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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662017/use-of-unpalatable-forages-by-ruminants-the-influence-of-experience-with-the-biophysical-and-social-environment
#1
REVIEW
Roberto A Distel, Juan J Villalba
Unpalatable forage resources (low nutrient density, potentially toxic metabolites) are widespread and represent a challenge for ruminant nutrition, health, and welfare. Our objective was to synthesize the role of biophysical and social experience on the use of unpalatable forages by ruminants, and highlight derived behavioural solutions for the well-being of soils, plants, and animals. Environmental experiences early in life modulate gene expression and promote learning, which alters morpho-physiological and psychological mechanisms that modify behavioural responses and change food and habitat selection...
April 14, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650058/roles-of-instrumented-farm-scale-trials-in-trade-off-assessments-of-pasture-based-ruminant-production-systems
#2
T Takahashi, P Harris, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, G A McAuliffe, J N McFadzean, P J Murray, R J Orr, M J Rivero, L Wu, M R F Lee
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability...
April 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626394/microbiome-and-health-ramifications-of-intelligent-deception
#3
George B Stefano, Rachel Fine, Richard M Kream
Ten thousand years ago, the foundation for agricultural development and animal domestication was laid. Neolithic founder crops were carbohydrate-laden cereal grasses that facilitated transformation of hunter-gather societies into ancient civilizations with realistic capabilities for population expansion. In the last 3-4 decades, however, debilitating medical consequences of a progressively narrowed high caloric diet incorporating processed carbohydrates, animal protein, saturated fat and cholesterol, are translated into a global epidemic of obesity linked to metabolic and endocrine disorders, which, in part, emerged from the enhancement of our longevity...
April 7, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615380/-antibioticscout-ch-decision-support-for-the-prudent-use-of-antimicrobials-application-in-cattle
#4
R Peter, C Müntener, D Demuth, D Heim, F Stucki, M Mevissen, C Gerspach, M Kaske, A Steiner, M Meylan, M Bodmer, G Schüpbach-Regula, M Feldmann, H Naegeli
The administration of antibiotics in livestock has been criticized for many years, in particular because of an inappropriate use and the appearance of antibiotic residues in the environment, which can promote the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. However, antibiotics are essential for the successful and sustainable control of bacterial pathogens. With the aim of optimizing the use of antibiotics in food animals and minimizing the prevalence of resistant bacteria, AntibioticScout. ch provides a decision aid for the prudent use of antimicrobial drugs...
April 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614874/consumer-attitudes-toward-animal-welfare-friendly-products-and-willingness-to-pay-exploration-of-mexican-market-segments
#5
Genaro C Miranda-de la Lama, Laura X Estévez-Moreno, Morris Villarroel, Adolfo A Rayas-Amor, Gustavo A María, Wilmer S Sepúlveda
The study aim was to identify consumer segmentation based on nonhuman animal welfare (AW) attitudes and their relationship with demographic features and willingness to pay (WTP) for welfare-friendly products (WFP) in Mexico. Personal interviews were conducted with 843 Mexican consumers who stated they purchased most of the animal products in their home. Respondents were selected using a quota sampling method with age, gender, education, and origin as quota control variables. The multivariate analysis suggested there were three clusters or consumer profiles labeled "skeptical," "concerned," and "ethical," which helped explain the association between AW attitudes, some demographic variables, and WTP for WFP...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584460/strengthening-one-health-through-investments-in-agricultural-preparedness
#6
Tammy R Beckham, David A Brake, Joshua B Fine
There are links among agriculture and zoonotic diseases, transboundary diseases in domesticated and wild animals, climate patterns, and human population migrations. A natural or intentionally occurring high-consequence infectious disease ("biothreat") often has no geographic boundaries and has the potential to result in disease epidemics in humans, animals, or both. Although significant strides have been made globally in preparing for a natural or intentional introduction of an emerging and/or zoonotic disease, much remains to be accomplished...
