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Animal gut health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077947/asthma-and-the-microbiome-defining-the-critical-window-in-early-life
#1
REVIEW
Leah T Stiemsma, Stuart E Turvey
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory immune disorder of the airways affecting one in ten children in westernized countries. The geographical disparity combined with a generational rise in prevalence, emphasizes that changing environmental exposures play a significant role in the etiology of this disease. The microflora hypothesis suggests that early life exposures are disrupting the composition of the microbiota and consequently, promoting immune dysregulation in the form of hypersensitivity disorders. Animal model research supports a role of the microbiota in asthma and atopic disease development...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#2
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059627/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-the-colonic-microbiome-of-the-rat-in-a-model-of-stress-induced-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#3
Nicolaas H Fourie, Dan Wang, Sarah K Abey, Amy L Creekmore, Shuangsong Hong, Christiana G Martin, John W Wiley, Wendy A Henderson
Stress is known to perturb the microbiome and exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) associated symptoms. Characterizing structural and functional changes in the microbiome is necessary to understand how alterations affect the biomolecular environment of the gut in IBS. Repeated water avoidance (WA) stress was used to induce IBS-like symptoms in rats. The colon-mucosa associated microbiome was characterized in 13 stressed and control animals by 16S sequencing. In silico analysis of the functional domains of microbial communities was done by inferring metagenomic profiles from 16S data...
January 6, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035266/simple-and-noninvasive-method-for-assessment-of-digestive-efficiency-validation-of-fecal-steatocrit-in-greenfinch-coccidiosis-model
#4
Richard Meitern, Mari-Ann Lind, Ulvi Karu, Peeter Hõrak
Animals' capability to absorb energy and nutrients from food poses a major internal constraint that affects the amount of resources available for allocation to maintenance, growth, signaling, and reproduction. Intestinal surface is the largest area of contact between immune system and microbial antigens; gut thus appears the main arena where trade-offs between immune function and other components of fitness arise. Assessment of the integrity of digestive machinery should therefore be of high priority in ecophysiological research...
December 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029082/probiotics-in-curing-allergic-and-inflammatory-conditions-research-progress-and-futuristic-vision
#5
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K Latheef, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Hari Abdul Samad, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028640/effect-of-dietary-probiotic-supplementation-on-intestinal-microbiota-and-physiological-conditions-of-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-under-waterborne-cadmium-exposure
#6
Qixiao Zhai, Leilei Yu, Tianqi Li, Jiamin Zhu, Chengcheng Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous pollutant that exerts various toxic effects on aquatic animals. The biomagnifying effects of this non-essential element in the food chain also pose threats to human health. In this study, the protective effect of a dietary probiotic supplementation, Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8610, on the intestinal microbiota and physiological conditions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to waterborne Cd was evaluated. Two hundred fish were divided into four groups, i...
December 27, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001024/microbiota-and-prebiotics-modulate-uremic-toxins-generation
#7
Laetitia Koppe, Denis Fouque
Recent data have shown that the host-intestinal microbiota interaction is intrinsically linked with overall health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) could influence intestinal microbiota and gut dysbiosis is also considered as a cause of progression of kidney disease. An increasing body of evidence indicates that dysbiosis is a key contributor of uremic retention solutes (URS) accumulating in patients with CKD. The discovery of the kidney- gut axis has created new therapeutic opportunities for nutritional intervention in order to prevent adverse outcomes...
December 21, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994963/probabilistic-adaptation-in-changing-microbial-environments
#8
Yarden Katz, Michael Springer
Microbes growing in animal host environments face fluctuations that have elements of both randomness and predictability. In the mammalian gut, fluctuations in nutrient levels and other physiological parameters are structured by the host's behavior, diet, health and microbiota composition. Microbial cells that can anticipate environmental fluctuations by exploiting this structure would likely gain a fitness advantage (by adapting their internal state in advance). We propose that the problem of adaptive growth in structured changing environments, such as the gut, can be viewed as probabilistic inference...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988129/source-of-supplemental-dietary-copper-zinc-and-manganese-affects-fecal-microbial-relative-abundance-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#9
M J Faulkner, B A Wenner, L M Solden, W P Weiss
Appropriate trace mineral supplementation can improve immune response and hoof health in cattle and at much higher rates of supplementation to swine and poultry can alter microbial colonization of the gut, resulting in improved gut health. Diet can influence fecal microbial excretion in cattle, and the fecal microbiome may serve as a means for assessing gastrointestinal microbial changes. We hypothesized that feeding diets that differed in source of supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn would alter the relative abundance of fecal microbes in lactating dairy cattle and that organic Zn would have the greatest effect...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983724/helminth-burden-and-ecological-factors-associated-with-alterations-in-wild-host-gastrointestinal-microbiota
#10
Lindsay K Newbold, Sarah J Burthe, Anna E Oliver, Hyun S Gweon, Christopher J Barnes, Francis Daunt, Christopher J van der Gast
Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host...
