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Anti-nutritional factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649760/immunometabolism-of-human-autoimmune-diseases-from-metabolites-to-extracellular-vesicles
#1
REVIEW
Paola de Candia, Veronica De Rosa, Vincenzo Gigantino, Gerardo Botti, Antonio Ceriello, Giuseppe Matarese
Immunometabolism focuses on the mechanisms regulating the impact of metabolism on lymphocyte activity and autoimmunity outbreak. The adipose tissue is long known to release adipokines, either pro- or anti-inflammatory factors bridging nutrition and immune function. More recently, adipocytes were discovered to also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing a plethora of biological molecules, including metabolites and microRNAs, which can regulate cell function/metabolism in distant tissues, suggesting that immune regulatory function by the adipose tissue may be far more complex than originally thought...
June 26, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649458/physico-chemical-rheological-and-antioxidant-properties-of-sweet-chestnut-castanea-sativa-mill-as-affected-by-pan-and-microwave-roasting
#2
Idrees Ahmed Wani, Humaira Hamid, Afshan Mumtaz Hamdani, Adil Gani, Bilal Ahmad Ashwar
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) belongs to the family Fagaceae and sub family Castaneoideae. Bioactive components such as tannins are present in sweet chestnut in high proportion giving astringent bitter taste and reducing their palatability. Roasting reduces the anti-nutritional factors in chestnut. This study was conducted to compare the effects of pan and microwave roasting on physicochemical, functional, rheological and antioxidant properties of sweet chestnut. Antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH inhibition activity, reducing power, and total phenolic content...
July 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638394/a-comparative-study-of-selected-physical-and-biochemical-traits-of-wild-type-and-transgenic-sorghum-to-reveal-differences-relevant-to-grain-quality
#3
Roya J Ndimba, Johanita Kruger, Luke Mehlo, Alban Barnabas, Jens Kossmann, Bongani K Ndimba
Transgenic sorghum featuring RNAi suppression of certain kafirins was developed recently, to address the problem of poor protein digestibility in the grain. However, it was not firmly established if other important quality parameters were adversely affected by this genetic intervention. In the present study several quality parameters were investigated by surveying several important physical and biochemical grain traits. Important differences in grain weight, density and endosperm texture were found that serve to differentiate the transgenic grains from their wild-type counterpart...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637944/service-and-sales-workers-are-they-vulnerable-to-smoking-cessation
#4
Youn-Mo Cho, Jun-Pyo Myong, Hyoung-Ryoul Kim, HyeEun Lee, Jung-Wan Koo
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between failed smoking cessation and occupation by age stratification among Korean males and provide quantitative evidence of factors associated with failed smoking cessation. The study comprised 3,127 male workers who had attempted smoking cessation during their life time. Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. Participants were stratified by age into two subgroups comprising a younger group (19-40 years) and an older group (41-60 years)...
June 20, 2017: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595318/mediterranean-diet-and-inflammaging-within-the-hormesis-paradigm
#5
Morena Martucci, Rita Ostan, Fiammetta Biondi, Elena Bellavista, Cristina Fabbri, Claudia Bertarelli, Stefano Salvioli, Miriam Capri, Claudio Franceschi, Aurelia Santoro
A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is argued here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted...
June 8, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594103/dietary-%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-supplementation-improves-hepatic-and-intestinal-energy-status-and-anti-oxidative-capacity-of-cherry-valley-ducks
#6
Shuangshuang Guo, Rui Duan, Lei Wang, Yongqing Hou, Linglin Tan, Qiang Cheng, Man Liao, Binying Ding
α-Ketoglutarate (AKG) is an extensively used dietary supplement in human and animal nutrition. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of dietary AKG supplementation on the energy status and anti-oxidative capacity in liver and intestinal mucosa of Cherry Valley ducks. A total of 80 1-day-old ducks were randomly assigned into four groups, in which ducks were fed basal diets supplemented with 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% AKG, respectively. Graded doses of AKG supplementation linearly decreased the ratio of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the liver, but increased ATP content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in a quadratic and linear manner, respectively (P < 0...
June 8, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588790/ibuprofen-and-fatal-lung-cancer-a-brief-report-of-the-prospective-results-from-the-third-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-iii
#7
Marisa A Bittoni, David P Carbone, Randall E Harris
Chronic inflammation appears to increase the risk of lung cancer and, reciprocally, agents that reduce inflammation have been found to reduce this risk. However, few prospective studies have assessed whether there exists an association between lung cancer and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In the present study, the association between fatal lung cancer and NSAIDs was investigated using cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES III). Baseline data were collected on smoking, NSAID use and other lifestyle factors for 10,735 participants during 1988-1994, with cause-specific mortality status ascertained through probabilistic record matching based on the National Death Index until 2006...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583667/dietary-safety-of-a-dual-enzyme-preparation-for-animal-feed-acute-and-subchronic-oral-toxicity-and-genotoxicity-studies
#8
G P Dillon, M A Gaffney, C M Curran, C A Moran
Animal feed is routinely supplemented with exogenous enzymes to improve nutrient utilization, such as proteases to enhance protein hydrolysis in vivo and xylanases to alleviate feed related anti-nutritional factors. The present studies were conducted to evaluate the potential oral toxicity and genotoxicity of a dual-enzyme preparation, Vegpro(®) concentrate (VPr-C). Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley Crl CD rats and CHS Swiss ICO:OFI (IOPS Caw) mice. Thirteen week preliminary and final subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in male and female rats...
