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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328896/microbiota-and-reproducibility-of-rodent-models
#1
REVIEW
Craig L Franklin, Aaron C Ericsson
The gut microbiota (GM) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Likewise, it is becoming increasingly evident that changes or disruptions to the GM can have significant effects on animal models and their expressed phenotypes, adding a complex and important variable into basic research and preclinical studies. In this article, we review some of the most common sources of GM variability in rodent models, and discuss measures to address this variability for improved reproducibility.
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#2
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316465/chicken-egg-yolk-antibodies-igy-for-prophylaxis-and-treatment-of-rotavirus-diarrhea-in-human-and-animal-neonates-a-concise-review
#3
Hlaing Myat Thu, Theingi Win Myat, Mo Mo Win, Kyaw Zin Thant, Shofiqur Rahman, Kouji Umeda, Sa Van Nguyen, Faustino C Icatlo, Kyoko Higo-Moriguchi, Koki Taniguchi, Takao Tsuji, Keiji Oguma, Sang Jong Kim, Hyun Suk Bae, Hyuk Joon Choi
The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294620/the-effect-of-antibiotics-and-diet-on-enterolactone-concentration-and-metabolome-studied-by-targeted-and-non-targeted-lc-ms-metabolomics
#4
Anne Katrine Bolvig, Natalja P Nørskov, Mette Skou Hedemann, Leslie Foldager, Brendan McCarthy-Sinclair, Maria L Marco, Helle N Lærke, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
High plant lignan intake is associated with a number of health benefits, possibly induced by the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL). The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in converting dietary lignans into ENL, and epidemiological studies have shown that use of antibiotics is associated with lower levels of ENL. Here, we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and non-targeted LC-MS...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293641/functional-effects-of-prebiotic-fructans-in-colon-cancer-and-calcium-metabolism-in-animal-models
#5
Marisol Rivera-Huerta, Vania Lorena Lizárraga-Grimes, Ibrahim Guillermo Castro-Torres, Mabel Tinoco-Méndez, Lucía Macías-Rosales, Francisco Sánchez-Bartéz, Graciela Guadalupe Tapia-Pérez, Laura Romero-Romero, María Isabel Gracia-Mora
Inulin-type fructans are polymers of fructose molecules and are known for their capacity to enhance absorption of calcium and magnesium, to modulate gut microbiota and energy metabolism, and to improve glycemia. We evaluated and compared the effects of Chicory inulin "Synergy 1®" and inulin from Mexican agave "Metlin®" in two experimental models of colon cancer and bone calcium metabolism in mice and rats. Inulins inhibited the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis and colon cancer in mice; these fructans reduced the concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and prevented the formation of intestinal polyps, villous atrophy, and lymphoid hyperplasia...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291793/antibiotic-exposure-perturbs-the-gut-microbiota-and-elevates-mortality-in-honeybees
#6
Kasie Raymann, Zack Shaffer, Nancy A Moran
Gut microbiomes play crucial roles in animal health, and shifts in the gut microbial community structure can have detrimental impacts on hosts. Studies with vertebrate models and human subjects suggest that antibiotic treatments greatly perturb the native gut community, thereby facilitating proliferation of pathogens. In fact, persistent infections following antibiotic treatment are a major medical issue. In apiculture, antibiotics are frequently used to prevent bacterial infections of larval bees, but the impact of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis (microbial imbalance) on bee health and susceptibility to disease has not been fully elucidated...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291252/influence-of-ad-libitum-feeding-of-piglets-with-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-liquid-feed-on-gut-flora-luminal-contents-and-health
#7
Yuyong He, Chunxia Mao, Hong Wen, Zhiyu Chen, Tao Lai, Lingyu Li, Wei Lu, Huadong Wu
Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286649/protein-hydrolysates-in-animal-nutrition-industrial-production-bioactive-peptides-and-functional-significance
#8
REVIEW
Yongqing Hou, Zhenlong Wu, Zhaolai Dai, Genhu Wang, Guoyao Wu
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in the role of peptides in animal nutrition. Chemical, enzymatic, or microbial hydrolysis of proteins in animal by-products or plant-source feedstuffs before feeding is an attractive means of generating high-quality small or large peptides that have both nutritional and physiological or regulatory functions in livestock, poultry and fish. These peptides may also be formed from ingested proteins in the gastrointestinal tract, but the types of resultant peptides can vary greatly with the physiological conditions of the animals and the composition of the diets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285374/antibiotic-mixture-effects-on-growth-of-the-leaf-shredding-stream-detritivore-gammarus-fossarum
#9
Mirco Bundschuh, Torsten Hahn, Mark O Gessner, Ralf Schulz
Pharmaceuticals contribute greatly to human and animal health. Given their specific biological targets, pharmaceuticals pose a significant environmental risk by affecting organisms and ecosystem processes, including leaf-litter decomposition. Although litter decomposition is a central process in forest streams, the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals remain poorly known. The present study assessed the impact of antibiotics as an important class of pharmaceuticals on the growth of the leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum over 24 days...
