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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032632/linking-agriculture-and-nutrition-education-to-improve-infant-and-young-child-feeding-lessons-for-future-programmes
#1
Ellen Muehlhoff, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni, Elizabeth Westaway, Theresa Jeremias, Stacia Nordin, Julia Garz
Agriculture and food systems play a central role in nutrition by supplying nutritious, healthy and affordable foods. When integrated with nutrition education for behaviour change, agricultural interventions that supply diverse affordable foods from all food groups have great scope for improving young child and family diets. In 2014, process reviews were conducted in Cambodia and Malawi of food security projects that provided agricultural support and community-based nutrition education on improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF)...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032627/complementary-feeding-practices-for-infants-and-young-children-in-south-asia-a-review-of-evidence-for-action-post-2015
#2
Víctor M Aguayo
Some 37% (~64 million) South Asian children under 5 years are stunted. Most stunting occurs during the complementary feeding period (6-23 months). Our objective was to (a) characterize complementary feeding practices in South Asia and (b) review the effectiveness of information, education, and counselling (IEC) interventions aiming to improve complementary feeding in South Asia. We conducted a comprehensive review of (a) the latest nationally representative survey data and (b) peer-reviewed interventions (January 1990 to December 2015) that used IEC as the main strategy to improve complementary feeding...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987574/invited-review-sustainable-forage-and-grain-crop-production-for-the-us-dairy-industry
#3
N P Martin, M P Russelle, J M Powell, C J Sniffen, S I Smith, J M Tricarico, R J Grant
A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978348/ethnobotanical-studies-of-fodder-grass-resources-for-ruminant-animals-based-on-the-traditional-knowledge-of-indigenous-communities-in-central-punjab-pakistan
#4
Nidaa Harun, Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry, Shabnum Shaheen, Kifayat Ullah, Farah Khan
BACKGROUND: Traditional knowledge of indigenous plants is pivotal in developing strategies to feed livestock sustainably in low input systems. Likewise, in Pakistan the indigenous people of Central Punjab have been using their regional grasses as a ruminant fodder for centuries. This study evaluated the indigenous traditional knowledge to ascertain the value of various fodder grasses to optimise their use to feed livestock in Central Punjab. METHODS: The snowball technique was employed to identify key informants who had relevant knowledge about different grasses in the study area...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969506/an-exploration-of-edible-palm-weevil-larvae-akokono-as-a-source-of-nutrition-and-livelihood-perspectives-from-ghanaian-stakeholders
#5
Amos Laar, Agnes Kotoh, Megan Parker, Peiman Milani, Charlotte Tawiah, Shobhita Soor, Jacob P Anankware, Nikhila Kalra, Grace Manu, Akua Tandoh, Stephanie Zobrist, Cyril Engmann, Gretel Pelto
BACKGROUND: Meeting the nutritive needs of infants and young children is a challenge in Ghana. Alternative animal source foods, including insects, could enhance infant and young child dietary quality while also improving livelihoods. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perspectives of Ghanaian stakeholders on the acceptability of the palm weevil larvae ( akokono) as a food source and the feasibility of micro-farming this local edible insect as a complementary food for infants and young children...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956861/brazilian-citizens-opinions-and-attitudes-about-farm-animal-production-systems
#6
Maria C Yunes, Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Maria J Hötzel
The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement...
September 28, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955940/short-term-nicotine-exposure-induces-long-lasting-modulation-of-gustatory-plasticity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#7
Takuya Urushihata, Tokumitsu Wakabayashi, Shoichi Osato, Tetsuro Yamashita, Tetsuya Matsuura
Nicotine administration induces many effects on animal behavior. In wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans, gustatory plasticity results in reduced chemotaxis toward NaCl of otherwise attractive concentrations after pre-exposure to 100 mM NaCl in the absence of food. However, acute nicotine administration during a 15 min pre-exposure period inhibits gustatory plasticity, whereas chronic nicotine administration during worm development facilitates the plasticity. To investigate the relationship between the duration of nicotine administration and its effects, we exposed worms to nicotine for various periods during development...
