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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#1
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887575/the-gut-microbiota-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats-showed-different-responses-to-chicken-protein-in-their-diet
#2
Yingying Zhu, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. METHODS: Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17...
November 25, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887564/the-drosophila-transcriptional-network-is-structured-by-microbiota
#3
Adam J Dobson, John M Chaston, Angela E Douglas
BACKGROUND: Resident microorganisms (microbiota) have far-reaching effects on the biology of their animal hosts, with major consequences for the host's health and fitness. A full understanding of microbiota-dependent gene regulation requires analysis of the overall architecture of the host transcriptome, by identifying suites of genes that are expressed synchronously. In this study, we investigated the impact of the microbiota on gene coexpression in Drosophila. RESULTS: Our transcriptomic analysis, of 17 lines representative of the global genetic diversity of Drosophila, yielded a total of 11 transcriptional modules of co-expressed genes...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885865/delivering-phage-therapy-per-os-benefits-and-barriers
#4
Susan Zelasko, Andrzej Gorski, Krystyna Dabrowska
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract pose a serious public health concern. High levels of antibiotic drug resistance, along with the potential for antibiotics to precipitate disease or alter the gut microbiome has prompted research into alternative treatment methods. Evidence suggests that bacteriophage therapy delivered per os may be well-suited to target such infections. Areas covered: Herein, we discuss the specific advantages and challenges of using orally administered phage therapy...
November 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881675/the-intestinal-copper-exporter-cua-1-is-required-for-systemic-copper-homeostasis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Haarin Chun, Anuj Kumar Sharma, Jaekwon Lee, Jefferson Chan, Shang Jia, Byung-Eun Kim
Copper (Cu) plays key catalytic and regulatory roles in biochemical processes essential for normal growth, development, and health. Defects in Cu metabolism cause Menkes and Wilson's disease, myeloneuropathy, and cardiovascular disease and are associated with other pathophysiological states. Consequently, it is critical to understand the mechanisms by which organisms control the acquisition, distribution, and utilization of Cu. The intestinal enterocyte is a key regulatory point for Cu absorption into the body, however the mechanisms by which intestinal cells transport Cu to maintain organismal Cu homeostasis are poorly understood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863247/a-dietary-fiber-deprived-gut-microbiota-degrades-the-colonic-mucus-barrier-and-enhances-pathogen-susceptibility
#6
Mahesh S Desai, Anna M Seekatz, Nicole M Koropatkin, Nobuhiko Kamada, Christina A Hickey, Mathis Wolter, Nicholas A Pudlo, Sho Kitamoto, Nicolas Terrapon, Arnaud Muller, Vincent B Young, Bernard Henrissat, Paul Wilmes, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Gabriel Núñez, Eric C Martens
Despite the accepted health benefits of consuming dietary fiber, little is known about the mechanisms by which fiber deprivation impacts the gut microbiota and alters disease risk. Using a gnotobiotic mouse model, in which animals were colonized with a synthetic human gut microbiota composed of fully sequenced commensal bacteria, we elucidated the functional interactions between dietary fiber, the gut microbiota, and the colonic mucus barrier, which serves as a primary defense against enteric pathogens. We show that during chronic or intermittent dietary fiber deficiency, the gut microbiota resorts to host-secreted mucus glycoproteins as a nutrient source, leading to erosion of the colonic mucus barrier...
November 17, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858930/environmental-spread-of-microbes-impacts-the-development-of-metabolic-phenotypes-in-mice-transplanted-with-microbial-communities-from-humans
#7
Li Zhang, Martin Iain Bahl, Henrik Munch Roager, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Lars I Hellgren, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Oluf Pedersen, Jens-Christian Holm, Torben Hansen, Tine Rask Licht
Microbiota transplantation to germ-free animals is a powerful method to study involvement of gut microbes in the aetiology of metabolic syndrome. Owing to large interpersonal variability in gut microbiota, studies with broad coverage of donors are needed to elucidate the establishment of human-derived microbiotas in mice, factors affecting this process and resulting impact on metabolic health. We thus transplanted faecal microbiotas from humans (16 obese and 16 controls) separately into 64 germ-free Swiss Webster mice caged in pairs within four isolators, with two isolators assigned to each phenotype, thereby allowing us to explore the extent of microbial spread between cages in a well-controlled environment...
November 18, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856417/the-probiotic-mixture-vsl-3-reduces-colonic-inflammation-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-in-muc2-mucin-deficient-mice
#8
Manish Kumar, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Aralia Leon Coria, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria. MUC2 deficiency results in impaired epithelial barrier function, imbalance in gut microbiota and spontaneous colitis. Use of probiotics has been shown to have protective effect against colitis. In this study we tested whether the probiotic mixture VSL#3 required an intact mucin barrier to exert its beneficial effect using Muc2 mucin deficient (Muc2(-/-)) and Muc2(+/+) littermates...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854317/modulating-the-gut-micro-environment-in-the-treatment-of-intestinal-parasites
#9
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Tessa Nikov, Isabelle Ibrahim, Sean Hall
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836763/weight-gain-by-gut-microbiota-manipulation-in-productive-animals
#10
REVIEW
Emmanouil Angelakis
Antibiotics, prebiotics and probiotics are widely used as growth promoters in agriculture. In the 1940s, use of Streptomyces aureofaciens probiotics resulted in weight gain in animals, which led to the discovery of chlortetracycline. Tetracyclines, macrolides, avoparcin and penicillins have been commonly used in livestock agriculture to promote growth through increased food intake, weight gain, and improved herd health. Prebiotic supplements including oligosaccharides, fructooligosaccharides, and galactosyl-lactose improve the growth performance of animals...