March 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280484/variable-colonization-after-reciprocal-fecal-microbiota-transfer-between-mice-with-low-and-high-richness-microbiota
#10
Aaron C Ericsson, Alexa R Personett, Giedre Turner, Rebecca A Dorfmeyer, Craig L Franklin
Several associations have been made between characteristics of the resident gut microbiota and human health and disease susceptibility. Animal models provide the means to test these correlations prospectively and evaluate causality. Experimental fecal microbiota transfer (FMT), or the intentional transplantation of gut microbes into recipient mice depleted of their autochthonous microbes with antibiotics, is a commonly used method of testing these relationships. The true completeness of microbial transfer through such procedures is poorly documented in the literature, particularly in the context of reciprocal transfer of microbes between recipient and donor mice harboring microbial populations of differing richness and diversity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275154/a-member-of-the-gut-mycobiota-modulates-host-purine-metabolism-exacerbating-colitis-in-mice
#11
Tyson R Chiaro, Ray Soto, W Zac Stephens, Jason L Kubinak, Charisse Petersen, Lasha Gogokhia, Rickesha Bell, Julio C Delgado, James Cox, Warren Voth, Jessica Brown, David J Stillman, Ryan M O'Connell, Anne E Tebo, June L Round
The commensal microbiota has an important impact on host health, which is only beginning to be elucidated. Despite the presence of fungal, archaeal, and viral members, most studies have focused solely on the bacterial microbiota. Antibodies against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are found in some patients with Crohn's disease (CD), suggesting that the mycobiota may contribute to disease severity. We report that S. cerevisiae exacerbated intestinal disease in a mouse model of colitis and increased gut barrier permeability...
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257081/matching-meals-to-body-clocks-impact-on-weight-and-glucose-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Amy T Hutchison, Gary A Wittert, Leonie K Heilbronn
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes continues to rise worldwide and is reaching pandemic proportions. The notion that this is due to obesity, resulting from excessive energy consumption and reduced physical activity, is overly simplistic. Circadian de-synchrony, which occurs when physiological processes are at odds with timing imposed by internal clocks, also promotes obesity and impairs glucose tolerance in mouse models, and is a feature of modern human lifestyles. The purpose of this review is to highlight what is known about glucose metabolism in animal and human models of circadian de-synchrony and examine the evidence as to whether shifts in meal timing contribute to impairments in glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion and the risk of type 2 diabetes...
March 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249795/early-exposure-to-agricultural-soil-accelerates-the-maturation-of-the-early-life-pig-gut-microbiota
#13
Nguyen Vo, Tsung Cheng Tsai, Charles Maxwell, Franck Carbonero
Reduced microbial exposure in early childhood is postulated to be associated with subsequent immune deficiencies and associated health conditions. This corollary to the "hygiene hypothesis" has grown of popularity in the medical field, but can only be really tested with animal models. Based on previous observation that access to outdoor environment improves piglets' growth performance, we simulated early microbial exposure by providing pigs with topsoil during the lactation phase. Specifically, pigs from 20 litters were assigned to either control treatments (C) or soil treatments (S): pigs exposed to topsoil from day 4 postpartum to the end of lactation...
