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Sustainable animal food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811339/heritable-bovine-rumen-bacteria-are-phylogenetically-related-and-correlated-with-the-cow-s-capacity-to-harvest-energy-from-its-feed
#1
Goor Sasson, Sheerli Kruger Ben-Shabat, Eyal Seroussi, Adi Doron-Faigenboim, Naama Shterzer, Shamay Yaacoby, Margret E Berg Miller, Bryan A White, Eran Halperin, Itzhak Mizrahi
Ruminants sustain a long-lasting obligatory relationship with their rumen microbiome dating back 50 million years. In this unique host-microbiome relationship, the host's ability to digest its feed is completely dependent on its coevolved microbiome. This extraordinary alliance raises questions regarding the dependent relationship between ruminants' genetics and physiology and the rumen microbiome structure, composition, and metabolism. To elucidate this relationship, we examined the association of host genetics with the phylogenetic and functional composition of the rumen microbiome...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809450/microalgae-old-sustainable-food-and-fashion-nutraceuticals
#2
José L García, Marta de Vicente, Beatriz Galán
Microalgae have been used for centuries to provide nourishment to humans and animals, only very recently they have become much more widely cultured and harvested at large industrial scale. This paper reviews the potential health benefits and nutrition provided by microalgae whose benefits are contributing to expand their market. We also point out several key challenges that remain to be addressed in this field.
August 15, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797062/why-organic-resources-and-current-fertilizer-formulations-in-southern-africa-cannot-sustain-maize-productivity-evidence-from-a-long-term-experiment-in-zimbabwe
#3
Tongai J Mtangadura, Florence Mtambanengwe, Hatirarami Nezomba, Jairos Rurinda, Paul Mapfumo
Sustainability of maize-based cropping systems is a major challenge for southern Africa, yet the demand for maize as staple food and animal feed in the region continues to increase. A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam (220 g clay kg-1 soil) at Domboshawa in Zimbabwe to investigate the long-term effects of organic resource quality and application rate, and nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil chemical properties and maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. Crotalaria juncea (high quality), Calliandra calothyrsus (medium quality), cattle manure (variable quality), maize stover and Pinus patula sawdust (both low quality) were incorporated into soil at 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776203/adaptive-temperature-regulation-in-the-little-bird-in-winter-predictions-from-a-stochastic-dynamic-programming-model
#4
Anders Brodin, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Several species of small birds are resident in boreal forests where environmental temperatures can be -20 to -30 °C, or even lower, in winter. As winter days are short, and food is scarce, winter survival is a challenge for small endothermic animals. A bird of this size will have to gain almost 10% of its lean body mass in fat every day to sustain overnight metabolism. Birds such as parids (titmice and chickadees) can use facultative hypothermia, a process in which body temperature is actively down-regulated to a specific level, to reduce heat loss and thus save energy...
August 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769967/a-proteomic-view-on-the-role-of-legume-symbiotic-interactions
#5
REVIEW
Estíbaliz Larrainzar, Stefanie Wienkoop
Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762524/resilience-of-experimentally-seeded-dietary-traditions-in-wild-vervets-evidence-from-group-fissions
#6
Erica van de Waal, Carel P van Schaik, Andrew Whiten
Controlled laboratory experiments have delivered extensive and compelling evidence for the diffusion and maintenance of socially learned behavior in primates and other animals. Such evidence is rarer in the wild, but we show that a behavior seeded in a majority of individuals within vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythus) groups may be sustained across several years. Here, we report results of two natural fission events in such groups that offer novel evidence of the resilience of socially transmitted group norms of behavior...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754025/aquatic-insects-and-their-potential-to-contribute-to-the-diet-of-the-globally-expanding-human-population
#7
REVIEW
D Dudley Williams, Siân S Williams
Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e...
July 21, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736022/use-of-nanoice-for-procurement-achieves-better-cooling-of-liver-grafts
#8
J D Reyes, F G Jalikis, L C Olson, M Yeh, M I Montenovo
BACKGROUND: Rapid cooling at procurement after cross-clamping has been the cornerstone of organ preservation. NanoICE is a new form of ice that has emerged in the food industry and is providing more efficient cooling and preservation than regular ice. We hypothesize that the use of NanoICE will accelerate the cooling process of the allograft and will be able to maintain a steady low temperature without causing any significant histologic damage. METHODS: In this randomized pilot study, 14 pigs were used to study the liver core/surface cooling in a non-survival organ procurement operation...
July 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734610/towards-integral-utilization-of-grape-pomace-from-winemaking-process-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Carolina Beres, Gislaine N S Costa, Ignacio Cabezudo, Nina K da Silva-James, Aline S C Teles, Ana P G Cruz, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Renata V Tonon, Lourdes M C Cabral, Suely P Freitas
Grape is the main fruit crop in several countries. Although many grape-based food products can be found in the market, studies have shown that around 75% of the world grape production is destined for the wine industry. Grape pomace is an abundant by-product from the wine industry, which consists of the remaining skin, seeds and stalks and represents around 25% of total grape weight used in the winemaking process. In countries such as Italy, France and Spain, where wine production is more relevant, the annual grape pomace generation can reach nearly 1200 tonnes per year...
