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Sustainable animal food

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468318/how-grazing-affects-soil-quality-of-soils-formed-in-the-glaciated-northeastern-united-states
#1
Alissa H Cox, José A Amador
Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456587/dietary-diversity-and-associated-factors-among-children-of-orthodox-christian-mothers-caregivers-during-the-fasting-season-in-dejen-district-north-west-ethiopia
#2
Gemechu Kumera, Endalkachew Tsedal, Mulatu Ayana
Background: Proper feeding practices during early childhood is fundamental for optimal child growth and development. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of dietary diversity are scanty. Particularly, the impact of fasting on children`s dietary diversity is not explored in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months, whose mothers/care-givers were Orthodox Christians during the fasting season (Lent), in Dejen District, North West Ethiopia, 2016...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444308/integration-of-multi-omics-techniques-and-physiological-phenotyping-within-a-holistic-phenomics-approach-to-study-senescence-in-model-and-crop-plants
#3
Dominik K Großkinsky, Syahnada Jaya Syaifullah, Thomas Roitsch
The study of senescence in plants is complicated by diverse levels of temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the impact of external biotic and abiotic factors and crop plant management. Whereas the molecular mechanisms involved in developmentally regulated leaf senescence are very well understood, in particular in the annual model plant species Arabidopsis, senescence of other organs such as the flower, fruit, and root is much less studied as well as senescence in perennials such as trees. This review addresses the need for the integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping into holistic phenomics approaches to dissect the complex phenomenon of senescence...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#4
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426484/the-endoparasitism-challenge-in-developing-countries-as-goat-raising-develops-from-smallholder-to-commercial-production-systems-a-study-from-laos
#5
P A Windsor, S Nampanya, V Putthana, K Keonam, K Johnson, R D Bush, S Khounsy
Progressing economic development in Southeast Asia has increased regional demand for goat meat, leading to expanding production by smallholders and recently, development of commercial farms. In Laos, an emerging export market for goats into Vietnam has led to increased goat numbers, with potential increases in risk of disease, particularly endoparasitism. A cross-sectional survey investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in indigenous Kambing-Katjang goats on smallholder farms (n = 389) in 8 villages where no anthelmintic treatments were in use, providing comparisons with a case study of imported Boer crossbred goats (n = 45) on a commercial farm where intensive anthelmintic treatments were required to manage mortalities attributable to Haemonchosis...
February 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402959/dietary-changes-needed-to-improve-diet-sustainability-are-they-similar-across-europe
#6
Florent Vieux, Marlene Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is not known whether dietary changes able to simultaneously achieve nutritional adequacy and reduce diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) are similar across Europe when cultural and gender specificities are taken into account. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Starting from each mean observed diet in five European countries (France, UK, Italy, Finland, and Sweden) and for each gender, nutritionally adequate diets departing the least from observed diet were designed with linear programming by applying stepwise 10% GHGE reductions...
February 5, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401650/the-role-of-the-japanese-traditional-diet-in-healthy-and-sustainable-dietary-patterns-around-the-world
#7
Ana San Gabriel, Kumiko Ninomiya, Hisayuki Uneyama
As incomes steadily increase globally, traditional diets have been displaced by diets that are usually animal-based with a high content of "empty calories" or refined sugars, refined fats, and alcohol. Dietary transition coupled with the expansion of urbanization and lower physical activity have been linked to the global growth in the prevalence of obesity, overweight and life style-related non-communicable diseases. The challenge is in how to reverse the trend of high consumption of less healthy food by more healthful and more environmentally sustainable diets...
February 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395346/applied-hologenomics-feasibility-and-potential-in-aquaculture
#8
REVIEW
Morten T Limborg, Antton Alberdi, Miyako Kodama, Michael Roggenbuck, Karsten Kristiansen, M Thomas P Gilbert
Aquaculture will play an essential role in feeding a growing human population, but several biological challenges impede sustainable growth of production. Emerging evidence across all areas of life has revealed the importance of the intimate biological interactions between animals and their associated gut microbiota. Based on challenges in aquaculture, we leverage current knowledge in molecular biology and host microbiota interactions to propose an applied holo-omic framework that integrates molecular data including genomes, transcriptomes, epigenomes, proteomes, and metabolomes for analyzing fish and their gut microbiota as interconnected and coregulated systems...
