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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098752/microbiological-load-of-edible-insects-found-in-belgium
#1
Rudy Caparros Megido, Sandrine Desmedt, Christophe Blecker, François Béra, Éric Haubruge, Taofic Alabi, Frédéric Francis
Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts...
January 13, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#2
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056757/phytochemical-therapies-in-vascular-functioning-a-molecular-approach
#3
Hasan Gencoglu, Cemal Orhan, Kazim Sahin
There has been an increasing interest in the usage of natural products for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to be negatively correlated with the risk of CVDs. These foods provide a diversity of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and fibers which play critical roles in the sustainability of optimal cardiovascular health. Plant-based foods or a nutritional cure are gradually being integrated into medical practice for CVD management partly due to the supporting experimental studies, clinical trials and epidemiological studies...
January 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045427/degradation-of-aflatoxins-by-means-of-laccases-from-trametes-versicolor-an-in-silico-insight
#4
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Massimo Reverberi, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials...
January 1, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036049/antimicrobial-resistant-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-spp-in-houseflies-infesting-fish-in-food-markets-in-zambia
#5
Mwansa M Songe, Bernard M Hang'ombe, Theodore J D Knight-Jones, Delia Grace
Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases and is a leading cause of death in developing countries. This is often caused by contaminated food. Poor food hygiene standards are exacerbated by the presence of flies which can transmit a variety of infectious microorganisms, particularly through animal source foods. This fact becomes especially important in developing countries like Zambia, where fish is a highly valued source of protein. Our interest in this study was to identify if the flies that beset food markets in Zambia carry important pathogenic bacteria on their bodies, and subsequently if these bacteria carry resistance genes to commonly used antibiotics, which would indicate problems in eradicating these pathogens...
December 28, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011086/the-application-of-epidemiology-in-national-veterinary-services-challenges-and-threats-in-brazil
#6
Vitor Salvador Picão Gonçalves, Geraldo Marcos de Moraes
The application of epidemiology in national veterinary services must take place at the interface between science and politics. Animal health policy development and implementation require attention to macro-epidemiology, the study of economic, social and policy inputs that affect the distribution and impact of animal or human disease at the national level. The world has changed fast over the last three decades including the delivery of veterinary services, their remit and the challenges addressed by public and animal health policies...
December 15, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008371/mindful-climate-action-health-and-environmental-co-benefits-from-mindfulness-based-behavioral-training
#7
Bruce Barrett, Maggie Grabow, Cathy Middlecamp, Margaret Mooney, Mary M Checovich, Alexander K Converse, Bob Gillespie, Julia Yates
Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes...
October 2016: Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007452/evaluation-of-hazardous-chemicals-in-edible-insects-and-insect-based-food-intended-for-human-consumption
#8
Giulia Poma, Matthias Cuykx, Elvio Amato, Chiara Calaprice, Jean Francois Focant, Adrian Covaci
Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy...
December 19, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993181/impact-of-cow-strain-and-concentrate-supplementation-on-grazing-behaviour-milk-yield-and-metabolic-state-of-dairy-cows-in-an-organic-pasture-based-feeding-system
#9
C Heublein, F Dohme-Meier, K-H Südekum, R M Bruckmaier, S Thanner, F Schori
As ruminants are able to digest fibre efficiently and assuming that competition for feed v. food use would intensify in the future, cereals and other field crops should primarily be destined to cover the dietary needs of humans and monogastric animals such as poultry and pigs. Farming systems with a reduced or absent concentrate supplementation, as postulated by organic agriculture associations, require adapted dairy cows. The aim of this experiment was to examine the impact of concentrate supplementation on milk production, grazing and rumination behaviour, feed intake, physical activity and blood traits with two Holstein-Friesian cow strains and to conclude the consequences for sustainable and organic farming...
December 20, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991880/earliest-direct-evidence-of-plant-processing-in-prehistoric-saharan-pottery
#10
Julie Dunne, Anna Maria Mercuri, Richard P Evershed, Silvia Bruni, Savino di Lernia
The invention of thermally resistant ceramic cooking vessels around 15,000 years ago was a major advance in human diet and nutrition(1-3), opening up new food groups and preparation techniques. Previous investigations of lipid biomarkers contained in food residues have routinely demonstrated the importance of prehistoric cooking pots for the processing of animal products across the world(4). Remarkably, however, direct evidence for plant processing in prehistoric pottery has not been forthcoming, despite the potential to cook otherwise unpalatable or even toxic plants(2,5)...