March 27, 2018: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581251/the-opportunity-cost-of-animal-based-diets-exceeds-all-food-losses
#7
Alon Shepon, Gidon Eshel, Elad Noor, Ron Milo
Food loss is widely recognized as undermining food security and environmental sustainability. However, consumption of resource-intensive food items instead of more efficient, equally nutritious alternatives can also be considered as an effective food loss. Here we define and quantify these opportunity food losses as the food loss associated with consuming resource-intensive animal-based items instead of plant-based alternatives which are nutritionally comparable, e.g., in terms of protein content. We consider replacements that minimize cropland use for each of the main US animal-based food categories...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565832/recent-advances-in-physical-post-harvest-treatments-for-shelf-life-extension-of-cereal-crops
#8
REVIEW
Marcus Schmidt, Emanuele Zannini, Elke K Arendt
As a result of the rapidly growing global population and limited agricultural area, sufficient supply of cereals for food and animal feed has become increasingly challenging. Consequently, it is essential to reduce pre- and post-harvest crop losses. Extensive research, featuring several physical treatments, has been conducted to improve cereal post-harvest preservation, leading to increased food safety and sustainability. Various pests can lead to post-harvest losses and grain quality deterioration. Microbial spoilage due to filamentous fungi and bacteria is one of the main reasons for post-harvest crop losses and mycotoxins can induce additional consumer health hazards...
March 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535319/a-meta-analysis-of-birth-origin-effects-on-reproduction-in-diverse-captive-environments
#9
Katherine A Farquharson, Carolyn J Hogg, Catherine E Grueber
Successfully establishing captive breeding programs is a priority across diverse industries to address food security, demand for ethical laboratory research animals, and prevent extinction. Differences in reproductive success due to birth origin may threaten the long-term sustainability of captive breeding. Our meta-analysis examining 115 effect sizes from 44 species of invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals shows that, overall, captive-born animals have a 42% decreased odds of reproductive success in captivity compared to their wild-born counterparts...
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512008/occurrence-of-sweet-refuse-at-disposal-sites-rainwater-retention-capacity-and-potential-breeding-opportunities-for-aedes-aegypti
#10
Hamady Dieng, Tomomitsu Satho, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti Meli, Fatimah Abang, Cirilo Nolasco-Hipolito, Hafijah Hakim, Fumio Miake, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Nur Faeza A Kassim, Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid, Ronald E Morales Vargas, Noppawan P Morales, Gabriel Tonga Noweg
Nectar is the staple diet of adult mosquitoes in the wild, but its availability is inconsistent and can be affected by rainfall. In urban centers, Aedes vectors commonly use man-made containers as their major habitat; however, they can colonize any items replenished by rainfall. Garbage output has increased significantly in recent years, at a time when collection frequency is reducing. Such garbage usually includes organic components, some of which are sweet and can be fed upon by other animals or become can containers for rainwater...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507224/measuring-the-potential-for-sustainable-intensification-of-aquaculture-in-bangladesh-using-life-cycle-assessment
#11
Patrik John Gustav Henriksson, Ben Belton, Khondker Murshed-E- Jahan, Andreu Rico
Food production is a major driver of global environmental change and the overshoot of planetary sustainability boundaries. Greater affluence in developing nations and human population growth are also increasing demand for all foods, and for animal proteins in particular. Consequently, a growing body of literature calls for the sustainable intensification of food production, broadly defined as "producing more using less". Most assessments of the potential for sustainable intensification rely on only one or two indicators, meaning that ecological trade-offs among impact categories that occur as production intensifies may remain unaccounted for...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496410/plant-based-diets-and-cardiovascular-health
#12
REVIEW
Ambika Satija, Frank B Hu
Plant-based diets, defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption, have been increasingly recommended for their health benefits. Numerous studies have found plant-based diets, especially when rich in high quality plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, to be associated with lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intermediate risk factors. This review summarizes the current evidence base examining the associations of plant-based diets with cardiovascular endpoints, and discusses the potential biological mechanisms underlying their health effects, practical recommendations and applications of this research, and directions for future research...
