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Sustainable animal food

Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Prasarn Tangkawattana
Although any fish-eating mammals could be potential definitive hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini, only a few, especially cats and dogs, are actually known reservoir hosts for this parasite. Both animals usually get infected via consuming raw or undercooked contaminated fish, fish dishes or food remains from households. The infected animals sustain parasite egg spread via open environment defecation. Cats are the most important reservoir with higher prevalence rates of O. viverrini infection than dogs in endemic areas...
2018: Advances in Parasitology
Wai Hoong Chang, Alvina G Lai
The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans...
2018: F1000Research
Arndt Feuerbacher, Jonas Luckmann, Ole Boysen, Sabine Zikeli, Harald Grethe
Organic agriculture (OA) is considered a strategy to make agriculture more sustainable. Bhutan has embraced the ambitious goal of becoming the world's first 100% organic nation. By analysing recent on-farm data in Bhutan, we found organic crop yields on average to be 24% lower than conventional yields. Based on these yield gaps, we assess the effects of the 100% organic conversion policy by employing an economy-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with detailed representation of Bhutan's agricultural sector incorporating agroecological zones, crop nutrients, and field operations...
2018: PloS One
Paulina R Lezama-Núñez, Dídac Santos-Fita, José R Vallejo
Understanding both domestication processes and agricultural practices is an interdisciplinary endeavor. Ethnographic research is potentially helpful for reconstructing past events. Such knowledge is also crucial for documenting the links between biological and cultural diversity, as well as for future purposes such as innovation in food production and sustainability. Here, we review six ethnographic case studies in different pastoral socioecological systems of the American continent. The livestock species involved include the native South American camelids and Arctic reindeer, as well as some Old World species (mainly goats, sheep, and cattle)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christian C Voigt, Winifred F Frick, Marc W Holderied, Richard Holland, Gerald Kerth, Marco A R Mello, Raina K Plowright, Sharon Swartz, Yossi Yovel
Movement ecology as an integrative discipline has advanced associated fields because it presents not only a conceptual framework for understanding movement principles but also helps formulate predictions about the consequences of movements for animals and their environments. Here, we synthesize recent studies on principles and patterns of bat movements in context of the movement ecology paradigm. The motion capacity of bats is defined by their highly articulated, flexible wings. Power production during flight follows a U-shaped curve in relation to speed in bats yet, in contrast to birds, bats use mostly exogenous nutrients for sustained flight...
September 2017: Quarterly Review of Biology
Owen Rhys Vaughan, Carlo A Rossi, Yuval Ginsberg, Anthony White, Mariya Hristova, Neil J Sebire, John Martin, Ian C Zachary, Donald M Peebles, Anna L David
Uterine artery application of adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy (Ad.VEGF-A165 ) increases uterine blood flow and fetal growth in experimental animals with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Whether Ad.VEGF-A165 reduces lifelong cardiovascular disease risk imposed by FGR remains unknown. Here, pregnant guinea pigs fed 70% normal food intake to induce FGR received Ad.VEGF-A165 (1x1010 viral particles, n=15) or vehicle (n=10), delivered to the external surface of the uterine arteries, in mid-pregnancy...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Christian Galasso, Ida Orefice, Alfonso Toscano, Tomás Vega Fernández, Luigi Musco, Christophe Brunet, Clementina Sansone, Paola Cirino
The carotenoid astaxanthin has strong antioxidant properties with beneficial effects for various degenerative diseases. This carotenoid is produced by some microalgae species when cultivated in particular conditions, and, interestingly, it is a predominant carotenoid in aquatic animals throughout a broad range of taxa. Recently, astaxanthin was detected in the eggs of the sea urchin Arbacia lixula in relevant concentrations when this organism was maintained in culture. These results have paved the way for deeper research into astaxanthin production by this species, particularly in regards to how astaxanthin production can be modulated by diet...
May 28, 2018: Marine Drugs
Odile Viltart, Philibert Duriez, Virginie Tolle
The exact mechanisms linking metabolic and neuroendocrine adaptations to undernutrition and the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) are not fully understood. AN is a psychiatric disorder of complex etiology characterized by extreme starvation while the disease is progressing into a chronic state. Metabolic and endocrine alterations associated to this disorder are part of a powerful response to maintain whole body energy homeostasis. But these modifications may also contribute to associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (reward abnormalities, anxiety, depression) and thus participate to sustain the disease...
March 28, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Henry Buller, Harry Blokhuis, Per Jensen, Linda Keeling
As farm animal welfare becomes an increasingly important component of contemporary global livestock production, animal welfare science and animal welfare policy-making need to find new ways of entering global debates over food security and sustainability. In this paper, we explore the means by which both animal welfare science and policy should articulate with these emerging global debates. Having first established the important gains in animal welfare policy and the maturity of animal welfare science, we identify and explore the potential impact of these current debates and argue that they have the potential for profound change in our understanding of, and our response to, the welfare of animals...
May 25, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Agata Los, Dana Ziuzina, Paula Bourke
Cereal grains are the most important staple foods for mankind worldwide. The constantly increasing annual production and yield is matched by demand for cereals, which is expected to increase drastically along with the global population growth. A critical food safety and quality issue is to minimize the microbiological contamination of grains as it affects cereals both quantitatively and qualitatively. Microorganisms present in cereals can affect the safety, quality, and functional properties of grains...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Katherine Ashley, Holly Harrison, Phalleap Hok Chan, Suon Sothoeun, James Robert Young, Peter Andrew Windsor, Russell David Bush
The majority of smallholder farming households in Cambodia are rurally based and rely on agriculture to support their livelihoods. However, in recent years, growth in the agriculture sector has stagnated with farmers facing several challenges including declining prices for traditional crops and irregular rainfall patterns. This has led to a need for farmers to diversify income sources with livestock promoted as a more viable livelihood activity, particularly the raising of cattle and poultry. However, uncertain profitability of livestock activities is a common perception by smallholders, especially where animals have not been traditionally viewed as a primary income source...
