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Animal gut health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341125/gut-microbiota-and-probiotics-novel-immune-system-modulators-in-myasthenia-gravis
#1
REVIEW
Elena Rinaldi, Alessandra Consonni, Elena Guidesi, Marina Elli, Renato Mantegazza, Fulvio Baggi
Gut microorganisms (microbiota) live in symbiosis with the host and influence human nutrition, metabolism, physiology, and immune development and function. The microbiota prevents pathogen infection to the host, and in turn the host provides a niche for survival. The alteration of gut bacteria composition (dysbiosis) could contribute to the development of immune-mediated diseases by influencing the immune system activation and driving the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to promote or counteract immune reactions...
January 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335694/the-seventh-biennial-berry-health-benefits-symposium
#2
EDITORIAL
Navindra P Seeram, Britt Burton-Freeman
Research advancing current scientific understanding of the health benefits of berries continues to increase. The Berry Health Benefits Symposium (BHBS) is a biennial meeting highlighting the most recent berry health benefits research from all over the world. Pismo Beach, California was the venue for the seventh biennial BHBS in 2017, and featured oral invited papers on heart health and healthy aging, gut/microbiome health, brain aging, inflammation, cancer prevention, berry special topics, technology and chemistry...
January 16, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331731/deoxynivalenol-gut-microbiota-and-immunotoxicity-a-potential-approach
#3
REVIEW
Yuxiao Liao, Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Andreas K Nüssler, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is the most frequent mycotoxin in grains and grain products. DON contamination in fodder and food is a serious threat for health, since it impairs the immune and gastrointestinal systems of both human and animals. Gut microbiota seems to play a more and more important part in human and animals' health according to related researches. Previous studies implied some associations among gut microbiota, DON and immune system. For example, DON affects immune system as well as the composition and abundance of gut microbiota, and the latter influences immune system as well...
January 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331526/valerate-production-by-megasphaera-elsdenii-isolated-from-pig-feces
#4
Shota Yoshikawa, Ryosuke Araoka, Yu Kajihara, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
Megasphaera elsdenii is able to produce several short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate. These SCFAs serve as an energy source for host animals and play an important role in gut health. In this study, M. elsdenii was isolated from pig feces that had been collected from two farms located in distinct areas of Japan. These M. elsdenii isolates were genotyped, and 7 representative strains were selected. When these 7 strains and M. elsdenii JCM 1772T were cultured with lactate for 24 h, all 7 strains produced valerate as a predominant SCFA...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325042/biochemistry-of-complex-glycan-depolymerisation-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#5
Didier Ndeh, Harry J Gilbert
The human gut microbiota (HGM) makes an important contribution to health and disease. It is a complex microbial community of trillions of microbes with a majority of its members represented within two phyla, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, although it also contains species of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Reflecting its importance, the HGM is sometimes referred to as an 'organ' as it performs functions analogous to systemic tissues within the human host. The major nutrients available to the HGM are host and dietary complex carbohydrates...
January 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321884/gut-microbiota-composition-is-associated-with-environmental-landscape-in-honey-bees
#6
Julia C Jones, Carmelo Fruciano, Falk Hildebrand, Hasan Al Toufalilia, Nicholas J Balfour, Peer Bork, Philipp Engel, Francis Lw Ratnieks, William Oh Hughes
There is growing recognition that the gut microbial community regulates a wide variety of important functions in its animal hosts, including host health. However, the complex interactions between gut microbes and environment are still unclear. Honey bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators that host a core gut microbial community that is thought to be constant across populations. Here, we examined whether the composition of the gut microbial community of honey bees is affected by the environmental landscape the bees are exposed to...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315906/antiobesity-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene
#7
REVIEW
Min-Hsiung Pan, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Ching-Shu Lai
Obesity is a current global epidemic that has led to a marked increase in metabolic diseases. However, its treatment remains a challenge. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which involves the dysfunction of neuropeptides, hormones, and inflammatory adipokines from the brain, gut, and adipose tissue. An understanding of the mechanisms and signal interactions in the crosstalk between organs and tissue in the coordination of whole-body energy metabolism would be helpful to provide therapeutic and putative approaches to the treatment and prevention of obesity and related complications...