February 13, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487286/multi-indicator-sustainability-assessment-of-global-food-systems
#13
Abhishek Chaudhary, David Gustafson, Alexander Mathys
Food systems are at the heart of at least 12 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The wide scope of the SDGs call for holistic approaches that integrate previously "siloed" food sustainability assessments. Here we present a first global-scale analysis quantifying the status of national food system performance of 156 countries, employing 25 sustainability indicators across 7 domains as follows: nutrition, environment, food affordability and availability, sociocultural well-being, resilience, food safety, and waste...
February 27, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479530/environmental-impacts-of-plant-based-diets-how-does-organic-food-consumption-contribute-to-environmental-sustainability
#14
Camille Lacour, Louise Seconda, Benjamin Allès, Serge Hercberg, Brigitte Langevin, Philippe Pointereau, Denis Lairon, Julia Baudry, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot
Background: Studies investigating diet-related environmental impacts have rarely considered the production method of the foods consumed. The objective of the present study, based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort, was to investigate the relationship between a provegetarian score and diet-related environmental impacts. We also evaluated potential effect modifications on the association between a provegetarian score and the environmental impacts of organic food consumption. Methods: Food intake and organic food consumption ratios were obtained from 34,442 French adults using a food frequency questionnaire, which included information on organic food consumption for each group...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475866/microbial-community-dynamics-during-rearing-of-black-soldier-fly-larvae-hermetia-illucens-and-its-impact-on-exploitation-potential
#15
Jeroen De Smet, Enya Wynants, Paul Cos, Leen Van Campenhout
The need to increase sustainability in agriculture, to ensure food security for the future generations, is leading to the emergence of industrial rearing facilities for insects. One promising species being industrially reared as an alternative protein source for animal feed and as a raw material for the chemical industry is the black soldier fly ( Hermetia illucens ). However, scientific knowledge towards the optimization of productivity for this insect is scarce. One knowledge gap concerns the impact of the microbial community associated with H...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475860/microbiota-mediated-modulation-of-organophosphate-insecticide-toxicity-by-species-dependent-lactobacilli-interactions-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-insect-model
#16
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Stephanie L Collins, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Despite benefits to the global food supply and agricultural economies, pesticides are believed to pose a threat to both human and wildlife health. Chlorpyrifos (CP), a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, has poor target-specificity and causes acute neurotoxicity in a wide range of species via suppression of acetylcholinesterase. This effect is exacerbated 10- to 100-fold by chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), a principal metabolite of CP. Since many animal-associated symbiont microorganisms are known to hydrolyze CP into CPO, we used a Drosophila melanogaster insect model to investigate the hypothesis that indigenous and probiotic bacteria could affect CP metabolism and toxicity...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468318/how-grazing-affects-soil-quality-of-soils-formed-in-the-glaciated-northeastern-united-states
#17
Alissa H Cox, José A Amador
Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control...
February 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456587/dietary-diversity-and-associated-factors-among-children-of-orthodox-christian-mothers-caregivers-during-the-fasting-season-in-dejen-district-north-west-ethiopia
#18
Gemechu Kumera, Endalkachew Tsedal, Mulatu Ayana
Background: Proper feeding practices during early childhood is fundamental for optimal child growth and development. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of dietary diversity are scanty. Particularly, the impact of fasting on children`s dietary diversity is not explored in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months, whose mothers/care-givers were Orthodox Christians during the fasting season (Lent), in Dejen District, North West Ethiopia, 2016...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444308/integration-of-multi-omics-techniques-and-physiological-phenotyping-within-a-holistic-phenomics-approach-to-study-senescence-in-model-and-crop-plants
#19
Dominik K Großkinsky, Syahnada Jaya Syaifullah, Thomas Roitsch
The study of senescence in plants is complicated by diverse levels of temporal and spatial dynamics as well as the impact of external biotic and abiotic factors and crop plant management. Whereas the molecular mechanisms involved in developmentally regulated leaf senescence are very well understood, in particular in the annual model plant species Arabidopsis, senescence of other organs such as the flower, fruit, and root is much less studied as well as senescence in perennials such as trees. This review addresses the need for the integration of multi-omics techniques and physiological phenotyping into holistic phenomics approaches to dissect the complex phenomenon of senescence...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#20
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
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