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Animal gut health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631826/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-red-pepper-schinus-terebinthifolius-raddi-essential-oil-on-performance-small-intestinal-morphology-and-microbial-counts-of-weanling-pigs
#1
Pedro Leon Gomes Cairo, Franz Dias Gois, Maicon Sbardella, Hebert Silveira, Roberto Maciel de Oliveira, Ivan Bezerra Allaman, Vinicius Souza Cantarelli, Leandro Batista Costa
BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been developed to improve intestinal health and performance of newly weaned piglets as the antibiotic growth promoters. Natural products such as essential oils have been scientifically recognized as growth enhancer feed additives for weanling pigs, replacing the antibiotics. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that Brazilian red pepper could replace performance-enhancing antibiotics also in weanling pig diets. However, one experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil or antimicrobial growth promoter on intestinal health and growth performance of weanling pigs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#2
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611740/the-shift-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-the-innate-immunity-deficient-mutant-rde-1-strain-of-c-elegans-upon-orsay-virus-infection
#3
Yuanyuan Guo, Zhe Xun, Stephanie R Coffman, Feng Chen
The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host-virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 (ne219) strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 (ne219) mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 (ne219) mutant animals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604414/dietary-iron-and-heme-iron-consumption-genetic-susceptibility-and-risk-of-crohn-s-disease-and-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Hamed Khalili, Punyanganie S de Silva, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Paul Lochhead, Amit Joshi, John J Garber, James R Richter, Jenny Sauk, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND: Dietary iron and heme, likely through their effect on gut commensal bacteria and colonic barrier function, have been shown to modulate colonic inflammation in animal models of colitis. Nonetheless, the link between dietary total and heme iron and risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) has not been previously explored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 165,331 U.S. women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II...
July 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595274/antibiotics-in-16-day-old-broilers-temporarily-affect-microbial-and-immune-parameters-in-the-gut
#5
H J Wisselink, J B W J Cornelissen, D J Mevius, M A Smits, H Smidt, J M J Rebel
Animal health benefits from a stable intestinal homeostasis, for which proper development and functioning of the intestinal microbiota and immune system are essential. It has been established that changes in microbial colonization in early life (the first 2 wk post hatch) impacts the functioning of the adult gut and the associated crosstalk between microbiota and intestinal mucosal cells. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the administration of antibiotics later in life (d 15 to 20 post hatch) on microbiota and immune parameters...
June 8, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588430/gut-microbial-diversity-in-health-and-disease-experience-of-healthy-indian-subjects-and-colon-carcinoma-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-patients
#6
V Deepak Bamola, Arnab Ghosh, Raj Kishor Kapardar, Banwari Lal, Simrita Cheema, Priyangshu Sarma, Rama Chaudhry
Background: The intestinal microbiota, through complex interactions with the gut mucosa, play a key role in the pathogenesis of colon carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The disease condition and dietary habits both influence gut microbial diversity. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the gut microbial profile of healthy subjects and patients with colon carcinoma and IBD. Healthy subjects included 'Indian vegetarians/lactovegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, and 'Indian non-vegetarians', who eat plant produce, milk and milk products, certain meats and fish, and the eggs of certain birds and fish...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587316/bacteria-from-animals-as-a-pool-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#7
REVIEW
Maria Angeles Argudín, Ariane Deplano, Alaeddine Meghraoui, Magali Dodémont, Amelie Heinrichs, Olivier Denis, Claire Nonhoff, Sandrine Roisin
Antimicrobial agents are used in both veterinary and human medicine. The intensive use of antimicrobials in animals may promote the fixation of antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria, which may be zoonotic or capable to transfer these genes to human-adapted pathogens or to human gut microbiota via direct contact, food or the environment. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal health and explores the role of bacteria from animals as a pool of antimicrobial resistance genes for human bacteria...
