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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656210/micheliolide-alleviates-hepatic-steatosis-in-db-db-mice-by-inhibiting-inflammation-and-promoting-autophagy-via-ppar-%C3%AE-mediated-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-and-ampk-mtor-signaling
#1
Juan Zhong, Wangqiu Gong, Jing Chen, Yao Qing, Shuyue Wu, Hongbei Li, Chunxi Huang, Yihua Chen, Yuxian Wang, Zhaozhong Xu, Wenting Liu, HongYu Li, Haibo Long
The anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anticancer effects of micheliolide (MCL) isolated from Michelia champaca were previously reported, but its role and underlying mechanisms in relieving liver steatosis remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of MCL on hepatic steatosis using a db/db mouse model and lipid mixture (LM)-induced AML12 and LO2 cells. The body and liver weights, food consumption, lipid content and liver aminotransferase levels in serum, the lipid content and inflammatory cytokine levels in liver tissue, and the extent of hepatic steatosis in db/db mice were increased compared with those in db/m mice, and these increases were reversed by MCL treatment...
April 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656200/photoinduced-anticancer-activity-studies-of-iridium-iii-complexes-targeting-mitochondria-and-tubules
#2
Wen-Yao Zhang, Qian-Yan Yi, Yang-Jie Wang, Fan Du, Miao He, Bing Tang, Dan Wan, Yun-Jun Liu, Hong-Liang Huang
Three new iridium (III) complexes [Ir (ppy)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (1), [Ir (bzq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (2) and [Ir (piq)2 (ipbc)](PF6 ) (3) were designed and synthesized. All the complexes were tested for anticancer activity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole)-2,5-diphenyltetraazolium bromide (MTT) method. The complexes show no cytotoxic activity toward cancer BEL-7402, SGC-7901, Eca-109, A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells. However, upon irradiation with white light, the complexes display high cytotoxicity against BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 5...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655680/panduratin-a-induces-protective-autophagy-in-melanoma-via-the-ampk-and-mtor-pathway
#3
Siew-Li Lai, Mohd Rais Mustafa, Pooi-Fong Wong
BACKGROUND: Targeting autophagy is emerging as a promising strategy in cancer therapeutics in recent years. Autophagy can be modulated to drive cancer cell deaths that are notoriously resistant to apoptotic-inducing drugs. In addition, autophagy has been implicated as a prosurvival mechanism in mediating cancer chemoresistance. Our previous study has demonstrated that Panduratin A (PA), a plant-derived active compound exploits ER-stress-mediated apoptosis as its cytotoxic mechanism on melanoma...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652869/effect-of-sustained-hypoxia-on-autophagy-of-genioglossus-muscle-derived-stem-cells
#4
Dongsheng Zhang, Shanshan Jia, Hengkun Wang, Shengyun Huang, Lili Xiao, Li Ma, Guangping Liu, Kun Gong, Le Xu
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained hypoxia in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) impairs upper airway muscle activity, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. As autophagy acts as an important regulator under hypoxia stress, we performed an in vitro investigation of the effects of sustained hypoxia on autophagy of genioglossus muscle-derived stem cells (GG MDSC), an important component of the upper airway muscle. MATERIAL AND METHODS Genioglossus MDSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and identified by using immunofluorescence staining for CD34, Sca-1, and desmin...
April 13, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651246/lactone-component-from-ligusticum-chuanxiong-alleviates-myocardial-ischemia-injury-through-inhibiting-autophagy
#5
Gang Wang, Guoliang Dai, Jie Song, Maomao Zhu, Ying Liu, Xuefeng Hou, Zhongcheng Ke, Yuanli Zhou, Huihui Qiu, Fujing Wang, Nan Jiang, Xiaobin Jia, Liang Feng
The dysregulation of autophagy is associated with a series of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia injury. Lactone component from Ligusticum chuanxiong (LLC) is the major constituent of the traditional Chinese herb L. chuanxiong Hort., which has been reported to hold potential cardioprotective effects. In this study, to determine whether LLC protects the heart through regulation of autophagy, we explored the effects of LLC on cardioprotection and autophagy in myocardial ischemia injured rats and H9c2 cardiomyocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649627/overexpression-of-hipk2-attenuates-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats-by-modulating-apoptosis-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#6
Renbo Li, Jingbo Shang, Wei Zhou, Li Jiang, Donghui Xie, Guanjun Tu
HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining...