December 19, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976453/seasonality-constraints-to-livestock-grazing-intensity
#11
Tamara Fetzel, Petr Havlik, Mario Herrero, Karl-Heinz Erb
Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In the light of pressing sustainability challenges like climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems...
December 14, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973536/a-single-subcutaneous-injection-of-cellulose-ethers-administered-long-before-infection-confers-sustained-protection-against-prion-diseases-in-rodents
#12
Kenta Teruya, Ayumi Oguma, Keiko Nishizawa, Maki Kawata, Yuji Sakasegawa, Hiroshi Kamitakahara, Katsumi Doh-Ura
Prion diseases are fatal, progressive, neurodegenerative diseases caused by prion accumulation in the brain and lymphoreticular system. Here we report that a single subcutaneous injection of cellulose ethers (CEs), which are commonly used as inactive ingredients in foods and pharmaceuticals, markedly prolonged the lives of mice and hamsters intracerebrally or intraperitoneally infected with the 263K hamster prion. CEs provided sustained protection even when a single injection was given as long as one year before infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965963/transforming-beef-by-products-into-valuable-ingredients-which-spell-recipe-to-use
#13
Maeve Henchion, Mary McCarthy, Jim O'Callaghan
Satisfying the increasing global demand for protein results in challenges from a supply perspective. Increased use of animal proteins, through greater use of meat by-products, could form part of the solution, subject to consumer acceptance. This research investigates consumer evaluations of food products that incorporate ingredients derived from offals that have been produced through a range of food processing technologies. Using focus groups incorporating product stimuli representing various combinations of offals, processing, and carrier products, the research finds that the physical state and perceived naturalness of the ingredients influences acceptance...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958327/widespread-episodic-thiamine-deficiency-in-northern-hemisphere-wildlife
#14
Lennart Balk, Per-Åke Hägerroth, Hanna Gustavsson, Lisa Sigg, Gun Åkerman, Yolanda Ruiz Muñoz, Dale C Honeyfield, Ulla Tjärnlund, Kenneth Oliveira, Karin Ström, Stephen D McCormick, Simon Karlsson, Marika Ström, Mathijs van Manen, Anna-Lena Berg, Halldór P Halldórsson, Jennie Strömquist, Tracy K Collier, Hans Börjeson, Torsten Mörner, Tomas Hansson
Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#15
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905924/current-knowledge-and-perspectives-of-paenibacillus-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Elliot Nicholas Grady, Jacqueline MacDonald, Linda Liu, Alex Richman, Ze-Chun Yuan
Isolated from a wide range of sources, the genus Paenibacillus comprises bacterial species relevant to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Many Paenibacillus species can promote crop growth directly via biological nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, production of the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and release of siderophores that enable iron acquisition. They can also offer protection against insect herbivores and phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and viruses...
December 1, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890703/vitamin-b6-metabolism-in-microbes-and-approaches-for-fermentative-production
#18
REVIEW
Jonathan Rosenberg, Till Ischebeck, Fabian M Commichau
Vitamin B6 is a designation for the six vitamers pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), pyridoxine 5'-phosphate, and pyridoxamine. PLP, being the most important B6 vitamer, serves as a cofactor for many proteins and enzymes. In contrast to other organisms, animals and humans have to ingest vitamin B6 with their food. Several disorders are associated with vitamin B6 deficiency. Moreover, pharmaceuticals interfere with metabolism of the cofactor, which also results in vitamin B6 deficiency...
November 24, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886704/position-of-the-academy-of-nutrition-and-dietetics-vegetarian-diets
#19
Vesanto Melina, Winston Craig, Susan Levin
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits for the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage...
December 2016: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882313/experiences-in-tick-control-by-acaricide-in-the-traditional-cattle-sector-in-zambia-and-burkina-faso-possible-environmental-and-public-health-implications
#20
REVIEW
Daniele De Meneghi, Frédéric Stachurski, Hassane Adakal
Livestock, especially cattle, play a paramount role in agriculture production systems, particularly in poor countries throughout the world. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have an important impact on livestock and agriculture production in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors review the most common methods used for the control of ticks and TBDs. Special emphasis is given to the direct application of acaricides to the host animals. The possible environmental and public health adverse effects (i.e., risks for the workers, residues in the environment and in food products of animal origin) are mentioned...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
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