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Anti-nutritional factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662645/a-novel-herbal-formula-sge-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-cancer-cell-death-and-alleviates-cachexia-symptoms-induced-by-colon-26-adenocarcinoma
#1
Aeyung Kim, Minju Im, Jin Yeul Ma
Cachexia in cancer patients, characterized by marked involuntary weight loss and impaired physical function, is associated with a poor prognosis in response to conventional treatment and with an increase in cancer-related mortality. Prevention of skeletal muscle loss under cancer-induced cachexia via inhibition of pro-cachectic factors, as well as a reduction in tumor mass, has been considered reasonable pharmacological and nutritional interventions to treat cancer patients. In this study, we constructed a novel herbal formula, SGE, which contains Ginseng Radix alba, Atractylodis Rhizoma alba , and Hoelen , examined its anti-cancer and anti-cachexia efficacies...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661801/anti-ca15-3-and-anti-ca125-antibodies-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-results-from-the-epic-cohort
#2
Daniel W Cramer, Raina N Fichorova, Kathryn L Terry, Hidemi S Yamamoto, Allison F Vitonis, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Jenny Brändstedt, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Miren Dorronsoro, Laure Dossus, Eric J Duell, Inger T Gram, Marc J Gunter, Louise Hansen, Annika Idahl, Theron Johnson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Vittorio Korgh, Marina Kvaskoff, Amalia Mattiello, Giuseppe Matullo, Melissa A Merritt, Björn Nodin, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Philippos Orfanos, Domenico Palli, Eleni Peppa, J Ramón Quirós, Maria-José Sànchez-Pérez, Gianluca Severi, Ruth C Travis, Antonia Trichopoulou, Rosario Tumino, Elisabete Weiderpass, Renée Turzanski Fortner, Rudolf Kaaks
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic and non-neoplastic events may raise levels of mucins, CA15.3 and CA125, and generate antibodies against them; but their impact on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk has not been fully defined. METHODS: CA15.3, CA125, and IgG1 antibodies against them were measured in 806 women who developed EOC and 1,927 matched controls from the European Prospective Investigation of Nutrition and Cancer. Associations between epidemiologic factors and anti-mucin antibodies were evaluated using generalized linear models; EOC risks associated with anti-mucin antibodies, by themselves or in combination with respective antigens, were evaluated using conditional logistic regression...
April 16, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625242/soya-saponins-induce-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-dysfunction-in-juvenile-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus
#3
Min Gu, Qian Jia, Zhiyu Zhang, Nan Bai, Xiaojie Xu, Bingying Xu
Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine (DI) of several cultured fish species, but the exact cause is still unclear. The work on Atlantic salmon and zebrafish suggested soya-saponins, as heat-stable anti-nutritional factors in soybean meal, are the major causal agents. However, this conclusion was not supported by the research on some other fish, such as gilthead sea bream and European sea bass. Our previous work proved that soybean could induce SBMIE on turbot and the present work aimed to investigate whether soya-saponins alone could cause SBMIE and the effects of soya-saponins on the intestinal barrier function in juvenile turbot...
April 3, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616242/dietary-impact-on-esophageal-cancer-in-humans-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Rachna Khosla Sardana, Navnidhi Chhikara, Beenu Tanwar, Anil Panghal
Cancer is the abnormal growth of cells that tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way. About 32.6 million people in the world are affected by different types of cancer; 456 000 have esophageal cancer, which is the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths with a toll of 400 000 in 2012. About 80% of cases were reported from the less developed regions of the world. An incidence ratio of 2.4 : 1 for men and women reveals the gender disparity. Esophageal cancer is mainly of two types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma...