February 27, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249783/diet-driven-microbiota-dysbiosis-is-associated-with-vagal-remodeling-and-obesity
#14
Tanusree Sen, Carolina R Cawthon, Benjamin Thomas Ihde, Andras Hajnal, Patricia M DiLorenzo, Claire B de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja
Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation...
February 26, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248833/pathophysiology-of-the-gut-and-the-microbiome-in-the-host-response
#15
John D Lyons, Craig M Coopersmith
OBJECTIVE: To describe and summarize the data supporting the gut as the motor driving critical illness and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome presented at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development MODS Workshop (March 26-27, 2015). DATA SOURCES: Summary of workshop keynote presentation. STUDY SELECTION: Not applicable. DATA EXTRACTION: Presented by an expert in the field, the data assessing the role of gastrointestinal dysfunction driving critical illness were described with a focus on identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities...
March 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240162/effects-of-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrates-on-composition-and-function-of-gut-microbiome-in-monogastrics-a-review
#16
Hailong Jiang, Dongsheng Che, Guixin Qin, Xiangjie Kong, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk
Non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) have a crucial function on the gut health of monogastrics. This paper aims to review the relevant published materials on the influence of NFC's on the gut's microbial population and composition in monogastrics, and points out the areas of the required research. Total bacteria count and Lactobacillus sp. were decreased with an increase in composition of dietary NFC intake, as well as accompanied by a decrease in the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) levels. Consequently, some metabolites were affected by the accumulation of the bile acids, including molecules which control different gene expression levels, as regulators involved in glucose (FXR and TGR5) and fat metabolism (cholesterol)...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240160/dietary-additive-probiotics-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota
#17
Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Zongyong Jiang
The importance of the intestinal microbiota of animals is widely acknowledged because of its vital role in the health of animals. There are complex communities of microbiota, which colonize the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal microbiota are conductive to animal health and the development of the host immune system. Probiotics are commonly used dietary additives where they provide the host with many beneficial functions, such as modulating intestinal homeostasis and promoting gut health. These beneficial effects of probiotics may accrue from the inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth of beneficial flora in the gastrointestinal tract...
February 23, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239979/beyond-sodium-phosphate-and-potassium-potential-dietary-interventions-in-kidney-disease
#18
EDITORIAL
Jaimon T Kelly, Megan Rossi, David W Johnson, Katrina L Campbell
People with kidney disease are advised to restrict individual nutrients, such as sodium, potassium, and phosphate, in line with current best practice guidelines. However, there is limited evidence to support the efficacy of single nutrient strategies, and compliance remains a challenge for clinicians to overcome. Many factors contribute to poor compliance with dietary prescriptions, including conflicting priorities for single nutrient restriction, the arduous self-monitoring required, and the health-related knock-on effects resulting from targeting these nutrients in isolation...
February 26, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#19
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214040/reinforcement-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-by-arabinoxylans-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial-arabinoxylans-in-gut-barrier
#20
Bouke N Salden, Freddy J Troost, Ellen Wilms, Pilar Truchado, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Dietmar H Pieper, Ruy Jáuregui, Massimo Marzorati, Tom van de Wiele, Sam Possemiers, Ad A Masclee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and metabolic diseases are associated with alterations in microbial composition and impaired gut barrier. Previous in vitro and animal studies have shown that arabinoxylans (AX) have the potential to modulate gut microbiota and gut barrier and therefore could have a protective role. Primary aim of the study was to investigate the effect of AX on intestinal permeability. Secondary aims included the effect of AX on gene transcription and protein expression of tight junctions (TJ), intestinal microbiota composition and activity, immune response and metabolic markers in overweight and obese individuals...
February 3, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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