December 16, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965663/alteration-in-the-gut-microbiota-provokes-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#11
Nargis Khan, Aurobind Vidyarthi, Sajid Nadeem, Shikha Negi, Girish Nair, Javed N Agrewala
The microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to the host. In particular, they regulate immune homeostasis. Recently, several evidences indicate that alteration in the gut microbial community can cause infectious and non-infectious diseases. Tuberculosis (TB) is the most devastating disease, inflicting mortality and morbidity. It remains unexplored, whether changes in the gut microbiota can provoke or prevent TB. In the current study, we have demonstrated the antibiotics driven changes in the gut microbial composition and their impact on the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the lungs, liver, and spleen of infected mice, compared to those with intact microbiota...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957334/parasites-stress-and-reindeer-infection-with-abomasal-nematodes-is-not-associated-with-elevated-glucocorticoid-levels-in-hair-or-faeces
#12
A M Carlsson, G Mastromonaco, E Vandervalk, S Kutz
Stress hormones (glucocorticoids), incorporated into hair/fur and faeces, have been proposed as biomarkers of overall health in wildlife. Although such biomarkers may be helpful for wildlife conservation and management, their use has rarely been validated. There is a paucity of studies examining the variation of stress hormones in mammals and how they relate to other health measures, such as parasitism. Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife and can influence the fitness of individual animals and populations...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955701/lifestyle-and-geographic-insights-into-the-distinct-gut-microbiota-in-elderly-women-from-two-different-geographic-locations
#13
Ji-Hee Shin, Minju Sim, Joo-Young Lee, Dong-Mi Shin
BACKGROUND: A large number of microorganisms reside within the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon, and play important roles in human health and disease. The composition of the human gut microbiota is determined by intrinsic host factors and environmental factors. While investigating environmental factors to promote human health is of great interest, few studies have focused on their effect on the gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate differences in gut microbiota composition according to lifestyle and geographical area, even in people with similar genetic background...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940670/environmental-enteric-dysfunction-and-growth-failure-stunting-in-global-child-health
#14
REVIEW
Victor Owino, Tahmeed Ahmed, Michael Freemark, Paul Kelly, Alexander Loy, Mark Manary, Cornelia Loechl
Approximately 25% of the world's children aged <5 years have stunted growth, which is associated with increased mortality, cognitive dysfunction, and loss of productivity. Reducing by 40% the number of stunted children is a global target for 2030. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional deficits and enteric and systemic infections clearly contribute, but recent findings implicate a central role for environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a generalized disturbance of small intestinal structure and function found at a high prevalence in children living under unsanitary conditions...
December 2016: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932218/bisphenol-a-bpa-in-the-serum-of-pet-dogs-following-short-term-consumption-of-canned-dog-food-and-potential-health-consequences-of-exposure-to-bpa
#15
Zoe L Koestel, Robert C Backus, Kaoru Tsuruta, William G Spollen, Sarah A Johnson, Angela B Javurek, Mark R Ellersieck, Charles E Wiedmeyer, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jingchuan Xue, Nathan J Bivens, Scott A Givan, Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918411/potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-ccfm639-in-protecting-against-aluminum-toxicity-mediated-by-intestinal-barrier-function-and-oxidative-stress
#16
Leilei Yu, Qixiao Zhai, Fengwei Tian, Xiaoming Liu, Gang Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Arjan Narbad, Wei Chen
Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous metal that can seriously harm the health of animals and humans. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 can decrease Al burden in the tissues of mice by inhibiting intestinal Al absorption. The main aim of the present research was to investigate whether the protection by the strain is also associated with enhancement of the intestinal barrier, alleviation of oxidative stress and modulation of the inflammatory response. In an in vitro cell model, two protection modes (intervention and therapy) were examined and the results indicated that L...
December 2, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#17
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895265/gut-homeostasis-microbial-dysbiosis-and-opioids
#18
Fuyuan Wang, Sabita Roy
Gut homeostasis plays an important role in maintaining animal and human health. The disruption of gut homeostasis has been shown to be associated with multiple diseases. The mutually beneficial relationship between the gut microbiota and the host has been demonstrated to maintain homeostasis of the mucosal immunity and preserve the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. Currently, rapid progress in the understanding of the host-microbial interaction has redefined toxicological pathology of opioids and their pharmacokinetics...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887575/the-gut-microbiota-in-young-and-middle-aged-rats-showed-different-responses-to-chicken-protein-in-their-diet
#19
Yingying Zhu, He Li, Xinglian Xu, Chunbao Li, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. METHODS: Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17...
November 25, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887564/the-drosophila-transcriptional-network-is-structured-by-microbiota
#20
Adam J Dobson, John M Chaston, Angela E Douglas
BACKGROUND: Resident microorganisms (microbiota) have far-reaching effects on the biology of their animal hosts, with major consequences for the host's health and fitness. A full understanding of microbiota-dependent gene regulation requires analysis of the overall architecture of the host transcriptome, by identifying suites of genes that are expressed synchronously. In this study, we investigated the impact of the microbiota on gene coexpression in Drosophila. RESULTS: Our transcriptomic analysis, of 17 lines representative of the global genetic diversity of Drosophila, yielded a total of 11 transcriptional modules of co-expressed genes...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
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