April 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649567/nrf2-signaling-and-autophagy-are-complementary-in-protecting-breast-cancer-cells-during-glucose-deprivation
#7
Alyssa Walker, Anju Singh, Ellen Tully, Juhyung Woo, Anne Le, Tu Nguyen, Shyam Biswal, Dipali Sharma, Edward Gabrielson
Autophagy can serve as a mechanism for survival of cells during nutrient deprivation by recycling cellular macromolecules and organelles transiently to provide essential metabolic substrates. However, autophagy itself causes metabolic stress to cells, and other cellular protective mechanisms likely cooperate with autophagy to promote cell survival during nutrient deprivation. In this study, we explored protective mechanisms in breast cancer cells in the setting of glucose deprivation. While breast cancer cells (MCF7 and T47D) survive in glucose-free medium for three days or more, autophagy is induced in this setting...
April 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649465/therapeutic-time-window-and-regulation-of-autophagy-by-mild-hypothermia-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#8
Feifei Song, Cen Guo, Yang Geng, Xuqing Wu, Wei Fan
Although recent studies have shown that mild hypothermia has neuroprotective effects on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the therapeutic time window of the therapy and the role of autophagy as a potential neuroprotective mechanism remain unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the appropriate time window of mild hypothermia and the regulation of autophagy during the treatment in a rat model of autologous blood-injected ICH injury. The rats were divided into Sham, normothermic (NT) and hypothermic (HT) groups...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630128/therapeutic-dosage-of-ozone-inhibits-autophagy-and-apoptosis-of-nerve-roots-in-a-chemically-induced-radiculoneuritis-rat-model
#9
M-Y Wu, C-Y Xing, J-N Wang, Y Li, X-W Lin, Z-J Fu
OBJECTIVE: Radiculoneuritis characterizes by the neurogenic pain along the back of patients. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of ozone on radiculoneuritis and the associated mechanisms in rat models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A chemical radiculoneuritis rat model was successfully established. The rats were divided into 3 groups, including radiculoneuritis Model rats group (Model group, n=18), Ozone therapy group (n=18), and Normal control group (n=18)...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627502/juglone-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-via-modulation-of-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathways-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#10
Peng Wang, Chang Gao, Wei Wang, Li-Ping Yao, Jing Zhang, Sun-Dong Zhang, Ji Li, Shao-Hong Fang, Yu-Jie Fu
Juglone (JG), a naturally-occurring naphthoquinone of Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) was shown to inhibit proliferation in various tumor types. However, the molecular mechanisms of JG on the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in HepG2 cells have not been examined. Herein, we investigated that JG could inhibit cell proliferation by induction of G2/M phase arrest. Also, occurrence of apoptosis was closely related with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the changes of apoptosis-related proteins after treatment with JG...
April 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625179/proteostasis-in-epicardial-versus-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-heart-failure-subjects-with-and-without-diabetes
#11
A Burgeiro, A C Fonseca, D Espinoza, L Carvalho, N Lourenço, M Antunes, E Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading cause of death and primary cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic population. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covers the heart's surface and is a source of biomolecules regulating heart and blood vessel physiology. The protective activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and autophagy allows the cardiomyocyte reticular network to restore energy and/or nutrient homeostasis and to avoid cell death. However, an excessive or prolonged UPR activation can trigger cell death...
April 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621758/targeting-mtor-by-cz415-inhibits-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#12
Jing Xie, Quan Li, Xi Ding, Yunyun Gao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: mTOR is an important therapeutic target for human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current study tested the anti-HNSCC cell activity by a mTOR kinase inhibitor CZ415. METHODS: HNSCC cells were treated with CZ415. Cell death was tested by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and MTT assay. Cell proliferation was tested by BrdU ELISA assay and [H3] thymidine incorporation assay, with apoptosis assayed by the TUNEL staining. A Western blotting assay was applied to test autophagy-associated proteins, mTOR and signalings...