January 29, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393045/internal-amino-acid-state-modulates-yeast-taste-neurons-to-support-protein-homeostasis-in-drosophila
#9
Kathrin Steck, Samuel J Walker, Pavel M Itskov, Célia Baltazar, José-Maria Moreira, Carlos Ribeiro
To optimize fitness, animals must dynamically match food choices to their current needs. For drosophilids, yeast fulfills most dietary protein and micronutrient requirements. While several yeast metabolites activate known gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in Drosophila melanogaster , the chemosensory channels mediating yeast feeding remain unknown. Here we identify a class of proboscis GRNs required for yeast intake. Within this class, taste peg GRNs are specifically required to sustain yeast feeding. Sensillar GRNs, however, mediate feeding initiation...
February 2, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374344/assessment-of-antimicrobial-drug-administration-and-antimicrobial-residues-in-food-animals-in-enugu-state-nigeria
#10
Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Joseph I Onunkwo, Chinwe E Okoli, Wilfred I Ugwuoke, John A Nwanta, Kennedy F Chah
Imprudent administration of antimicrobial drugs in food-producing animals can facilitate the development and spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and also enhance the occurrence of antimicrobial residue in animal products. This study was undertaken to assess antimicrobial drug administration to food animals in livestock farms in Enugu State and determine livestock farmers' awareness on the consequences of imprudent antimicrobial administration to food animals and finally the prevalence of antimicrobial drug residues in edible tissues of cattle and pigs in the state...
January 26, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350216/the-nitrogen-footprint-tool-network-a-multi-institution-program-to-reduce-nitrogen-pollution
#11
Elizabeth A Castner, Allison M Leach, Neil Leary, Jill Baron, Jana E Compton, James N Galloway, Meredith G Hastings, Jacob Kimiecik, Jonathan Lantz-Trissel, Elizabeth de la Reguera, Rebecca Ryals
Anthropogenic sources of reactive nitrogen have local and global impacts on air and water quality and detrimental effects on human and ecosystem health. This article uses the Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) to determine the amount of nitrogen (N) released as a result of institutional consumption. The sectors accounted for include food (consumption and upstream production), energy, transportation, fertilizer, research animals, and agricultural research. The NFT is then used for scenario analysis to manage and track reductions, which are driven by the consumption behaviors of both the institution itself and its constituent individuals...
April 1, 2017: Sustainability (New Rochelle)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338637/selected-plant-essential-oils-and-their-main-active-components-a-promising-approach-to-inhibit-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-food
#12
José Vicente Gómez, Andrea Tarazona, Rufino Mateo-Castro, José Vicente Gimeno-Adelantado, Misericordia Jiménez, Eva M Mateo
Recent research has showed that Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are aflatoxigenic species that can become very competitive in the framework of climate change. Aflatoxins show carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and teratogenic effects on human and animals. Effective and sustainable measures to inhibit these species and aflatoxins in food are required. Origanum vulgare and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils (EOs) and their major active constituents, carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde, respectively, were assayed for inhibiting these species and aflatoxin production in maize extract medium under different environmental conditions...
January 17, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338496/repeated-lipopolysaccharide-exposure-modifies-immune-and-sickness-behaviour-response-in-an-animal-model-of-chronic-inflammation
#13
Ksenia Musaelyan, Steven Aldridge, Andrea Du Preez, Martin Egeland, Patricia A Zunszain, Carmine M Pariante, Sandrine Thuret, Cathy Fernandes
Repeated lipopolysaccharide exposure is often used in longitudinal preclinical models of depression. However, the potential phenotypic differences from acute depression-mimicking effects are rarely described. This study compared chronic lipopolysaccharide administration of doses previously used in depression research to a new mode of escalating dose injections. Adult male BALB/c mice ( n=8/group) were injected intraperitoneally with either a single 0.83 mg/kg dose, a repeated 0.1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide dose or a dose which escalated weekly from 0...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334694/home-alone-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-effects-of-individual-housing-on-body-weight-food-intake-and-visceral-fat-mass-in-rodents
#14
REVIEW
L Schipper, L Harvey, E M van der Beek, G van Dijk
Rats and mice are widely used to study environmental effects on psychological and metabolic health. Study designs differ widely and are often characterized by varying (social) housing conditions. In itself, housing has a profound influence on physiology and behaviour of rodents, affecting energy balance and sustainable metabolic health. However, evidence for potential long-term consequences of individual versus social housing on body weight and metabolic phenotype is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analyses assessing effects of individual versus social housing of rats and mice, living under well-accepted laboratory conditions, on measures of metabolic health, including body weight, food intake and visceral adipose tissue mass...