April 4, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605673/high-fat-diet-exacerbates-early-psoriatic-skin-inflammation-independent-of-obesity-saturated-fatty-acids-as-key-players
#5
Diana Herbert, Sandra Franz, Yulia Popkova, Ulf Anderegg, Jürgen Schiller, Katharina Schwede, Axel Lorz, Jan C Simon, Anja Saalbach
In obesity, hypertrophic adipocytes secret high amounts of adipocytokines resulting in low-grade inflammation- amplified by infiltrating pro-inflammatory macrophages, oxidative stress, hypoxia and lipolysis. It is known, that these chronic pro-inflammatory conditions support the development of type II diabetes and cardio vascular diseases, while mechanisms of obesity-related exacerbation of inflammatory skin disorders like psoriasis are unclear. In this study, we uncover nutritional saturated fatty acids (SFAs) as major risk factors for the amplification of skin inflammation, independent of obesity-related parameters, like fat mass extension, adipocytokines and glucose homeostasis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604586/inhibitory-effect-of-sinigrin-on-adipocyte-differentiation-in-3t3-l1-cells-involvement-of-ampk-and-mapk-pathways
#6
Hee-Weon Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Byung-Oh Kim, Suhkneung Pyo
Adipocyte differentiation is a critical adaptive response to nutritional overload and affects the metabolic outcome of obesity. Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is a glucosinolate belong to the glucoside contained in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. We investigated the effects of sinigrin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Sinigrin remarkably inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin and aP2...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600354/nutritional-profile-of-patients-with-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-in-the-age-of-biologicals
#7
Gabriela Piovezani Ramos, Thelma Skare, Odery Ramos Junior, Estela Rabito, Elise O Tanaami, Alessandra M Stefani, Renato Nisihara
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) has an important role in the body composition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and spondyloarthritis (SpA). We aimed to assess the nutritional profile of patients with RA, CD, and SpA undergoing remission with multiple therapies comparing to controls and to analyze the effect of anti-TNFα medications in the nutritional parameters of these patients. One hundred thirty-one patients were included: 44 with RA, 43 with CD, and 44 with SpA. Patients receiving anti-TNFα were compared with those receiving non-biological treatment as well as to controls...
March 29, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589768/ioc-consensus-statement-dietary-supplements-and-the-high-performance-athlete
#8
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard G M Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587831/childhood-fish-oil-supplementation-modifies-associations-between-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-allergic-sensitisation
#9
Anna L Hansell, Ioannis Bakolis, Christine T Cowie, Elena G Belousova, Kitty Ng, Christina Weber-Chrysochoou, Warwick J Britton, Stephen R Leeder, Euan R Tovey, Karen L Webb, Brett G Toelle, Guy B Marks
BACKGROUND: Studies of potential adverse effects of traffic related air pollution (TRAP) on allergic disease have had mixed findings. Nutritional studies to examine whether fish oil supplementation may protect against development of allergic disease through their anti-inflammatory actions have also had mixed findings. Extremely few studies to date have considered whether air pollution and dietary factors such as fish oil intake may interact, which was the rationale for this study. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) birth cohort, where children were randomised to fish oil supplementation or placebo from early life to age 5 years...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580114/athletes-and-supplements-prevalence-and-perspectives
#10
Ina Garthe, Ronald J Maughan
In elite sport, where opponents are evenly matched, small factors can determine the outcome of sporting contests. Not all athletes know the value of making wise nutrition choices, but anything that might give a competitive edge, including dietary supplements, can seem attractive. Between 40% and 100% of athletes typically use supplements, depending on the type of sport, level of competition, and the definition of supplements. However, unless the athlete has a nutrient deficiency, supplementation may not improve performance and may have a detrimental effect on both performance and health...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579427/factors-predicting-treatment-success-in-multi-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-treated-under-programmatic-conditions
#11
A K Janmeja, Deepak Aggarwal, Ruchika Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Treatment success in multi-drug resistant tuberculosis under programmatic conditions has been far from satisfactory. Knowledge of the factors predicting treatment outcome can guide us to take appropriate corrective measures for better results. However, there is a scarcity of data on these predictors in Indian patients. The present study was sought to evaluate association of different patient and disease specific factors with treatment outcome in MDR-TB patients. METHODS: It was a retrospective study that involved evaluation of data of MDR-TB patients who were started on Cat-IV treatment between January 2012 and December 2014...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578237/nutritional-supplements-for-patients-being-treated-for-active-visceral-leishmaniasis
#12
REVIEW
Estefanía Custodio, Jesús López-Alcalde, Mercè Herrero, Carmen Bouza, Carolina Jimenez, Stefan Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, Theodora Mouratidou, Teresa López-Cuadrado, Agustin Benito, Jorge Alvar
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by a parasite, which can lead to death if untreated. Poor nutritional status hastens the progression of VL infection, and VL worsens malnutrition status. Malnutrition is one of the poor prognostic factors identified for leishmaniasis. However, the effects of nutritional supplementation in people treated for VL are not known. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral nutritional supplements in people being treated with anti-leishmanial drug therapy for VL...