March 29, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620258/autophagy-inhibition-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-eca%C3%A2-109-cells-via-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway
#13
Hua Tao, Pudong Qian, Jincheng Lu, Yesong Guo, Huanfeng Zhu, Feijiang Wang
Autophagy inhibition is crucial for the improvement of the efficacy of radiotherapy in cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the potential therapeutic value of autophagy and its correlation with mitochondria in human esophageal carcinoma cells following treatment with ionizing radiation (IR). Autophagy in Eca‑109 cells was induced under poor nutrient conditions. The formation of autophagic vacuoles was monitored using electron microscopy. In addition, cell apoptosis after IR and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were analyzed by flow cytometry...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620199/correlation-between-autophagy-levels-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-clinical-parameters-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Yanjun Wu, Bo Xu, Xin He, Bo Wu, Yunxiao Li, Ganggang Yu, Chunting Tan, Haoyan Wang
Autophagy serves a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of the present study was to compare the autophagy levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy individuals and to assess the association between autophagy and the clinical parameters of COPD. Samples of peripheral blood from 20 patients with stable COPD and 20 healthy controls were collected. PBMCs were harvested using Ficoll density gradient centrifugation...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620175/egfr%C3%A2-associated-pathways-involved-in-traditional-chinese-medicine-tcm-%C3%A2-1%C3%A2-induced-cell-growth-inhibition-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-prostate-cancer
#15
Zhaomeng Wu, Qingyi Zhu, Yu Zhang, Yingying Yin, Dan Kang, Runyi Cao, Qian Tian, Shan Lu, Ping Liu
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has the synergistic effect of the combination of a single ingredient and a monomer, and systemic and local therapeutic effects in cancer treatment, through which TCM is able to enhance the curative effect and reduce the side effects. The present study analyzed the effect of TCM‑1 (an anti‑cancer TCM) on prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines, and studied in detail the mechanism of cell death induced by TCM‑1 in vitro and in vivo. From the present results, it was identified for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that TCM‑1 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase, decreased cell viability and increased nuclear rupture in a dose‑dependent manner; these effects finally resulted in apoptosis in PCa cells...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617677/the-mtor-kinase-inhibitor-cz415-inhibits-human-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-cell-growth
#16
Xiaobin Li, Zongze Li, Yimin Song, Wenjing Liu, Ziwen Liu
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell progression. CZ415 is a novel, highly-efficient and specific mTOR kinase inhibitor. The current study tested the potential anti-tumor activity of CZ415 in human PTC cells. METHODS: The established (TPC-1 cell line) and primary human PTC cells were treated with CZ415. Cell survival and growth were tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and BrdU ELISA assay, respectively...
March 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616191/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-in-the-control-of-oxidative-stress-mitochondria-and-autophagy-in-cancer-a-maestro-with-a-large-orchestra
#17
REVIEW
Venturina Stagni, Claudia Cirotti, Daniela Barilà
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) plays a central role in the DNA damage response (DDR) and mutations in its gene lead to the development of a rare autosomic genetic disorder, ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) characterized by neurodegeneration, premature aging, defects in the immune response, and higher incidence of lymphoma development. The ability of ATM to control genome stability several pointed to ATM as tumor suppressor gene. Growing evidence clearly support a significant role of ATM, in addition to its master ability to control the DDR, as principle modulator of oxidative stress response and mitochondrial homeostasis, as well as in the regulation of autophagy, hypoxia, and cancer stem cell survival...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610308/increased-autophagy-blocks-her2-mediated-breast-tumorigenesis
#18
Silvia Vega-Rubín-de-Celis, Zhongju Zou, Álvaro F Fernández, Bo Ci, Min Kim, Guanghua Xiao, Yang Xie, Beth Levine
Allelic loss of the autophagy gene, beclin 1/BECN1 , increases the risk of patients developing aggressive, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive, breast cancers; however, it is not known whether autophagy induction may be beneficial in preventing HER2-positive breast tumor growth. We explored the regulation of autophagy in breast cancer cells by HER2 in vitro and the effects of genetic and pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy on HER2-driven breast cancer growth in vivo...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607508/activation-of-autophagy-in-periodontal-ligament-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-angiogenesis-in-periodontitis
#19
Wei Wei, Yulin An, Ying An, Dongdong Fei, Qintao Wang
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis alteration in tooth support tissue plays an essential role in periodontitis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs) through paracrine function. Autophagy is reported to be closely related to cell secretion. Here we investigated the angiogenesis-promoting ability of MSCs that reside in the periodontal ligament (known as periodontal ligament stem cells, PDLSCs) under inflammatory conditions in order to explore the mechanism of angiogenesis alteration in periodontitis...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607326/ischemic-preconditioning-promotes-autophagy-and-alleviates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#20
Ying Xie, Jing Xiao, Chensheng Fu, Zhenxing Zhang, Zhibin Ye, Xiaoli Zhang
Autophagy is important for cellular survival during renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has a strong renoprotective effect during renal I/R. Our study here aimed to explore the effect of IPC on autophagy during renal I/R injury. Rats were subjected to unilateral renal ischemia with or without prior IPC. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury was induced in HK-2 cells with or without prior hypoxic preconditioning (HPC). Autophagy and apoptosis were detected after reperfusion or reoxygenation for different time...
2018: BioMed Research International
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