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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525653/predicted-philogeny-secondary-conformational-structure-and-epitope-antigenicity-of-immunological-sequences-in-poultry
#1
L J Lara, A P Peconick, É J Fassani, A M P Júnior, P R B Chalfun, D L Raymundo, T A Barçante, J M de P Barçante
Poultry production is faced with different types of stresses that are responsible for issues of animal welfare as well as for economic losses. Moreover, the immunity decreases when animals are stressed. In silico analyses are important in reducing the cost and in increasing the accuracy of scientific results. A bioinformatics tool was used to perform ontology studies on 15 different immunological sequences of poultry. The mRNA structures and sequences with maximum antigenic residues were also predicted. No homology was found between the sequences of poultry and mammals...
May 18, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482305/virtual-water-trade-of-agri-food-products-evidence-from-italian-chinese-relations
#2
Lucrezia Lamastra, Pier Paolo Miglietta, Pierluigi Toma, Federica De Leo, Stefania Massari
At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources...
May 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480387/politics-of-biopiracy-an-adventure-into-hoodia-xhoba-patenting-in-southern-africa
#3
Lere Amusan
BACKGROUND: Africa is being described as the wretched of the earth, despite this, the continent is endowed with natural resources, dynamic ecosystem, and different species of plants and animals, and species derivatives. This paper area of departure is to focus on Hoodia, a plant that is being a source of food, medicine and water for the San and Khoe indigenous peoples before the advent of Europeans into southern Africa. South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) dubiously patented Hoodia without observing the basic indices of geographical indications (GIs), indigenous knowledge (IK), novelty, access sharing benefit (ASB), prior informed consent (PIC) and sustainability of ecosystem before the rights was sold to Phytopharm pharmaceutical company...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479335/allergen-specific-igg-antibodies-signaling-via-fc%C3%AE-riib-promote-food-tolerance
#4
Oliver T Burton, Jaciel M Tamayo, Amanda J Stranks, Kyle J Koleoglou, Hans C Oettgen
BACKGROUND: Food-allergic subjects produce high-titer IgE antibodies that bind to mast cells via FcεRI and trigger immediate hypersensitivity reactions upon antigen encounter. Food-specific IgG antibodies arise in the setting of naturally resolving food allergy and accompany the acquisition of food allergen unresponsiveness in oral immunotherapy (OIT). OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to delineate the effects of IgG and its inhibitory Fc receptor, FcγRIIb, on both de novo allergen sensitization in naïve animals and on established immune responses in the setting of pre-existing food allergy...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473588/branch-specific-plasticity-of-a-bifunctional-dopamine-circuit-encodes-protein-hunger
#5
Qili Liu, Masashi Tabuchi, Sha Liu, Lay Kodama, Wakako Horiuchi, Jay Daniels, Lucinda Chiu, Daniel Baldoni, Mark N Wu
Free-living animals must not only regulate the amount of food they consume but also choose which types of food to ingest. The shifting of food preference driven by nutrient-specific hunger can be essential for survival, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We identified a dopamine circuit that encodes protein-specific hunger in Drosophila The activity of these neurons increased after substantial protein deprivation. Activation of this circuit simultaneously promoted protein intake and restricted sugar consumption, via signaling to distinct downstream neurons...
May 5, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461435/towards-environmentally-sustainable-human-behaviour-targeting-non-conscious-and-conscious-processes-for-effective-and-acceptable-policies
#6
REVIEW
Theresa M Marteau
Meeting climate change targets to limit global warming to 2°C requires rapid and large reductions in demand for products that most contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These include production of bulk materials (e.g. steel and cement), energy supply (e.g. fossil fuels) and animal source foods (particularly ruminants and their products). Effective strategies to meet these targets require transformative changes in supply as well as demand, involving changes in economic, political and legal systems at local, national and international levels, building on evidence from many disciplines...