January 5, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#8
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261035/zebrafish-axenic-larvae-colonization-with-human-intestinal-microbiota
#9
Nerea Arias-Jayo, Laura Alonso-Saez, Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Miguel A Pardo
The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota...
December 20, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250719/selenium-nanoparticles-in-poultry-feed-modify-gut-microbiota-and-increase-abundance-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii
#10
Sheeana Gangadoo, Ivan Dinev, James Chapman, Robert J Hughes, Thi Thu Hao Van, Robert J Moore, Dragana Stanley
The poultry industry aims to improve productivity while maintaining the health and welfare of flocks. Pathogen control has been achieved through biosecurity, vaccinations and the use of antibiotics. However, the emergence of antibiotic resistance, in animal and human pathogens, has prompted researchers and chicken growers alike to seek alternative approaches. The use of new and emerging approaches to combat pathogen activity including nanotechnology, in particular, silver nanoparticles (NPs), has been found to not only eradicate pathogenic bacteria but also include issues of toxicity and bioaccumulation effects...
December 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235693/porcine-intestinal-yeast-species-kazachstania-slooffiae-a-new-potential-protein-source-with-favourable-amino-acid-composition-for-animals
#11
V Urubschurov, K Büsing, W-B Souffrant, N Schauer, A Zeyner
There is little information about Kazachstania slooffiae which dominates among other yeasts in the pigs' intestine. Therefore, the aims of this study were to characterise the yeast cell contents and to investigate which nitrogen sources, organic acids and alcohols may be utilised or produced by this species. The results showed that, K. slooffiae could use urea, ammonium sulphate, peptides and single amino acids and produce thereby ethanol and formic acid. However, this yeast did not metabolise amino acids, lactic, butyric, propionic and acetic acids as sole carbon source...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233686/exercise-has-the-guts-how-physical-activity-may-positively-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-chronic-and-immune-based-diseases
#12
Roberto Codella, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi
Limited animal and human research findings suggests that exercise might have a beneficial role for health gut. Cardiorespiratory fitness has been correlates with health-associated gut parameters such as taxonomic diversity and richness. Physical exercise may augment intestinal microbial diversity through several mechanisms INCLUDING PROMOTION OF AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STATE. Disease-associated microbial functions WERE linked to distinct taxa in previous studies of familial type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). An integrated multi-approach in the study of T1D, including physical exercise, is advocated...
November 28, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229735/oral-application-of-recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-spores-to-dogs-results-in-a-humoral-response-against-specific-echinococcus-granulosus-paramyosin-and-tropomyosin-antigens
#13
Cédric M Vogt, Maria Teresa Armúa-Fernández, Kurt Tobler, Monika Hilbe, Claudio Aguilar, Mathias Ackermann, Peter Deplazes, Catherine Eichwald
Bacillus subtilis is known as an endospore- and biofilm-forming bacterium with probiotic properties. We have recently developed a method for displaying heterologous proteins on the surface of B. subtilis biofilms by introducing the coding sequences of the protein of interest into the bacterial genome to generate a fusion protein linked to the C-terminus of the biofilm matrix protein TasA. Although B. subtilis is a regular component of the gut microflora, we constructed a series of recombinant B. subtilis strains that were tested for their ability to immunize dogs following oral application of the spores...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228991/the-rumen-microbiome-as-a-reservoir-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-pathogenicity-genes-is-directly-affected-by-diet-in-beef-cattle
#14
Marc D Auffret, Richard J Dewhurst, Carol-Anne Duthie, John A Rooke, R John Wallace, Tom C Freeman, Robert Stewart, Mick Watson, Rainer Roehe
BACKGROUND: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the most urgent current threat to human and animal health. An improved understanding of the abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes associated with microbial colonisation and pathogenicity in the animal gut will have a major role in reducing the contribution of animal production to this problem. Here, the influence of diet on the ruminal resistome and abundance of pathogenicity genes was assessed in ruminal digesta samples taken from 50 antibiotic-free beef cattle, comprising four cattle breeds receiving two diets containing different proportions of concentrate...