July 19, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728401/research-trends-in-outdoor-pig-production
#10
Hyun-Suk Park, Sang Hyon Oh
Since the industrialization of swine production in the late 1900s, swine farms in the United States, as well as in Europe, have largely become consolidated. Pig farms became larger in size but fewer in number, with 91% of market pigs being produced by large operations with 5,000 or more pigs on-site in the US, and only 3% of the total utilized agricultural land representing organic farming. Such change in the market made it difficult for small farmers to stay competitive, forcing them to find alternative ways to reduce the cost of production and increase profit using the outdoor production system...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#11
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726744/future-protein-supply-and-demand-strategies-and-factors-influencing-a-sustainable-equilibrium
#12
REVIEW
Maeve Henchion, Maria Hayes, Anne Maria Mullen, Mark Fenelon, Brijesh Tiwari
A growing global population, combined with factors such as changing socio-demographics, will place increased pressure on the world's resources to provide not only more but also different types of food. Increased demand for animal-based protein in particular is expected to have a negative environmental impact, generating greenhouse gas emissions, requiring more water and more land. Addressing this "perfect storm" will necessitate more sustainable production of existing sources of protein as well as alternative sources for direct human consumption...
July 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#13
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710783/evaluation-of-vegetable-protein-in-canine-diets-assessment-of-performance-and-apparent-ileal-amino-acid-digestibility-using-a-broiler-model
#14
D C Fiacco, J A Lowe, J Wiseman, G A White
Recent technological advances in the human food industry with respect to meat processing have decreased the availability of animal proteins to the pet food industry which typically formulates diets with an excess of animal protein. In the long term, this is not sustainable; thus, alternative protein sources need to be investigated. This study examined three canine diets, comparing a typical animal protein-based diet (control) with two experimental diets where the animal protein was substituted in part with vegetable protein (formulated based either on total protein or amino acid content) using a broiler model...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701540/a-novel-paraplegia-model-in-awake-behaving-macaques
#15
Max Ostrinsky Krucoff, Katie Zhuang, David B Macleod, Allen Yin, Yoon Woo Byun, Roberto Jose Manson, Dennis A Turner, Laura Oliveira, Mikhail A Lebedev
Lower limb paralysis from spinal cord injury (SCI) or neurological disease carries a poor prognosis for recovery and remains a large societal burden. Neurophysiological and neuroprosthetic research have the potential to improve quality of life for these patients; however, the lack of an ethical and sustainable non-human primate model for paraplegia hinders their advancement. Therefore, our multi-disciplinary team developed a way to induce temporary paralysis in awake behaving macaques by creating a fully implantable lumbar epidural catheter-subcutaneous port system that enables easy and reliable targeted drug delivery for sensorimotor blockade...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698629/detecting-the-presence-of-fish-farm-derived-organic-matter-at-the-seafloor-using-stable-isotope-analysis-of-phospholipid-fatty-acids
#16
Daniel J Mayor, Nia B Gray, Giannina S I Hattich, Barry Thornton
The expansion of global aquaculture activities is important for the wellbeing of future generations in terms of employment and food security. Rearing animals in open-exchange cages permits the release of organic wastes, some of which ultimately reaches the underlying sediments. The development of rapid, quantitative and objective monitoring techniques is therefore central to the environmentally sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry. Here, we demonstrate that fish farm-derived organic wastes can be readily detected at the seafloor by quantifying sediment phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their carbon stable isotope signatures...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674844/current-perspectives-on-genetically-modified-crops-and-detection-methods
#17
REVIEW
Madhu Kamle, Pradeep Kumar, Jayanta Kumar Patra, Vivek K Bajpai
Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670288/time-course-of-metabolic-capacities-in-paralarvae-of-the-common-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-in-the-first-stages-of-life-searching-biomarkers-of-nutritional-imbalance
#18
Amalia E Morales, Gabriel Cardenete, M Carmen Hidalgo, Diego Garrido, M Virginia Martín, Eduardo Almansa
The culture of the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is promising since the species has a relatively short lifecycle, rapid growth, and high food conversion ratios. However, recent attempts at successful paralarvae culture have failed due to slow growth and high mortality rates. Establishing an optimal nutritional regime for the paralarvae seems to be the impeding step in successful culture methods. Gaining a thorough knowledge of food regulation and assimilation is essential for paralarvae survival and longevity under culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667635/genetically-modified-phytase-crops-role-in-sustainable-plant-and-animal-nutrition-and-ecological-development-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Chinreddy Subramanyam Reddy, Seong-Cheol Kim, Tanushri Kaul
Globally, plant-derivatives especially cereals and legumes are the major staple food sources for animals. The seeds of these crops comprise of phytic acid, the major repository form of the phosphorus, which is not digestible by simple-stomached animals. However, it is the most important factor responsible for impeding the absorption of minerals by plants that eventually results in less use of fertilizers that ultimately cause eutrophication in water bodies. Although abundant phosphorus (P) exists in the soils, plants cannot absorb most of the P due to its conversion to unavailable forms...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654196/compositional-and-functional-dynamics-of-the-bovine-rumen-methanogenic-community-across-different-developmental-stages
#20
Nir Friedman, Elie Jami, Itzhak Mizrahi
Methanogenic archaea in the bovine rumen are responsible for the reduction of carbon molecules to methane, using various electron donors and driving the electron flow across the microbial food webs. Thus, methanogens play a key role in sustaining rumen metabolism and function. Research of rumen methanogenic archaea typically focuses on their composition and function in mature animals, while studies of early colonization and functional establishment remain scarce. Here, we investigated the metabolic potential and taxonomic composition of the methanogenic communities across different rumen developmental stages...
June 27, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
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