June 3, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569990/prospective-randomized-multicenter-controlled-trial-triathron-1-on-a-new-antithrombogenic-hydrophilic-dialysis-membrane
#9
Claudio Ronco, Alessandra Brendolan, Federico Nalesso, Monica Zanella, Massimo De Cal, Valentina Corradi, Grazia M Virzì, Fiorenza Ferrari, Francesco Garzotto, Anna Lorenzin, Aakash N Karopadi, Marco Sartori, Silvia De Rosa, Sara Samoni, Faeq Husain-Syed, Alessandra Spinelli, Mauro Neri, Gianluca Villa, Alberta Alghisi
INTRODUCTION: Hemodialysis treatment requires anticoagulation to prevent thrombosis of the dialyzer. The Hydrolink® (NV series; Toray) has been designed to reduce thrombotic complications by increasing membrane hydrophilic properties. Previous studies have confirmed reduced platelet activation, improved removal of β2-microglobulin and excellent small-solute removal. METHODS: We designed a prospective, multi-centered, randomized clinical study to compare the antithrombogenic effects (platelet count) of NV dialyzers versus conventional treatment...
May 29, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559898/silencing-of-soybean-raffinose-synthase-gene-reduced-raffinose-family-oligosaccharides-and-increased-true-metabolizable-energy-of-poultry-feed
#10
Michelle F Valentine, Joann R De Tar, Muruganantham Mookkan, Jeffre D Firman, Zhanyuan J Zhang
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the number one oil and protein crop in the United States, but the seed contains several anti-nutritional factors that are toxic to both humans and livestock. RNA interference technology has become an increasingly popular technique in gene silencing because it allows for both temporal and spatial targeting of specific genes. The objective of this research is to use RNA-mediated gene silencing to down-regulate the soybean gene raffinose synthase 2 (RS2), to reduce total raffinose content in mature seed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554622/comparison-of-anti-pathogenic-activities-of-the-human-and-bovine-milk-n-glycome-fucosylation-is-a-key-factor
#11
Wen-Li Wang, Wei Wang, Ya-Min Du, Hong Wu, Xiao-Bo Yu, Ke-Ping Ye, Chun-Bao Li, Yong-Sam Jung, Ying-Juan Qian, Josef Voglmeir, Li Liu
Health differences between breast- and formula-fed infants have long been apparent despite great efforts in improving the function of baby formula by adjusting the levels of various milk nutritional components. However, the N-glycome, a type of oligosaccharide decorating a diverse range of proteins, has not been extensively studied in milk regarding its biological function. In this study, the anti-pathogenic function of the enzymatically released human and bovine milk N-glycome against 5 food-borne pathogens was investigated...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529304/sebastian-kneipp-and-the-natural-cure-movement-of-germany-between-naturalism-and-modern-medicine
#12
Youkyung Ko
This study discusses the historical significance of the Natural Cure Movement of Germany, centering on the Kneipp Cure, a form of hydrotherapy practiced by Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897). The Kneipp Cure rested on five main tenets: hydrotherapy, exercise, nutrition, herbalism, and the balance of mind and body. This study illuminates the reception of the Kneipp Cure in the context of the trilateral relationship among the Kneipp Cure, the Natural Cure Movement in general, and modern medicine. The Natural Cure Movement was ideologically based on naturalism, criticizing industrialization and urbanization...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528692/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-axis-in-cancerogenesis
#13
REVIEW
Aldona Kasprzak, Wojciech Kwasniewski, Agnieszka Adamek, Anna Gozdzicka-Jozefiak
Determination of the role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family components in carcinogenesis of several human tumors is based on numerous epidemiological and pre-clinical studies, experiments in vivo and in vitro and on attempts at application of drugs affecting the IGF axis. Investigative hypotheses in original studies were based on biological functions manifested by the entire family of IGF (ligands, receptors, linking proteins, adaptor molecules). In the context of carcinogenesis the most important functions of IGF family involve intensification of proliferation and inhibition of cell apoptosis and effect on cell transformation through synthesis of several regulatory proteins...
April 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523996/micro-rnas-exercise-and-cellular-plasticity-in-humans-the-impact-of-dietary-factors-and-hypoxia
#14
Timothée Watier, Anthony Mj Sanchez
Physical exercise is a stress that modulates a plethora of cellular mechanisms to promote morphological and metabolic adaptations. Substantial efforts have been made to better understand the modulation of pathways involved in cell plasticity during exercise, but human explorations may be limited because invasive procedures are often required. In recent years, minimally invasive methods for the analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) modulation in response to exercise have been developed. miRNAs are small molecules that belong to a family of non-coding RNAs...