December 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935212/the-value-of-anticoccidials-for-sustainable-global-poultry-production
#8
REVIEW
Stefanie Kadykalo, Tara Roberts, Michelle Thompson, Jeff Wilson, Marcelo Lang, Olivier Espeisse
Coccidiosis is a self-limiting disease that is universally present in poultry operations, causing extensive damage to the intestinal lining of the bird. Global economic losses from coccidiosis are estimated to be $3 billion per year. In-feed anticoccidial use has been the predominant form of coccidiosis control. However, due to widespread emergence of antimicrobial resistance, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of anticoccidials and potential impact on human, animal, and environmental health. To investigate the alternatives, risks, and benefits to anticoccidial use, a comprehensive review of recent literature was conducted...
September 18, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934198/-koko-et-les-lunettes-magiques-an-educational-entertainment-tool-to-prevent-parasitic-worms-and-diarrheal-diseases-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#9
Clémence Essé, Véronique A Koffi, Abel Kouamé, Kouassi Dongo, Richard B Yapi, Honorine M Moro, Christiane A Kouakou, Marta S Palmeirim, Bassirou Bonfoh, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger, Giovanna Raso
BACKGROUND: Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928364/male-male-lethal-combat-in-the-quasi-gregarious-parasitoid-anastatus-disparis-hymenoptera-eupelmidae
#10
Peng-Cheng Liu, Jian-Rong Wei, Shuo Tian, De-Jun Hao
Most animals employ aggressive behaviours to acquire resources such as food, territory and mates. Although mating is important for males, which typically exhibit competitive behaviours to gain mating opportunities, they generally tend to avoid conflict escalation; while extreme combat also occurs in some species and results in death. In this study, male-male lethal combat behaviour in Anastatus disparis was examined (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) by investigating the characteristics of fighting and the factors that influence fighting intensity in this species...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926004/where-to-next-with-animal-health-in-latin-america-the-transition-from-endemic-to-disease-free-status
#11
H Rojas, J R Romero
The Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC) is a leading global producer and exporter of animal products. Its livestock production systems are diverse, ranging from large-scale commercial enterprises to family farms. Countries in this region have sought to improve their animal health status through both public and private efforts. Despite significant advances in eradicating such diseases as foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever, other animal health challenges remain; constraining exports, causing negative economic impacts and threatening food security...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922165/the-gastrointestinal-brain-axis-in-humans-as-an-evolutionary-advance-of-the-root-leaf-axis-in-plants-a-hypothesis-linking-quantum-effects-of-light-on-serotonin-and-auxin
#12
Lucio Tonello, Bekim Gashi, Alessandro Scuotto, Glenda Capello, Massimo Cocchi, Fabio Gabrielli, Jack A Tuszynski
Living organisms tend to find viable strategies under ambient conditions that optimize their search for, and utilization of, life-sustaining resources. For plants, a leading role in this process is performed by auxin, a plant hormone that drives morphological development, dynamics, and movement to optimize the absorption of light (through branches and leaves) and chemical "food" (through roots). Similarly to auxin in plants, serotonin seems to play an important role in higher animals, especially humans. Here, it is proposed that morphological and functional similarities between (i) plant leaves and the animal/human brain and (ii) plant roots and the animal/human gastro-intestinal tract have general features in common...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918253/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-elevates-striatal-dopamine-concentration-without-affecting-spontaneous-or-reward-induced-phasic-release
#13
Marianne Klanker, Matthijs Feenstra, Ingo Willuhn, Damiaan Denys
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) induces rapid improvement of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD). It has been hypothesized that activation of the dopamine (DA) system contributes to this effect. To investigate whether DBS in the MFB affects DA release in the striatum, we combined DBS with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in freely moving rats. Animals were implanted with a stimulating electrode at the border of the MFB and the ventral tegmental area, and a FSCV microelectrode in the ventromedial striatum to monitor extracellular DA during the acute onset of DBS and subsequent continued stimulation...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893333/review-use-of-human-edible-animal-feeds-by-ruminant-livestock
#14
J M Wilkinson, M R F Lee
The drive to increase the output of animal product in some sectors of ruminant livestock production has led to greater use of feeds such as cereal grains and soyabean meal that are potentially human-edible. This trend has caused concern since, by so doing, ruminants compete not only with monogastric livestock but also with the human population for a limited global area of cultivatable land on which to produce grain crops. Reasons for using potentially human-edible feeds in ruminant diets include increased total daily energy intake, greater supply of essential amino acids and improved ruminal balance between fermentable energy and degradable protein...