December 11, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220800/exposure-to-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-overweight-and-obese-adolescents
#15
Tanya L Alderete, Roshonda B Jones, Zhanghua Chen, Jeniffer S Kim, Rima Habre, Frederick Lurmann, Frank D Gilliland, Michael I Goran
BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic dysfunction in humans. Animal studies suggest that air pollutants may alter the composition of the gut microbiota, which may negatively impact metabolic health through changes in the composition and/or function of the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether elevated TRAP exposure was correlated with gut bacterial taxa in overweight and obese adolescents from the Meta-AIR (Metabolic and Asthma Incidence Research) study...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#16
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208770/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-effects-of-maternal-obesity-during-pregnancy-on-offspring-metabolism
#17
Liyuan Zhou, Xinhua Xiao
Obesity is considered a global epidemic. Specifically, obesity during pregnancy programs an increased risk of the offspring developing metabolic disorders in addition to the adverse effects on the mother per se. Large numbers of human and animal studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in obesity and metabolic diseases. Similarly, maternal obesity during pregnancy is associated with alterations in the composition and diversity of the intestine microbial community. Recently, the microbiota in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and meconium in healthy gestations has been investigated, and the results supported the "in utero colonization hypothesis" and challenged the traditional "sterile womb" that has been acknowledged worldwide for more than a century...
December 5, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201150/differences-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-dogs-canis-lupus-familiaris-fed-a-natural-diet-or-a-commercial-feed-revealed-by-the-illumina-miseq-platform
#18
Junhyung Kim, Jae-Uk An, Woohyun Kim, Soomin Lee, Seongbeom Cho
Background: Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled comprehensive analysis of the gut microbiota, which is closely linked to the health of the host. Consequently, several studies have explored the factors affecting gut microbiota composition. In recent years, increasing number of dog owners are feeding their pets a natural diet i.e., one consisting of bones, raw meat (such as chicken and beef), and vegetables, instead of commercial feed. However, the effect of these diets on the microbiota of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) is unclear...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197124/breast-milk-cells-trafficking-induces-microchimerism-mediated-immune-system-maturation-in-the-infant
#19
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Molès, Edouard Tuaillon, Chipepo Kankasa, Anne-Sophie Bedin, Nicolas Nagot, Arnaud Marchant, Joann M McDermid, Philippe Van de Perre
Initiating breastfeeding within the first hour of life confers an important benefit in terms of child mortality and severe morbidity. Intestinal permeability to ingested macromolecules and immunoglobulins is limited to the first days of human life. These exchanges cease in the very early post-partum period but may increase beyond the neonatal period in response to local inflammation or introduction of a weaning food. From animal- and limited human-based observations, compelling evidence points out to breast milk cells also trafficking from mother to infant mucosal tissues and participating to the maternal microchimerism...
December 2, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190927/dietary-apple-pectic-oligosaccharide-improves-gut-barrier-function-of-rotavirus-challenged-weaned-pigs-by-increasing-antioxidant-capacity-of-enterocytes
#20
Xiangbing Mao, Xiangjun Xiao, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Jun He, Hao Chen, Xuechun Xiao, Junqiu Luo, Yuheng Luo, Gang Tian, Jianping Wang
Rotavirus can lead to decreasing gut barrier function and diarrhea of children and young animals. Apple pectic oligosaccharide treatment reduced diarrhea in rotavirus-infected piglets. This study was conducted to explore whether apple pectic oligosaccharide administration could protect gut barrier function of piglets against rotavirus infection. A total of 28 crossbred weaned barrows were allotted into 2 treatments fed the diets supplementing 0 and 200 mg/kg apple pectic oligosaccharide. Half of pigs in each diet treatment were challenged by rotavirus on d 15...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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