June 6, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585938/genomics-and-metagenomics-of-trimethylamine-utilizing-archaea-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#8
Guillaume Borrel, Angela McCann, Jennifer Deane, Marta C Neto, Denise B Lynch, Jean-François Brugère, Paul W O'Toole
The biological significance of Archaea in the human gut microbiota is largely unclear. We recently reported genomic and biochemical analyses of the Methanomassiliicoccales, a novel order of methanogenic Archaea dwelling in soil and the animal digestive tract. We now show that these Methanomassiliicoccales are present in published microbiome data sets from eight countries. They are represented by five Operational Taxonomic Units present in at least four cohorts and phylogenetically distributed into two clades...
June 6, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579981/assessing-the-risk-of-probiotic-dietary-supplements-in-the-context-of-antibiotic-resistance
#9
Min Zheng, Ruijia Zhang, Xuechen Tian, Xuan Zhou, Xutong Pan, Aloysius Wong
Probiotic bacteria are known to harbor intrinsic and mobile genetic elements that confer resistance to a wide variety of antibiotics. Their high amounts in dietary supplements can establish a reservoir of antibiotic resistant genes in the human gut. These resistant genes can be transferred to pathogens that share the same intestinal habitat thus resulting in serious clinical ramifications. While antibiotic resistance of probiotic bacteria from food, human and animal sources have been well-documented, the resistant profiles of probiotics from dietary supplements have only been recently studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578061/effects-of-the-combination-of-%C3%AF-3-pufas-and-proanthocyanidins-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-healthy-rats
#10
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Eunice Molinar-Toribio, María Pilar Almajano, Lucía Méndez, Isabel Medina, Núria Taltavull, Marta Romeu, Maria Rosa Nogués, Josep Lluís Torres
ω-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and other pathologies that involve low-grade inflammation. They have recently been shown to exert complementary functional effects with proanthocyanidins. As the reduction of health-promoting gut bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been linked to a number of alterations in the host, the aim of this study was to determine whether PUFAs and proanthocyanidins also cooperate in maintaining well-balanced microbiota...
July 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577532/parasitic-outbreak-of-the-copepod-balaenophilus-manatorum-in-neonate-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta-from-a-head-starting-program
#11
J L Crespo-Picazo, D García-Parraga, F Domènech, J Tomás, F J Aznar, J Ortega, J M Corpa
BACKGROUND: Diseases associated to external parasitosis are scarcely reported in sea turtles. During the last decades several organism have been documented as a part of normal epibiont community connected to sea turtles. The copepod Balaenophilus manatorum has been cited as a part of epibiont fauna with some concern about its parasitic capacity. This study serves three purposes, i.e. (i) it sheds light on the type of life style that B. manatorum has developed with its hosts, particularly turtles; (ii) it makes a cautionary note of the potential health risks associated with B...
June 2, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567032/recurring-necrotic-enteritis-outbreaks-in-commercial-broiler-chicken-flocks-strongly-influence-toxin-gene-carriage-and-species-richness-in-the-resident-clostridium-perfringens-population
#12
Marie-Lou Gaucher, Gabriel G Perron, Julie Arsenault, Ann Letellier, Martine Boulianne, Sylvain Quessy
Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis. Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561758/lactobacillus-reuteri-i5007-modulates-intestinal-host-defense-peptide-expression-in-the-model-of-ipec-j2-cells-and-neonatal-piglets
#13
Hongbin Liu, Chengli Hou, Gang Wang, Hongmin Jia, Haitao Yu, Xiangfang Zeng, Philip A Thacker, Guolong Zhang, Shiyan Qiao
Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression...
May 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558975/critical-review-of-the-current-literature-on-the-safety-of-sucralose
#14
REVIEW
Bernadene A Magnuson, Ashley Roberts, Earle R Nestmann
Sucralose is a non-caloric high intensity sweetener that is approved globally for use in foods and beverages. This review provides an updated summary of the literature addressing the safety of use of sucralose. Studies reviewed include chemical characterization and stability, toxicokinetics in animals and humans, assessment of genotoxicity, and animal and human feeding studies. Endpoints evaluated include effects on growth, development, reproduction, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity and overall health status...