September 12, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888438/impact-of-legume-protein-type-and-location-on-lipid-oxidation-in-fish-oil-in-water-emulsions-lentil-pea-and-faba-bean-proteins
#15
Cansu Ekin Gumus, Eric Andrew Decker, David Julian McClements
Emulsion-based delivery systems are being developed to incorporate ω-3 fatty acids into functional foods and beverages. There is interest in formulating these delivery systems from more sustainable and label-friendly ingredients. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the impact of plant-protein emulsifiers on the oxidative stability of 1wt% fish oil-in-water emulsions. Fish oil emulsions stabilized by three types of legume protein (lentil, pea, and faba bean) were produced using a high-pressure microfluidizer...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887853/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-underlying-bariatric-surgery-insights-from-human-studies-and-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Aneta Stefanidis, Brian J Oldfield
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and to date, bariatric surgery remains the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of its capacity to achieve durable weight loss. Bariatric surgery procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have been the primary procedures conducted over the past decade, with SG increasing in popularity over the past five years at the expense of both RYGB and AGB. Although these procedures were initially proposed to function via restrictive or malabsorptive mechanisms, it is now clear that profound physiological changes underlie the metabolic improvements in patients who undergo bariatric surgery...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876917/transformation-of-phosphorus-during-hydro-thermal-treatments-of-solid-biowastes-reaction-mechanisms-and-implications-for-p-reclamation-and-recycling
#17
Rixiang Huang, Ci Fang, Xiaowei Lu, Rongfeng Jiang, Yuanzhi Tang
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all organisms, thus playing unique and critical roles at the food-energy-water nexus. Most P utilized by human activities eventually converges into various solid biowastes, such as crop biomass, animal manures, and sewage sludges. Therefore, integration of efficient P recovery practices into solid biowaste management will not only significantly reduce the dependence on limited geological P resources but also reduce P runoff and related water contamination issues associated with traditional waste management strategies...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874548/subnational-mobility-and-consumption-based-environmental-accounting-of-us-corn-in-animal-protein-and-ethanol-supply-chains
#18
Timothy M Smith, Andrew L Goodkind, Taegon Kim, Rylie E O Pelton, Kyo Suh, Jennifer Schmitt
Corn production, and its associated inputs, is a relatively large source of greenhouse gas emissions and uses significant amounts of water and land, thus contributing to climate change, fossil fuel depletion, local air pollutants, and local water scarcity. As large consumers of this corn, corporations in the ethanol and animal protein industries are increasingly assessing and reporting sustainability impacts across their supply chains to identify, prioritize, and communicate sustainability risks and opportunities material to their operations...
September 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859869/conservatism-predicts-lapses-from-vegetarian-vegan-diets-to-meat-consumption-through-lower-social-justice-concerns-and-social-support
#19
Gordon Hodson, Megan Earle
Lapses from vegetarian and vegan (i.e., veg*n) food choices to meat consumption are very common, suggesting that sustaining veg*nism is challenging. But little is known about why people return to eating animals after initially deciding to avoid meat consumption. Several potential explanatory factors include personal inconvenience, meat cravings, awkwardness in social settings, or health/nutrition concerns. Here we test the degree to which political ideology predicts lapsing to meat consumption. Past research demonstrates that political ideology predicts present levels of meat consumption, whereby those higher in right-wing ideologies eat more animals, even after controlling for their hedonistic liking of meat (e...
August 30, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859525/influence-of-essential-oils-in-diet-and-life-stage-on-gut-microbiota-and-fillet-quality-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#20
Florencia Ceppa, Filippo Faccenda, Carlotta De Filippo, Davide Albanese, Massimo Pindo, Roberta Martelli, Paola Marconi, Fernando Lunelli, Francesca Fava, Giuliana Parisi
Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
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