June 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460836/the-role-of-meat-in-strategies-to-achieve-a-sustainable-diet-lower-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions-a-review
#7
REVIEW
John J Hyland, Maeve Henchion, Mary McCarthy, Sinéad N McCarthy
Food consumption is responsible for a considerable proportion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Hence, individual food choices have the potential to substantially influence both public health and the environment. Meat and animal products are relatively high in GHGE and therefore targeted in efforts to reduce dietary emissions. This review first highlights the complexities regarding sustainability in terms of meat consumption and thereafter discusses possible strategies that could be implemented to mitigate its climatic impact...
April 21, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453561/a-webgis-platform-for-the-monitoring-of-farm-animal-genetic-resources-genmon
#8
Solange Duruz, Christine Flury, Giona Matasci, Florent Joerin, Ivo Widmer, Stéphane Joost
BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initiated the Global plan of action for Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR). The main goal of this plan is to reduce further loss of genetic diversity in farm animals, so as to protect and promote the diversity of farm animal resources. An important step to reach this goal is to monitor and prioritize endangered breeds in the context of conservation programs. METHODOLOGY/WEB PORTAL IMPLEMENTATION: The GENMON WebGIS platform is able to monitor FAnGR and to evaluate the degree of endangerment of livestock breeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449231/resource-partitioning-in-tolerant-and-intolerant-macaques
#9
Nancy Rebout, Christine Desportes, Bernard Thierry
The clumped distribution of food resources promotes food defensibility and can lead to the monopolizing of resources by high-ranking individuals. However, the balance of power is set at different levels according to societies, meaning that resource partitioning should vary between them. This study investigates whether dominance asymmetry and resource partitioning are related in non-human primates by comparing two species with contrasting social styles, namely rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) which display strong social intolerance and a steep gradient of dominance, and Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), which exhibit higher levels of tolerance and more balanced dominance relationships...
April 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444858/dietary-protein-content-for-an-optimal-diet-a-clinical-view
#10
EDITORIAL
Lidia Santarpia, Franco Contaldo, Fabrizio Pasanisi
The dietary protein role in different clinical nutritional conditions and some physio-pathological perspectives is a current and hot topic to discuss. Recent Proceedings of the Protein Summit 2, joining more than 60 nutrition scientists, health experts, and nutrition educators, suggest to increase plant but, in particular, animal protein intake because richer in leucine and consequently more effective to influence anabolic protein metabolism. The Panel conclusions are in apparent contradiction with the nutritional ecology statements, which strongly sustain the reduction of animal origin foods in the human diet and are currently concerned about the excessive, mainly animal protein intake in western and westernized Countries...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431803/reutilization-of-discarded-biomass-for-preparing-functional-polymer-materials
#11
REVIEW
Jianfeng Wang, Wenzhen Qian, Yufeng He, Yubing Xiong, Pengfei Song, Rong-Min Wang
Biomass is abundant and recyclable on the earth, which has been assigned numerous roles to human beings. However, over the past decades, accompanying with the rapid expansion of man-made materials, such as alloy, plastic, synthetic rubber and fiber, a great number of natural materials had been neglected and abandoned, such as straw, which cause a waste of resource and environmental pollution. In this review, based on introducing sources of discarded biomass, the main composition and polymer chains in discarded biomass materials, the traditional treatment and novel approach for reutilization of discarded biomass were summarized...
April 18, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421280/systems-biology-of-seeds-deciphering-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-seed-storage-dormancy-and-onset-of-germination
#12
EDITORIAL
Nese Sreenivasulu
Seeds are heterogeneous storage reserves with wide array of storage compounds that include various soluble carbohydrates, starch polymer, storage proteins and lipids. These stored reserves comprise 70% of the world's caloric intake in the form of food and animal feed produced through sustainable agriculture, which contributes to food and nutritional security. Seed systems biology remains an enigmatic subject in understanding seed storage processes, maturation and pre-germinative metabolism. The reviews and research articles covered in this special issue of Plant Cell Reports highlight recent advances made in the area of seed biology that cover various systems biology applications such as gene regulatory networks, metabolomics, epigenetics and the role of micro-RNA in seed development...
