-malignant-melanoma-cell-autophagy-and-apoptosis-via-regulating-ubiquitin-d
#15
Yujuan Xiao, Qingchun Diao, Yanhua Liang, Yusheng Peng, Kang Zeng
The present study aimed to investigate the key roles and possible regulatory mechanism of microRNA (miR)‑24‑1‑5p in regulating the autophagy, and apoptosis of malignant melanoma cells. The expression levels of miR‑24‑1‑5p in malignant melanoma tissues were determined. Human melanoma A375 cells were transfected with miR‑24‑1‑5p mimic and control. The effects of miR‑24‑1‑5p overexpression on regulating the expressions of autophagy‑related proteins [microtubule‑associated protein 1A/1B‑light chain 3 (LC3)‑II, LC3‑I and Beclin‑1] and apoptosis‑related proteins [apoptosis regulator Bcl‑2 (Bcl‑2) and (BCL2 like 1) Bcl‑xL] were investigated...
September 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982601/mir-216b-enhances-the-efficacy-of-vemurafenib-by-targeting-beclin-1-uvrag-and-atg5-in-melanoma
#16
Meiying Luo, Longfei Wu, Kexin Zhang, Hong Wang, Sharon Wu, Douglas O'Connell, Tongtong Gao, Hanbing Zhong, Yongfei Yang
Autophagy maintains cells survival in many stressful conditions including starvation, growth factor deprivation and misfolded protein accumulation. Additionally, autophagic survival mechanisms are used by transformed tumor cells to inhibit cell death, limit drug effectiveness and possibly generate drug resistance. However, the mechanism of how cells utilize autophagy during drug resistance is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that miR-216b plays an important role in alleviating drug resistance by regulating autophagy in melanoma...
October 2, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982193/cysteamine-mediated-clearance-of-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens-in-human-cystic-fibrosis-macrophages
#17
Chandra L Shrestha, Kaivon D Assani, Hannah Rinehardt, Florentina Albastroiu, Shuzhong Zhang, Richard Shell, Amal O Amer, Larry S Schlesinger, Benjamin T Kopp
Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2), which causes the sequestration (accumulation) of essential autophagy initiating proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979699/autophagy-plays-a-protective-role-in-motor-neuron-degeneration-following-spinal-cord-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-spastic-paralysis
#18
Li Wang, Dongliang Feng, Yuan Liu, Sen Li, Long Jiang, Zaiyun Long, Yamin Wu
Spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion (SCIR) injury can lead to neurologic dysfunction and paraplegia, which are serious complications after shock or thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular process in eukaryotes, and homeostasis of autophagic activities in the cytoplasm is critical for the maintenance of neuronal function. To date, no studies have addressed the involvement of autophagy in the regulation of motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord area following SCIR-induced spastic paralysis or the underlying mechanisms of this process...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979680/low-concentration-of-chloroquine-enhanced-efficacy-of-cisplatin-in-the-treatment-of-human-ovarian-cancer-dependent-on-autophagy
#19
Jie Zhu, Ya Zheng, Haiyan Zhang, Jing Zhu, Hong Sun
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a common used anti-tumor drug in ovarian cancer therapy with potent effect. Studies have reported that autophagy works as a cell-survival process in cancer, chloroquine has been added to various chemotherapeutic drugs. In the current study, we aim to evaluate whether chloroquine can enhance the effects of cisplatin in treating ovarian cancer. METHODS: CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell viability. Transwell assay was used to examine cell migration and invasion...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978085/suppression-of-microrna-384-enhances-autophagy-of-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-in-asthmatic-mouse
#20
Zhe Cheng, Xi Wang, Lingling Dai, Liuqun Jia, Xiaogang Jing, Ying Liu, Huan Wang, Pengfei Li, Lin An, Meng Liu
Injury to airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells hallmarks the pathological progression of asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the development of asthma as well as airway remodeling. Here we studied the involvement of miRNAs in the regulation of autophagic survival of ASM cells and airway disorder. We analyzed autophagy-associated factors LC3 and Beclin-1 by RT-qPCR and protein blotting in purified airway smooth muscle cells from ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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