November 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#11
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814521/the-central-nervous-system-and-the-gut-microbiome
#12
REVIEW
Gil Sharon, Timothy R Sampson, Daniel H Geschwind, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Neurodevelopment is a complex process governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic signals. While historically studied by researching the brain, inputs from the periphery impact many neurological conditions. Indeed, emerging data suggest communication between the gut and the brain in anxiety, depression, cognition, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The development of a healthy, functional brain depends on key pre- and post-natal events that integrate environmental cues, such as molecular signals from the gut...
November 3, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801835/dietary-gluten-induced-gut-dysbiosis-is-accompanied-by-selective-upregulation-of-micrornas-with-intestinal-tight-junction-and-bacteria-binding-motifs-in-rhesus-macaque-model-of-celiac-disease
#13
Mahesh Mohan, Cheryl-Emiliane T Chow, Caitlin N Ryan, Luisa S Chan, Jason Dufour, Pyone P Aye, James Blanchard, Charles P Moehs, Karol Sestak
The composition of the gut microbiome reflects the overall health status of the host. In this study, stool samples representing the gut microbiomes from 6 gluten-sensitive (GS) captive juvenile rhesus macaques were compared with those from 6 healthy, age- and diet-matched peers. A total of 48 samples representing both groups were studied using V4 16S rRNA gene DNA analysis. Samples from GS macaques were further characterized based on type of diet administered: conventional monkey chow, i.e., wheat gluten-containing diet (GD), gluten-free diet (GFD), barley gluten-derived diet (BOMI) and reduced gluten barley-derived diet (RGB)...
October 28, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798832/soy-and-gut-microbiota-interaction-and-implication-for-human-health
#14
Haiqiu Huang, Hari B Krishnan, Quynhchi Pham, Liangli Lucy Yu, Thomas T Y Wang
Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the U.S. and soy foods are gaining popularity due to its reported health promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health promoting/disease preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793228/microbes-and-oxytocin-benefits-for-host-physiology-and-behavior
#15
S E Erdman, T Poutahidis
It is now understood that gut bacteria exert effects beyond the local boundaries of the gastrointestinal tract to include distant tissues and overall health. Prototype probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri has been found to upregulate hormone oxytocin and systemic immune responses to achieve a wide array of health benefits involving wound healing, mental health, metabolism, and myoskeletal maintenance. Together these display that the gut microbiome and host animal interact via immune-endocrine-brain signaling networks...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792146/piceatannol-exerts-anti-obesity-effects-in-c57bl-6-mice-through-modulating-adipogenic-proteins-and-gut-microbiota
#16
Yen-Chen Tung, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Hong-Jhang Chen, Shen-Chieh Chou, An-Chin Cheng, Nagabhushanam Kalyanam, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Obesity is a global health concern. Piceatannol (Pic), an analog of resveratrol (Res), has many reported biological activities. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Pic in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese animal model. The results showed that Pic significantly reduced mouse body weight in a dose-dependent manner without affecting food intake. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and blood glucose (GLU) were significantly lowered in Pic-treated groups...
October 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789760/the-evidence-for-microbiome-manipulation-in-inflammatory-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Hannah Jethwa, Sonya Abraham
The human body consists of millions of commensal bacteria (the microbiome), with the intestinal tract being the most prevalent site of colonization. This colonization process begins at birth, and despite numerous factors such as ageing, diet and drug use affecting the microbiome make-up, by adulthood the composition of the gut bacteria is relatively consistent across local populations. The recent advent of new scientific techniques has enabled us to explore how the microbiome affects health and, in particular, has shed light on the involvement of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease...
October 27, 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787576/-gut-microbiome-and-major-depressive-disorder-the-other-side-of-ourselves
#18
A Manook, A Hiergeist, R Rupprecht, T C Baghai
Microbiological ecology and its ambition to describe the complete genome of complex living communities as a whole, have given us powerful tools to characterize the human gut microbiome on a genetic and, hence, taxonomic and abundance level; for a decade now, they have become sufficiently inexpensive, fast and feasible. Thus, opportunities arose to have a fresh and closer look at the microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its impact on human health; this axis comprises a complex multisystemic network of multidirectional interactions between brain and gut including influences beyond one generation...
October 27, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783988/kinetic-changes-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-course-of-intestinal-sensitization
#19
Liang Xiao, Bo Yang, Xiaoyu Liu, Yan Luo, Qiongmei Ji, Zhong Wen, Zhigang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Food allergy (FA) is an adverse immune response to certain innocent food. It is estimated about 2% to 6% of the general population suffer from FA. Symptoms of a food allergic reaction may involve the gastrointestinal tract or/and other organs. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in diet-induced health problems. Whether the changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota regulate allergic responses to food remains poorly understood. Thus, we created an FA animal model, sequenced the V4-V5 regions of 16S rRNA genes to characterize the genera abundance of gut microbiota...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769291/unusual-sub-genus-associations-of-faecal-prevotella-and-bacteroides-with-specific-dietary-patterns
#20
Francesca De Filippis, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Luca Laghi, Marco Gobbetti, Danilo Ercolini
BACKGROUND: Diet has a recognized effect in shaping gut microbiota. Many studies link an increase in Prevotella to high-fibre diet, while Bacteroides abundance is usually associated with the consumption of animal fat and protein-rich diets. Nevertheless, closely related species and strains may harbour different genetic pools; therefore, further studies should aim to understand whether species of the same genus are consistently linked to dietary patterns or equally responsive to diet variations...
October 21, 2016: Microbiome
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