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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220529/oxytocin-and-naltrexone-successfully-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-a-boy-post-craniopharyngioma-resection
#1
Eugenie A Hsu, Jennifer L Miller, Francisco A Perez, Christian L Roth
Context: Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. Case description: In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214457/gut-microbiota-and-host-juvenile-growth
#2
REVIEW
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
December 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211775/potential-to-curb-the-environmental-burdens-of-american-beef-consumption-using-a-novel-plant-based-beef-substitute
#3
Benjamin Goldstein, Rebekah Moses, Norman Sammons, Morten Birkved
The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209498/intensifying-poultry-production-systems-and-the-emergence-of-avian-influenza-in-china-a-one-health-ecohealth-epitome
#4
Marius Gilbert, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson
Several kinds of pressure can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases. In the case of zoonoses emerging from livestock, one of the most significant changes that has taken place since the mid twentieth century is what has been termed the "livestock revolution", whereby the stock of food animals, their productivity and their trade has increased rapidly to feed rising and increasingly wealthy and urbanized populations. Further increases are projected in the future in low and middle-income countries. Using avian influenza as an example, we discuss how the emergence of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 in China was linked to rapid intensification of the poultry sector taking place in landscapes rich in wetland agriculture and wild waterfowls habitats, providing an extensive interface with the wild reservoir of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206925/exploring-fish-microbial-communities-to-mitigate-emerging-diseases-in-aquaculture
#5
Irene de Bruijn, Yiying Liu, Geert F Wiegertjes, Jos M Raaijmakers
Aquaculture is the fastest-growing animal food sector worldwide and expected to further increase to feed the growing human population. However, existing and (re-)emerging diseases are hampering fish and shellfish cultivation and yield. For many diseases, vaccination protocols are not in place and the excessive use of antibiotics and other chemicals is of substantial concern. A more sustainable disease control strategy to protect fish and shellfish from (re-)emerging diseases could be achieved by introduction or augmentation of beneficial microbes...
November 29, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202184/consideration-of-insects-as-a-source-of-dietary-protein-for-human-consumption
#6
Tyler A Churchward-Venne, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joop J A van Loon, Luc J C van Loon
Consumption of sufficient dietary protein is fundamental to muscle mass maintenance and overall health. Conventional animal-based protein sources such as meat (ie, beef, pork, lamb), poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy are generally considered high-quality sources of dietary protein because they meet all of the indispensable amino-acid requirements for humans and are highly digestible. However, the production of sufficient amounts of conventional animal-based protein to meet future global food demands represents a challenge...
November 30, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198265/review-feed-demand-landscape-and-implications-of-food-not-feed-strategy-for-food-security-and-climate-change
#7
H P S Makkar
The food-feed competition is one of the complex challenges, and so are the ongoing climate change, land degradation and water shortage for realizing sustainable food production systems. By 2050 the global demand for animal products is projected to increase by 60% to 70%, and developing countries will have a lion's share in this increase. Currently, ~800 million tonnes of cereals (one-third of total cereal production) are used in animal feed and by 2050 it is projected to be over 1.1 billion tonnes. Most of the increase in feed demand will be in developing countries, which already face many food security challenges...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153179/a-100-year-review-a-century-of-dairy-processing-advancements-pasteurization-cleaning-and-sanitation-and-sanitary-equipment-design
#8
S A Rankin, R L Bradley, G Miller, K B Mildenhall
Over the past century, advancements within the mainstream dairy foods processing industry have acted in complement with other dairy-affiliated industries to produce a human food that has few rivals with regard to safety, nutrition, and sustainability. These advancements, such as milk pasteurization, may appear commonplace in the context of a modern dairy processing plant, but some consideration of how these advancements came into being serve as a basis for considering what advancements will come to bear on the next century of processing advancements...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149845/early-nutritional-programming-affects-liver-transcriptome-in-diploid-and-triploid-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#9
L M Vera, C Metochis, J F Taylor, M Clarkson, K H Skjærven, H Migaud, D R Tocher
BACKGROUND: To ensure sustainability of aquaculture, plant-based ingredients are being used in feeds to replace marine-derived products. However, plants contain secondary metabolites which can affect food intake and nutrient utilisation of fish. The application of nutritional stimuli during early development can induce long-term changes in animal physiology. Recently, we successfully used this approach to improve the utilisation of plant-based diets in diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon...
November 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146310/a-review-on-moringa-tree-and-vetiver-grass-potential-biorefinery-feedstocks
#10
REVIEW
Jegannathan Kenthorai Raman, Catarina M Alves, Edgard Gnansounou
Plants and derivatives have been explored for unlimited purposes by mankind, from crop cultivation for providing food and animal feed, to the use for cosmetics, therapeutics and energy. Moringa tree and vetiver grass features, capabilities and applications were explored through a literature review. The suitability of these plants for the bioenergy industry products is evidenced, namely for bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel, given the lignocellulosic biomass content of these plants and characteristics of moringa seed oil...
