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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#1
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421280/systems-biology-of-seeds-deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-seed-storage-dormancy-and-onset-of-germination
#2
EDITORIAL
Nese Sreenivasulu
Seeds are heterogeneous storage reserves with wide array of storage compounds that include various soluble carbohydrates, starch polymer, storage proteins and lipids. These stored reserves comprise 70% of the world's caloric intake in the form of food and animal feed produced through sustainable agriculture, which contributes to food and nutritional security. Seed systems biology remains an enigmatic subject in understanding seed storage processes, maturation and pre-germinative metabolism. The reviews and research articles covered in this special issue of Plant Cell Reports highlight recent advances made in the area of seed biology that cover various systems biology applications such as gene regulatory networks, metabolomics, epigenetics and the role of micro-RNA in seed development...
April 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411402/transcriptomics-of-cereal-fusarium-graminearum-interactions-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#3
REVIEW
Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on cereal hosts such as wheat, barley and maize. In addition to reducing grain yield, infection by this pathogen causes major quality losses. In particular, the contamination of food and feed with the F. graminearum trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can have many adverse short- and long-term effects on human and animal health. During the last decade, the interaction between F. graminearum and both cereal and model hosts has been extensively studied through transcriptome analyses...
April 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408831/modulation-of-the-activity-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-as-a-novel-treatment-option-for-depression-current-clinical-evidence-and-therapeutic-potential-of-rapastinel-glyx-13
#4
REVIEW
Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Nina Schweinfurth, Stefan Borgwardt, Peter Gass, Undine E Lang, Dragos Inta, Sarah Eckart
Classical monoaminergic antidepressants show several disadvantages, such as protracted onset of therapeutic action. Conversely, the fast and sustained antidepressant effect of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine raises vast interest in understanding the role of the glutamate system in mood disorders. Indeed, numerous data support the existence of glutamatergic dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD). Drawback to this short-latency therapy is its side effect profile, especially the psychotomimetic action, which seriously hampers the common and widespread clinical use of ketamine...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387024/protein-efficiency-in-intensive-dairy-production-a-swedish-example
#5
Christian Swensson, Helena Lindmark-Månsson, Annika Smedman, Maria Henriksson, Anna-Karin Modin Edman
BACKGROUND: Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants, such as dairy cows, can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386446/early-animal-farming-and-zoonotic-disease-dynamics-modelling-brucellosis-transmission-in-neolithic-goat-populations
#6
Guillaume Fournié, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Robin Bendrey
Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#7
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323074/an-obesogenic-refined-low-fat-diet-disrupts-attentional-and-behavioral-control-processes-in-a-vigilance-task-in-rats
#8
Aaron P Blaisdell, Traci Biedermann, Eric Sosa, Ava Abuchaei, Neveen Youssef, Sylvie Bradesi
Diets consisting of refined foods (REF) are associated with poor physical (e.g., obesity and diabetes) and mental (e.g., depression) health and impaired cognition. Few animal studies have explored the causal links between diet processing and health. Instead, most studies focus on the role of macronutrients, especially carbohydrate and fat concurrently with how processed are the ingredients. We previously showed that a REF low fat diet (LFD) caused greater adiposity and impaired motivation compared to an unrefined control (CON) diet consisting of similar macronutrient ratios (Blaisdell et al...
March 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314053/fish-for-dinner-balancing-risks-benefits-and-values-in-formulating-food-consumption-advice
#9
Karen Rideout, Tom Kosatsky
Many and complex factors underlie seemingly simple decisions about what to eat. This is particularly so for foods such as fish, which present consumers with both risks and benefits. Advice about what type of and how much fish to consume is abundant, but that advice is often confusing or contradictory, reflecting the differing mandates and orientations of those advising. We survey a range of issues that can and should be incorporated into dietary advice, and offer tools for health agencies tasked with providing it...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302888/investigation-of-productivity-in-a-south-indian-malabari-goat-herd-shows-opportunities-for-planned-animal-health-management-to-improve-food-security
#10
N D Sargison, S A J Ivil, J Abraham, S P S Abubaker, A M Hopker, S Mazeri, I A Otter, N Otter
Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298279/the-potential-impact-of-animal-science-research-on-global-maternal-and-child-nutrition-and-health-a-landscape-review
#11
REVIEW
Jack Odle, Sheila K Jacobi, R Dean Boyd, Dale E Bauman, Russell V Anthony, Fuller W Bazer, Adam L Lock, Andrew C Serazin
High among the challenges facing mankind as the world population rapidly expands toward 9 billion people by 2050 is the technological development and implementation of sustainable agriculture and food systems to supply abundant and wholesome nutrition. In many low-income societies, women and children are the most vulnerable to food insecurity, and it is unequivocal that quality nutrition during the first 1000 d of life postconception can be transformative in establishing a robust, lifelong developmental trajectory...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278126/impact-of-substrate-contamination-with-mycotoxins-heavy-metals-and-pesticides-on-growth-performance-and-composition-of-black-soldier-fly-larvae-hermetia-illucens-for-use-in-the-feed-and-food-value-chain
#12
Benedict Purschke, Rafaela Scheibelberger, Sonja Axmann, Andreas Adler, Henry Jäger
Edible insects have emerged as an alternative and sustainable source of high-quality, animal-derived protein and fat for livestock production or direct human nutrition. During production of insects, substrate quality is a key parameter to assure optimal insect biomass gain as well as the safety of feed and food derived from commercially reared insects. Therefore, the influence of a realistic substrate contamination scenario on growth performance and accumulation behaviour of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL, Hermetia illucens L...