May 19, 2017: MicroRNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504910/fermented-moringa-oleifera-decreases-hepatic-adiposity-and-ameliorates-glucose-intolerance-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#15
Hyunchae Joung, Bobae Kim, Hyunjoon Park, Kyuyeon Lee, Hee-Hoon Kim, Ho-Cheol Sim, Hyun-Jin Do, Chang-Kee Hyun, Myoung-Sool Do
Metabolic diseases, such as glucose intolerance and nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD), are primary risk factors for life-threatening conditions such as diabetes, heart attack, stroke, and hepatic cancer. Extracts from the tropical tree Moringa oleifera show antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Fermentation can further improve the safety and nutritional value of certain foods. We investigated the efficacy of fermented M. oleifera extract (FM) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic lipid accumulation and investigated the underlying mechanisms by analyzing expression of proteins and genes involved in glucose and lipid regulation...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503807/reducing-anti-nutritional-factor-and-enhancing-yield-with-advancing-time-of-planting-and-zinc-application-in-grasspea-in-ethiopia
#16
Ashutosh Sarker, Asnake Fikre, Ali M Abd El-Moneim, Hani Nakkoul, Murari Singh
BACKGROUND: Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.), an important pulse crop in food, feed and for sustainable crop production systems in Ethiopia. Despite its advantage on nutrition and adaptability to harsh climate and low fertile soil, it contains a neurotoxin β - N - Oxalyl α β diamiono propionic acid (β-ODAP) which paralyzes the lower limbs and is affected by genotypic and agronomic factors. The effect of zinc application and planting date on yield and β- ODAP content of two genotypes, experiments were conducted in two regions of Ethiopia...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503683/cellular-evaluation-of-diselenonicotinamide-dsna-as-a-radioprotector-against-cell-death-and-dna-damage
#17
M Raghuraman, Prachi Verma, Amit Kunwar, Prasad P Phadnis, V K Jain, K Indira Priyadarsini
Diselenonicotinamide (DSNA), a synthetic organoselenium compound, was evaluated for its radioprotective effect in cellular models. A clonogenic assay in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and an apoptosis assay in murine splenic lymphocytes indicated that pre-treatment with DSNA at a concentration of 25 μM significantly protected them from radiation-induced cell death. Upon irradiation (1-12 Gy), dose-response studies were carried out under similar treatment conditions, and its dose modification factor (DMF) was estimated to be 1...
June 1, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490106/inactivation-of-soybean-trypsin-inhibitor-by-dielectric-barrier-discharge-dbd-plasma
#18
Junguang Li, Qisen Xiang, Xiufang Liu, Tian Ding, Xiangsheng Zhang, Yafei Zhai, Yanhong Bai
Soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) is considered as one of the most important anti-nutritional factors in soybeans. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts and underling mechanisms of dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on STI activities. The results shown that DBD plasma treatment significantly induced the inactivation of STI in soymilk and Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from soybean (SKTI) in a model system. After exposure to DBD plasma at 51.4W for 21min, the STI activities of soymilk were reduced by 86...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487633/cochlear-homocysteine-metabolism-at-the-crossroad-of-nutrition-and-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#19
REVIEW
Teresa Partearroyo, Néstor Vallecillo, María A Pajares, Gregorio Varela-Moreiras, Isabel Varela-Nieto
Hearing loss (HL) is one of the most common causes of disability, affecting 360 million people according to the World Health Organization (WHO). HL is most frequently of sensorineural origin, being caused by the irreversible loss of hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons. The etiology of sensorineural HL (SNHL) is multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors such as noise, ototoxic substances and aging playing a role. The nutritional status is central in aging disability, but the interplay between nutrition and SNHL has only recently gained attention...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469549/repeat-24-hour-recalls-and-locally-developed-food-composition-databases-a-feasible-method-to-estimate-dietary-adequacy-in-a-multi-site-preconception-maternal-nutrition-rct
#20
Rebecca L Lander, K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs, Jamie E Westcott, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Gabriela Tejeda, Adrien Lokangaka, Tshilenge S Diba, Manjunath S Somannavar, Ranjitha Honnayya, Sumera A Ali, Umber S Khan, Elizabeth M McClure, Vanessa R Thorsten, Kristen B Stolka
Background: Our aim was to utilize a feasible quantitative methodology to estimate the dietary adequacy of >900 first-trimester pregnant women in poor rural areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, India and Pakistan. This paper outlines the dietary methods used. Methods: Local nutritionists were trained at the sites by the lead study nutritionist and received ongoing mentoring throughout the study. Training topics focused on the standardized conduct of repeat multiple-pass 24-hr dietary recalls, including interview techniques, estimation of portion sizes, and construction of a unique site-specific food composition database (FCDB)...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
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