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Animal gut health

Jianming Luo, Yuetong Li, Jinli Xie, Lijuan Gao, Liu Liu, Shiyi Ou, Long Chen, Xichun Peng
Bacterial interactions in the biological network affect the growth of Bifidobacterium. In the present study, five habitats were constructed by changing animals, their health statuses and their diets. In each of these habitats, different networks of Bifidobacterium were outlined through correlation analysis of the 50 most dominant microbes. Thirty-eight bacterial genera directly correlated with the growth of Bifidobacterium, including 23 genera with a positive correlation and 15 genera with a negative correlation...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew, Sabran Mohd-Redzwan
The secondary metabolites produced by fungi known as mycotoxins, are capable of causing mycotoxicosis (diseases and death) in human and animals. Contamination of feedstuffs as well as food commodities by fungi occurs frequently in a natural manner and is accompanied by the presence of mycotoxins. The occurrence of mycotoxins' contamination is further stimulated by the on-going global warming as reflected in some findings. This review comprehensively discussed the role of mycotoxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins, ochratoxins, and aflatoxins) toward gut health and gut microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Microplastic (MP) has become a concerning global environmental problem. It is toxic to aquatic organisms and can spread through the food chain to ultimately pose a threat to humans. In the environment, MP can interact with microbes and act as a microbial habitat. However, effects of polystyrene MP on the gut microbiota in mammals remain unclear. Here, male mice were exposed to two different sizes of polystyrene MP for 5 weeks to explore its effect. We observed that oral exposure to 1000 μg/L of 0.5 and 50 μm polystyrene MP decreased the body, liver and lipid weights in mice...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
David R Sannino, Adam J Dobson, Katie Edwards, Esther R Angert, Nicolas Buchon
The microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster has a substantial impact on host physiology and nutrition. Some effects may involve vitamin provisioning, but the relationships between microbe-derived vitamins, diet, and host health remain to be established systematically. We explored the contribution of microbiota in supplying sufficient dietary thiamine (vitamin B1 ) to support D. melanogaster at different stages of its life cycle. Using chemically defined diets with different levels of available thiamine, we found that the interaction of thiamine concentration and microbiota did not affect the longevity of adult D...
March 6, 2018: MBio
Asad Nawaz, Allah Bakhsh Javaid, Sana Irshad, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hanguo Xiong
The gut immune system is, the main option for maintaining host's health, affected by numerous factors comprising dietary constituents and commensal bacteria. These dietary components that affect the intestinal immunity and considered as an alternative of antibiotics are called immunosaccharides. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), Galactooligosaccharide (GOS), inulin, dietary carbohydrates, and xylooligosaccharide (XOS) are among the most studied prebiotics in human as well as in aquaculture. Although prebiotics and probiotics have revealed potential as treatment for numerous illnesses in both human and fish, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism behind direct and indirect effect on the intestinal immune response will help more and perhaps extra effective therapy intended for ailments...