October 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145463/the-chicken-or-the-egg-exploring-bi-directional-associations-between-newcastle-disease-vaccination-and-village-chicken-flock-size-in-rural-tanzania
#11
Julia de Bruyn, Peter C Thomson, Brigitte Bagnol, Wende Maulaga, Elpidius Rukambile, Robyn G Alders
Newcastle disease (ND) is a viral disease of poultry with global importance, responsible for the loss of a potential source of household nutrition and economic livelihood in many low-income food-deficit countries. Periodic outbreaks of this endemic disease result in high mortality amongst free-ranging chicken flocks and may serve as a disincentive for rural households to invest time or resources in poultry-keeping. Sustainable ND control can be achieved through vaccination using a thermotolerant vaccine administered via eyedrop by trained "community vaccinators"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138387/strategies-for-feeding-the-world-more-sustainably-with-organic-agriculture
#12
Adrian Muller, Christian Schader, Nadia El-Hage Scialabba, Judith Brüggemann, Anne Isensee, Karl-Heinz Erb, Pete Smith, Peter Klocke, Florian Leiber, Matthias Stolze, Urs Niggli
Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems. Here we show that a 100% conversion to organic agriculture needs more land than conventional agriculture but reduces N-surplus and pesticide use. However, in combination with reductions of food wastage and food-competing feed from arable land, with correspondingly reduced production and consumption of animal products, land use under organic agriculture remains below the reference scenario...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131966/activation-of-the-central-melanocortin-system-in-rats-persistently-reduces-body-and-fat-mass-independently-of-caloric-reduction
#13
Isabelle Côté, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy Carter, Nihal Tümer, Philip James Scarpace
Recent evidence indicate that Melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to Melanotan II (MTII), we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison to a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group...
November 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119550/one-health-veterinarians-and-the-nexus-between-disease-and-food-security
#14
R Alders, J de Bruyn, K Wingett, J Wong
Achieving ecologically sustainable food systems for people and animals is one of the greatest challenges facing our world today. Four interdisciplinary approaches that promote a holistic, systems approach to disease prevention and food security are introduced. Current domestic and international initiatives that link disease prevention with food and nutrition security are presented, with an emphasis on animal-source food and examples from Australia, Tanzania and Timor-Leste. Veterinarians are uniquely placed to use their training in comparative physiology in support of the production of sustainable, nutritious, ethical and safe food delivered with minimal waste to promote human, animal and environmental health...
November 8, 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099070/what-should-be-taught-in-secondary-schools-nutrition-and-food-systems-education-views-from-prominent-food-related-professionals-in-australia
#15
Sanaz Sadegholvad, Heather Yeatman, Anne-Maree Parrish, Anthony Worsley
Education can help young people to attain the knowledge and the skills that they need to make proper food choices and develop lifelong healthy eating patterns. This study explored the perspectives of prominent food-related professionals in Australia regarding essential nutrition and food systems (N&FS) education programs for adolescents during formal education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 prominent food-related professionals in Australia. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically...
November 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098763/characterising-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-and-the-consumption-of-poultry-products-in-rural-tanzania-a-mixed-methods-approach
#16
Julia De Bruyn, Brigitte Bagnol, Ian Darnton-Hill, Wende Maulaga, Peter C Thomson, Robyn Alders
Suboptimal breastfeeding practices, early initiation of complementary feeding, and monotonous cereal-based diets have been implicated as contributors to continuing high rates of child undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Nutrition-sensitive interventions, including agricultural programs that increase access to nutrient-rich vegetables, legumes, and animal-source foods, have the potential to achieve sustainable improvements in children's diets. In the quest to evaluate the efficacy of such programs in improving growth and development in the first 2 years of life, there is a role for mixed methods research to better understand existing infant and young child feeding practices...
November 2, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089051/the-intravenous-and-oral-pharmacokinetics-of-lotilaner-in-dogs
#17
Céline E Toutain, Wolfgang Seewald, Martin Jung
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner is a new oral ectoparasiticide from the isoxazoline class developed for the treatment of flea and tick infestations in dogs. It is formulated as pure S-enantiomer in flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™). The pharmacokinetics of lotilaner were thoroughly determined after intravenous and oral administration and under different feeding regimens in dogs. METHODS: Twenty-six adult beagle dogs were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study evaluating either intravenous or oral administration of lotilaner...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089043/safety-evaluation-of-lotilaner-in-dogs-after-oral-administration-as-flavoured-chewable-tablets-credelio%C3%A2
#18
Emmanuelle A Kuntz, Srinivas Kammanadiminti
BACKGROUND: Lotilaner (Credelio™, Elanco) is a novel isoxazoline that provides rapid speed of flea and tick knockdown which is sustained for at least 1 month following oral administration to dogs. The safety of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets was investigated in a randomized, blinded, parallel-group design study in healthy Beagle puppies starting at 8 weeks of age. Lotilaner was administered orally once a month over 8 months at one, three and five times the upper level of the recommended dose range (of 20 to 43 mg/kg)...
November 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081772/single-cell-protein-state-of-the-art-industrial-landscape-and-patents-2001-2016
#19
REVIEW
Anneli Ritala, Suvi T Häkkinen, Mervi Toivari, Marilyn G Wiebe
By 2050, the world would need to produce 1,250 million tonnes of meat and dairy per year to meet global demand for animal-derived protein at current consumption levels. However, growing demand for protein will not be met sustainably by increasing meat and dairy production because of the low efficiency of converting feed to meat and dairy products. New solutions are needed. Single cell protein (SCP), i.e., protein produced in microbial and algal cells, is an option with potential. Much of the recent interest in SCP has focused on the valorisation of side streams by using microorganisms to improve their protein content, which can then be used in animal feed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062189/zoo-agent-s-measure-in-applying-the-five-freedoms-principles-for-animal-welfare
#20
Argyo Demartoto, Robertus Bellarminus Soemanto, Siti Zunariyah
BACKGROUND: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. AIM: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory...
September 2017: Veterinary World
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