May 23, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Thomas D C Tarento, Dale D McClure, Andrea M Talbot, Hubert L Regtop, John R Biffin, Peter Valtchev, Fariba Dehghani, John M Kavanagh
The primary objective of this review is to propose an approach for the biosynthesis of phylloquinone (vitamin K1 ) based upon its known sources, its role in photosynthesis and its biosynthetic pathway. The chemistry, health benefits, market, and industrial production of vitamin K are also summarized. Vitamin K compounds (K vitamers) are required for the normal function of at least 15 proteins involved in diverse physiological processes such as coagulation, tissue mineralization, inflammation, and neuroprotection...
May 24, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Hannah H E Van Zanten, Mario Herrero, Ollie Van Hal, Elin Röös, Adrian Muller, Tara Garnett, Pierre J Gerber, Christian Schader, Imke J M De Boer
The need for more sustainable production and consumption of animal-source food is central to the achievement of the sustainable development goals: within this context, wise use of land is a core challenge and concern. A key question in feeding the future world is: how much animal-source food should we eat? We demonstrate that livestock raised under the circular economy concept could provide a significant, non-negligible part (9-23g/per capita) of our daily protein needs (~50-60 g/per capita). This livestock then would not consume human-edible biomass, such as grains, but mainly convert leftovers from arable land and grass resources into valuable food, implying that production of livestock feed is largely decoupled from arable land...
May 22, 2018: Global Change Biology
H R J van Kernebeek, S J Oosting, M K van Ittersum, R Ripoll-Bosch, I J M de Boer
Mineral phosphorus (P) used to fertilise crops is derived from phosphate rock, which is a finite resource. Preventing and recycling mineral P waste in the food system, therefore, are essential to sustain future food security and long-term availability of mineral P. The aim of our modelling exercise was to assess the potential of preventing and recycling P waste in a food system, in order to reduce the dependency on phosphate rock. To this end, we modelled a hypothetical food system designed to produce sufficient food for a fixed population with a minimum input requirement of mineral P...
May 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Lucie Mondoulet, Vincent Dioszeghy, Florence Busato, Camille Plaquet, Véronique Dhelft, Kevin Bethune, Laurence Leclere, Christian Daviaud, Mélanie Ligouis, Hugh Sampson, Christophe Dupont, Jörg Tost
BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a promising method for treating food allergies. In animal models, EPIT induces sustained unresponsiveness and prevents further sensitization mediated by Tregs. Here, we elucidate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of EPIT, by characterizing the kinetics of DNA methylation changes in sorted cells from spleen and blood and by evaluating its persistence and bystander effect compared to oral immunotherapy (OIT). METHODS: BALB/c mice orally sensitized to peanut proteins (PPE) were treated by EPIT using a PPE-patch or by PPE-OIT...
May 19, 2018: Allergy
Ashwin Miriyala, Sébastien Kessler, F Claire Rind, Geraldine A Wright
Animals detect changes in the environment using modality-specific, peripheral sensory neurons. The insect gustatory system encodes tastant identity and concentration through the independent firing of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) that spike rapidly at stimulus onset and quickly adapt. Here, we show the first evidence that concentrated sugar evokes a temporally structured burst pattern of spiking involving two GRNs within the gustatory sensilla of bumblebees. Bursts of spikes resulted when a sucrose-activated GRN was inhibited by another GRN at a frequency of ∼22 Hz during the first 1 s of stimulation...
May 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
H Braun, L Woitsch, B Hetzer, R Geisen, B Zange, M Schmidt-Heydt
A quarter of the world-wide crop is spoiled by filamentous fungi and their mycotoxins and weather extremes associated with the climate change lead to further deterioration of the situation. The ingestion of mycotoxins causes several health issues leading in the worst case to cancer in humans and animals. Common intervention strategies against mycotoxin producing fungi, such as the application of fungicides, may result in undesirable residues and in some cases to a stress induction of mycotoxin biosynthesis...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Zhongzhen Zhao, Eric Brand, Hiu Yee Kwan, Quanbin Han, Mengjia Zhou
Background: Houzao (bezoar) is a valuable imported Chinese medicine that is commonly used as a pediatric medicine to transform phlegm. There are mainly two types of Houzao, "Southeast Asian Houzao" and "Indian Houzao". "Indian Houzao" is the dominant commercial product accounts for over 95% of the actual utilization in the market. However, its origin, formation, composition, efficacy and pharmacology remain unclear. Therefore, we have conducted on-site investigation to clarify the origin of Indian Houzao...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Antonet Svircev, Dwayne Roach, Alan Castle
The ability of agriculture to continually provide food to a growing world population is of crucial importance. Bacterial diseases of plants and animals have continually reduced production since the advent of crop cultivation and animal husbandry practices. Antibiotics have been used extensively to mitigate these losses. The rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, however, together with consumers’ calls for antibiotic-free products, presents problems that threaten sustainable agriculture. Bacteriophages (phages) are proposed as bacterial population control alternatives to antibiotics...
April 25, 2018: Viruses
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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