February 26, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277944/the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-evaluation-of-shigella-virulence
#13
Shoshana Barnoy, Hanan Gancz, Yuewei Zhu, Cary L Honnold, Daniel V Zurawski, Malabi M Venkatesan
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols...
February 13, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231177/the-goal-of-adequate-nutrition-can-it-be-made-affordable-sustainable-and-universal
#14
REVIEW
Ian McFarlane
Until about 1900, large proportions of the world population endured hunger and poverty. The 20th century saw world population increase from 1.6 to 6.1 billion, accompanied and to some extent made possible by rapid improvements in health standards and food supply, with associated advances in agricultural and nutrition sciences. In this paper, I use the application of linear programming (LP) in preparation of rations for farm animals to illustrate a method of calculating the lowest cost of a human diet selected from locally available food items, constrained to provide recommended levels of food energy and nutrients; then, to find a realistic minimum cost, I apply the further constraint that the main sources of food energy in the costed diet are weighted in proportion to the actual reported consumption of food items in that area...
November 30, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226268/recent-progress-in-diatom-genomics-and-epigenomics
#15
REVIEW
Leila Tirichine, Achal Rastogi, Chris Bowler
Diatoms are one of the most diverse and successful groups of phytoplankton at the base of the food chain, sustaining life in the ocean and performing vital biogeochemical functions. The last fifteen years have witnessed the comprehensive analysis of several diatom genomes, revealing that they bear traces of their endosymbiotic origins from algal and heterotrophic ancestors, as well as significant gene transfer from bacteria. Their chimeric genomes are further regulated by a range of chromatin-based processes that are characteristic of both plant and animal genomes...
February 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#16
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219344/origin-and-phylogenetic-status-of-the-local-ashanti-dwarf-pig-adp-of-ghana-based-on-genetic-analysis
#17
Richard Osei-Amponsah, Benjamin M Skinner, Dennis O Adjei, Julien Bauer, Greger Larson, Nabeel A Affara, Carole A Sargent
BACKGROUND: The Ashanti Dwarf Pig (ADP) of Ghana is an endangered pig breed with hardy and disease resistant traits. Characterisation of animal genetic resources provides relevant data for their conservation and sustainable use for food security and economic development. We investigated the origin and phylogenetic status of the local ADP of Ghana and their crosses with modern commercial breeds based on mtDNA, MC1R, Y-chromosome sequence polymorphisms, and genome-wide SNP genotyping. RESULTS: The study involved 164 local pigs sampled from the three agro-ecological zones of Ghana...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199147/microbiological-safety-of-animal-wastes-processed-by-physical-heat-treatment-an-alternative-to-eliminate-human-pathogens-in-biological-soil-amendments-as-recommended-by-the-food-safety-modernization-act
#18
Zhao Chen, Xiuping Jiang
Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184163/docetaxel-loaded-plga-and-plga-peg-nanoparticles-for-intravenous-application-pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution-profile
#19
Pedram Rafiei, Azita Haddadi
Docetaxel is a highly potent anticancer agent being used in a wide spectrum of cancer types. There are important matters of concern regarding the drug's pharmacokinetics related to the conventional formulation. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) is a biocompatible/biodegradable polymer with variable physicochemical characteristics, and its application in human has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. PLGA gives polymeric nanoparticles with unique drug delivery characteristics. The application of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) as intravenous (IV) sustained-release delivery vehicles for docetaxel can favorably modify pharmacokinetics, biofate, and pharmacotherapy of the drug in cancer patients...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182098/antioxidant-immunomodulating-and-microbial-modulating-activities-of-the-sustainable-and-ecofriendly-spirulina
#20
REVIEW
Alberto Finamore, Maura Palmery, Sarra Bensehaila, Ilaria Peluso
The highly nutritional and ecofriendly Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive properties. Spirulina contains functional compounds, such as phenolics, phycocyanins, and polysaccharides, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects. Studies conducted on Spirulina suggest that it is safe in healthy subjects, but attitude to eating probably affects the acceptability of Spirulina containing foods. Although the antioxidant effect of Spirulina is confirmed by the intervention studies, the concerted modulation of antioxidant and inflammatory responses, suggested by in vitro and animal studies, requires more confirmation in humans...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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