May 27, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550087/transcriptional-networks-in-rodent-models-support-a-role-for-gut-brain-communication-in-neurogenic-hypertension-a-review-of-the-evidence
#15
Jasenka Zubcevic, Ashley Baker, Christopher J Martyniuk
Hypertension (HTN) is the most prevalent condition observed in primary health care. Hypertension shows complex etiology, and neuroinflammation, overactive sympathetic drive, and the microbiome are associated with the disease. To obtain mechanistic perspective into neurogenic HTN, we first constructed a framework for transcriptional regulators of the disease using the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. This approach yielded a core group of 178 transcripts that are prevalent in HTN, including leptin and neuropeptide Y...
May 26, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539174/drug-metabolism-in-the-elderly-a-multifactorial-problem
#16
REVIEW
R H Waring, R M Harris, S C Mitchell
Whether or not an individual's drug metabolising capacity declines with advancing age is a vexing question. There is no clear evidence that drug metabolism itself ('the biologically-assisted chemical alteration of the administered parent molecule') is less efficient in healthy old age than at younger ages, whereas a decreased capacity may be associated with ill-health and frailty. However, elderly individuals do show a reduced enzyme induction capability and are less able to tolerate overdoses. It appears that the majority of deleterious clinical outcomes related to drug therapy in an elderly (usually ill or frail) population may be ascribed to various anatomical and physiological age-related changes...
June 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538678/effects-of-commercial-apple-varieties-on-human-gut-microbiota-composition-and-metabolic-output-using-an-in-vitro-colonic-model
#17
Athanasios Koutsos, Maria Lima, Lorenza Conterno, Mattia Gasperotti, Martina Bianchi, Francesca Fava, Urska Vrhovsek, Julie A Lovegrove, Kieran M Tuohy
Apples are a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of apple polyphenols escape absorption in the small intestine and together with non-digestible polysaccharides reach the colon, where they can serve as substrates for bacterial fermentation. Animal studies suggest a synergistic interaction between apple polyphenols and the soluble fiber pectin; however, the effects of whole apples on human gut microbiota are less extensively studied. Three commercial apple varieties-Renetta Canada, Golden Delicious and Pink Lady-were digested and fermented in vitro using a batch culture colonic model (pH 5...
May 24, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526080/post-weaning-diarrhea-in-pigs-risk-factors-and-non-colistin-based-control-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, John Morris Fairbrother, Francis Beaudry, Ann Letellier
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) is one of the most serious threats for the swine industry worldwide. It is commonly associated with the proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the pig intestine. Colistin, a cationic antibiotic, is widely used in swine for the oral treatment of intestinal infections caused by E. coli, and particularly of PWD. However, despite the effectiveness of this antibiotic in the treatment of PWD, several studies have reported high rates of colistin resistant E. coli in swine...
May 19, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510800/structural-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-bama-minipigs-in-response-to-treatment-with-a-growth-promoting-agent-salbutamol
#19
Chenyang Lu, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Dijun Zhang, Zuzhong Wang, Ye Li, Lingzhi Cheong, Chundan Zhang, Xiurong Su
Even though salbutamol (SAL) had remarkable effects on the enhancement of growth rate and carcass composition in different livestock species such as cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry, it was banned as a growth promoter because of its adverse effects on health. However, the specific mechanism by which salbutamol enhances growth efficiency remains unknown. In this study, Bama pigs were randomly allocated to receive salbutamol (5 mg/kg) for 30 or 60 days and were compared with untreated pigs. Pigs treated with salbutamol demonstrated enhanced growth rates and carcass composition; however, they showed deterioration in blood biochemical indices and organ development...
May 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503491/variation-in-the-distribution-of-putative-virulence-and-colonization-factors-in-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-different-categories-of-cattle
#20
María E Cáceres, Analía I Etcheverría, Daniel Fernández, Edgardo M Rodríguez, Nora L Padola
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogens of significant public health concern. Several studies have confirmed that cattle are the main reservoir of STEC in Argentina and other countries. Although Shiga toxins represent the primary virulence factors of STEC, the adherence and colonization of the gut are also important in the pathogenesis of the bacteria. The aim of this study was to analyze and to compare the presence of putative virulence factors codified in plasmid -katP, espP, subA, stcE- and adhesins involved in colonization of cattle -efa1, iha- in 255 native STEC strains isolated from different categories of cattle from different production systems...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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