January 15, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306340/review-nutritional-ecology-of-heavy-metals
#15
M Hejna, D Gottardo, A Baldi, V Dell'Orto, F Cheli, M Zaninelli, L Rossi
The aim of this review is to focus the attention on the nutrition ecology of the heavy metals and on the major criticisms related to the heavy metals content in animal feeds, manure, soil and animal-origin products. Heavy metals are metallic elements that have a high density that have progressively accumulated in the food chain with negative effects for human health. Some metals are essential (Fe, I, Co, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se) to maintain various physiological functions and are usually added as nutritional additives in animal feed...
January 8, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258956/approaches-to-assess-ige-mediated-allergy-risks-sensitization-and-cross-reactivity-from-new-or-modified-dietary-proteins
#16
REVIEW
B Remington, H C H Broekman, W M Blom, A Capt, R W R Crevel, I Dimitrov, C K Faeste, R Fernandez-Canton, S Giavi, G F Houben, K C Glenn, C B Madsen, A K Kruizinga, A Constable
The development and introduction of new dietary protein sources has the potential to improve food supply sustainability. Understanding the potential allergenicity of these new or modified proteins is crucial to ensure protection of public health. Exposure to new proteins may result in de novo sensitization, with or without clinical allergy, or clinical reactions through cross-reactivity. In this paper we review the potential of current methodologies (in silico, in vitro degradation, in vitro IgE binding, animal models and clinical studies) to address these outcomes for risk assessment purposes for new proteins, and especially to identify and characterise the risk of sensitization for IgE mediated allergy from oral exposure...
December 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236703/rural-protein-insufficiency-in-a-wildlife-depleted-west-african-farm-forest-landscape
#17
Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen, Guy Cowlishaw, Katherine Homewood, J Marcus Rowcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Wildlife is an important source of protein for many people in developing countries. Yet wildlife depletion due to overexploitation is common throughout the humid tropics and its effect on protein security, especially for vulnerable households, is poorly understood. This is problematic for both sustainable rural development and conservation management. METHODS: This study investigates a key dimension of protein security in a cash-crop farming community living in a wildlife-depleted farm-forest landscape in SW Ghana, a region where protein-energy malnutrition persists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228986/addressing-vulnerability-building-resilience-community-based-adaptation-to-vector-borne-diseases-in-the-context-of-global-change
#18
REVIEW
Kevin Louis Bardosh, Sadie Ryan, Kris Ebi, Susan Welburn, Burton Singer
BACKGROUND: The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground...
December 11, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220529/oxytocin-and-naltrexone-successfully-treat-hypothalamic-obesity-in-a-boy-post-craniopharyngioma-resection
#19
Eugenie A Hsu, Jennifer L Miller, Francisco A Perez, Christian L Roth
Context: Hypothalamic obesity, a treatment-resistant condition common to survivors of craniopharyngioma (CP), is strongly associated with a poor quality of life in this population. Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy balance and to have anorexigenic effects in animal studies. Naltrexone (NAL), an opiate antagonist, has been shown to deter hedonic eating and to potentiate OT's effects. Case description: In this parent-observed study, we tested the administration of intranasal OT for 10 weeks (phase 1), followed by a combination of intranasal OT and NAL for 38 weeks (phase 2) in a 13-year-old male with confirmed hypothalamic obesity and hyperphagia post-CP resection...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214457/gut-microbiota-and-host-juvenile-growth
#20
REVIEW
Martin Schwarzer, Maura Strigini, François Leulier
Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Among the good friends perhaps the most crucial ones are those that we are carrying within ourselves. They comprise the trillions of microbes that collectively constitute each individual's intestinal microbiota. Indeed, recent epidemiological and field studies in humans, supported by extensive experimental data on animal models, demonstrate a clear role of the intestinal microbiota on their host's juvenile growth, especially under suboptimal nutrient conditions...
December 6, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
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