April 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411402/transcriptomics-of-cereal-fusarium-graminearum-interactions-what-we-have-learned-so-far
#13
REVIEW
Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on cereal hosts such as wheat, barley and maize. In addition to reducing grain yield, infection by this pathogen causes major quality losses. In particular, the contamination of food and feed with the F. graminearum trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can have many adverse short- and long-term effects on human and animal health. During the last decade, the interaction between F. graminearum and both cereal and model hosts has been extensively studied through transcriptome analyses...
April 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408831/modulation-of-the-activity-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-as-a-novel-treatment-option-for-depression-current-clinical-evidence-and-therapeutic-potential-of-rapastinel-glyx-13
#14
REVIEW
Andrei-Nicolae Vasilescu, Nina Schweinfurth, Stefan Borgwardt, Peter Gass, Undine E Lang, Dragos Inta, Sarah Eckart
Classical monoaminergic antidepressants show several disadvantages, such as protracted onset of therapeutic action. Conversely, the fast and sustained antidepressant effect of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine raises vast interest in understanding the role of the glutamate system in mood disorders. Indeed, numerous data support the existence of glutamatergic dysfunction in major depressive disorder (MDD). Drawback to this short-latency therapy is its side effect profile, especially the psychotomimetic action, which seriously hampers the common and widespread clinical use of ketamine...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387024/protein-efficiency-in-intensive-dairy-production-a-swedish-example
#15
Christian Swensson, Helena Lindmark-Månsson, Annika Smedman, Maria Henriksson, Anna-Karin Modin Edman
BACKGROUND: Animal agriculture has been criticised in terms of its sustainability from several perspectives. Ruminants, such as dairy cows, can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and by-products from the food industry into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. Evaluation of the protein conversion efficiency of dairy production from a sustainability and resource perspective must be based on the proportion of the animal feed edible to humans. A relevant metric is thus edible feed protein conversion ratio (eFPCR), i...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386446/early-animal-farming-and-zoonotic-disease-dynamics-modelling-brucellosis-transmission-in-neolithic-goat-populations
#16
Guillaume Fournié, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Robin Bendrey
Zoonotic pathogens are frequently hypothesized as emerging with the origins of farming, but evidence of this is elusive in the archaeological records. To explore the potential impact of animal domestication on zoonotic disease dynamics and human infection risk, we developed a model simulating the transmission of Brucella melitensis within early domestic goat populations. The model was informed by archaeological data describing goat populations in Neolithic settlements in the Fertile Crescent, and used to assess the potential of these populations to sustain the circulation of Brucella...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#17
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323074/an-obesogenic-refined-low-fat-diet-disrupts-attentional-and-behavioral-control-processes-in-a-vigilance-task-in-rats
#18
Aaron P Blaisdell, Traci Biedermann, Eric Sosa, Ava Abuchaei, Neveen Youssef, Sylvie Bradesi
Diets consisting of refined foods (REF) are associated with poor physical (e.g., obesity and diabetes) and mental (e.g., depression) health and impaired cognition. Few animal studies have explored the causal links between diet processing and health. Instead, most studies focus on the role of macronutrients, especially carbohydrate and fat concurrently with how processed are the ingredients. We previously showed that a REF low fat diet (LFD) caused greater adiposity and impaired motivation compared to an unrefined control (CON) diet consisting of similar macronutrient ratios (Blaisdell et al...
March 18, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314053/fish-for-dinner-balancing-risks-benefits-and-values-in-formulating-food-consumption-advice
#19
Karen Rideout, Tom Kosatsky
Many and complex factors underlie seemingly simple decisions about what to eat. This is particularly so for foods such as fish, which present consumers with both risks and benefits. Advice about what type of and how much fish to consume is abundant, but that advice is often confusing or contradictory, reflecting the differing mandates and orientations of those advising. We survey a range of issues that can and should be incorporated into dietary advice, and offer tools for health agencies tasked with providing it...
March 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302888/investigation-of-productivity-in-a-south-indian-malabari-goat-herd-shows-opportunities-for-planned-animal-health-management-to-improve-food-security
#20
N D Sargison, S A J Ivil, J Abraham, S P S Abubaker, A M Hopker, S Mazeri, I A Otter, N Otter
Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context...
March 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
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