March 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Seungbum Kim, Ruby Goel, Ashok Kumar, Yanfei Qi, Gil Lobaton, Koji Hosaka, Mohammed Mohammed, Eileen M Handberg, Elaine M Richards, Carl J Pepine, Mohan K Raizada
Recent evidence indicates a link between gut pathology and microbiome with hypertension in animal models. However, whether this association exists in humans is unknown. Thus, our objectives in this study were to test the hypotheses that high blood pressure patients have distinct gut microbiomes and that gut epithelial barrier function markers and microbiome composition could predict systolic blood pressure. Fecal samples, analyzed by shotgun metagenomics, displayed taxonomic and functional changes, including altered butyrate production between patients with high blood pressure and reference subjects...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Noelia Martínez, Roberto Luque, Christian Milani, Marco Ventura, Oscar Bañuelos, Abelardo Margolles
Bifidobacteria are mutualistic intestinal bacteria and their presence in the human gut has been associated with health-promoting activities. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in this genus is controversial, since, although bifidobacteria are non-pathogenic microorganisms, they could serve as reservoirs of resistance for intestinal pathogens. However, until now, few antibiotic resistance determinants have been functionally characterized in this genus. In this work, we show that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 displays atypical resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Alex J La Reau, Garret Suen
Mammalian gut microbial communities form intricate mutualisms with their hosts, which have profound implications on overall health. One group of important gut microbial mutualists are bacteria in the genus Ruminococcus, which serve to degrade and convert complex polysaccharides into a variety of nutrients for their hosts. Isolated decades ago from the bovine rumen, ruminococci have since been cultured from other ruminant and non-ruminant sources, and next-generation sequencing has further shown their distribution to be widespread in a diversity of animal hosts...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Woojun Park
The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Mariana Camargo Lourenço, Antônio Leonardo Kraieski, Raquel Bighetti Araujo, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Eduardo Leonardecz, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Elizabeth Santin
Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO) was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick) or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain). Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500) or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
Mona Mischke, Tulika Arora, Sebastian Tims, Eefje Engels, Nina Sommer, Kees van Limpt, Annemarie Baars, Raish Oozeer, Annemarie Oosting, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jan Knol
AIMS: The metabolic state of human adults is associated with their gut microbiome. The symbiosis between host and microbiome is initiated at birth, and early life microbiome perturbation can disturb health long-lastingly. Here, we determined how beneficial microbiome interventions in early life affect metabolic health in adulthood. METHODS: Postnatal diets were supplemented with either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS) or synbiotics (scGOS/lcFOS with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V) until post-natal (PN) day 42 in a well-established rodent model for nutritional programming...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Jincheng Wang, Lili Tang, Hongyuan Zhou, Jun Zhou, Travis C Glenn, Chwan-Li Shen, Jia-Sheng Wang
Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been shown to exert a spectrum of health benefits to animals and humans. It is plausible that the beneficial effects of GTP are a result of its interaction with the gut microbiota. This study evaluated the effect of long-term treatment with GTP on the gut microbiota of experimental rats and the potential linkage between changes of the gut microbiota with the beneficial effects of GTP. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three dosing regimens (0, 0...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Yanting Zhao, Xu-Xiang Zhang, Zhonghua Zhao, Cuilan Duan, Huangen Chen, Miaomiao Wang, Hongqiang Ren, Ying Yin, Lin Ye
Antibiotic resistance disseminating from animals and their environments is a public issue that poses significant threats to human health. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 15 samples from the guts and related aquaculture environments (water and sediment) of shrimp were investigated. In total, 60 ARGs, 102 ARGs and 67 ARGs primarily belonging to 13, 15 and 15 different types were detected in the shrimp gut, pond water and sediment samples, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Sarah M Hutchison, Louise C Mâsse, Jodi L Pawluski, Tim F Oberlander
The long-term impact of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant treatment during pregnancy and postpartum on offspring outcomes is still not clear. Specifically, perinatal SSRI exposure may have long-term consequences for body weight and related health outcomes in the newborn period and beyond. This review focuses on the impact of perinatal SSRI exposure on weight using human and animal findings. The impact of maternal mood is also explored. We propose potential mechanisms for weight changes, including how early alterations in serotonin signaling may have implications for weight via changes in metabolism and motor development...
February 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
H Furbeyre, J van Milgen, T Mener, M Gloaguen, E Labussière
Weaning of piglets is associated with important changes in gut structure and function resulting from stressful events such as separation from the sow, moving to a new facility and dietary transition from a liquid to a solid feed. This may result in post-weaning diarrhoea and a decrease in feed intake and growth. In humans, the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP) and the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (CV) are known for their beneficial health effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of early oral administration of Spirulina and Chlorella in piglets on mucosal architecture and cytokine expression in the intestine around weaning, and consequences on growth performance and diarrhoea incidence...
February 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adrian L Lopresti
Curcumin, from the spice turmeric, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, and neurotrophic activity and therefore holds promise as a therapeutic agent to prevent and treat several disorders. However, a major barrier to curcumin's clinical efficacy is its poor bioavailability. Efforts have therefore been dedicated to developing curcumin formulations with greater bioavailability and systemic tissue distribution. However, it is proposed in this review that curcumin's potential as a therapeutic agent may not solely rely on its bioavailability, but rather its medicinal benefits may also arise from its positive influence on gastrointestinal health and function...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
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