March 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573802/milk-nutrition-and-childhood-epilepsy-an-ex-vivo-study-on-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-in-response-to-milk-protein-fractions
#13
M Albenzio, A Santillo, M G Ciliberti, L Figliola, M Caroprese, A N Polito, G Messina
We present a pilot study on the effects of milk protein fractions [αS1 -casein (CN), αS2 -CN, κ-CN, β-CN, and a mix of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG)] from different animal species (bovine, ovine, and caprine) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative status in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with generalized epilepsy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained by density gradient from blood of 10 children with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569783/jre4-is-a-master-transcriptional-regulator-of-defense-related-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-in-tomato
#14
Masaru Nakayasu, Naoki Shioya, Masahito Shikata, Chonprakun Thagun, Ayman Abdelkareem, Yoshihiro Okabe, Tohru Ariizumi, Gen-Ichiro Arimura, Masaharu Mizutani, Hiroshi Ezura, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsubasa Shoji
Steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs) are specialized anti-nutritional metabolites that accumulate in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). A series of SGA biosynthetic genes are known to be up-regulated in Solanaceae species by jasmonate-responsive Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors, including JRE4 (otherwise known as GAME9), but exact regulatory significance in planta of each factor has remained unaddressed. Here, via TILLING-based screening of an EMS-mutagenized tomato population, we isolated a JRE4 loss-of-function line that carries an amino acid residue missense change in a region of the protein important for DNA binding...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567246/rapid-screening-of-toxic-glycoalkaloids-and-micronutrients-in-edible-nightshades-solanum-spp
#15
Bo Yuan, David Byrnes, Daniel Giurleo, Thomas Villani, James E Simon, Qingli Wu
African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543741/moringa-oleifera-leaf-extracts-as-multifunctional-ingredients-for-natural-and-organic-sunscreens-and-photoprotective-preparations
#16
Anna Baldisserotto, Piergiacomo Buso, Matteo Radice, Valeria Dissette, Ilaria Lampronti, Roberto Gambari, Stefano Manfredini, Silvia Vertuani
Moringa oleifera has gained increasing popularity as a food supplement but not in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area. The aim of this study was the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of extracts from the leaves of Moringa oleifera as a herbal sun care phytocomplex. Three different extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves, from Senegal, have been prepared and chemically characterized in the phenolic fraction by HPLC-DAD and Folin-Ciocalteu test. To explore photoprotective properties, an extensive evaluation of UV filtering, antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP, ORAC, PCL), and anti-hyperproliferative (human melanoma Colo38 cells) capacities have been conducted...
March 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542837/testicular-development-in-male-lambs-prenatally-exposed-to-a-high-starch-diet
#17
Francesca Mossa, Daniela Bebbere, Antonello Ledda, Giovanni P Burrai, Imane Chebli, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Sergio Ledda, Antonello Cannas, Francesco Fancello, Alberto S Atzori
Maternal nutrition during critical gestation periods impacts on offspring in later life; effects of high-starch maternal diet on testicular development in lambs were addressed. Dairy ewes were fed diets providing either 27% (Starch, S) or 11% (Fiber, F) of starch from mating to lambing (∼147 days; S147, F147) or for the last 75 days of gestation (S75, F75). Testes of single male lambs were measured and then sampled for histological and gene expression analyses at selected ages. Testicular dimensions and weight were similar among groups, but the total area of seminiferous tubules increased with age and tended to be higher (P = 0...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535992/developmental-programming-of-renal-function-and-re-programming-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Eva Nüsken, Jörg Dötsch, Lutz T Weber, Kai-Dietrich Nüsken
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors in early life and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long-lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533200/effects-of-enteral-nutrition-on-gastrointestinal-function-in-patients-who-are-critically-ill
#19
REVIEW
Michael Schörghuber, Sonja Fruhwald
Nutritional management is a cornerstone of therapy for patients who are critically ill. Data show that enteral nutrition is better than parenteral nutrition with regard to the morbidity of critcally ill patients, especially for infectious complications. These findings suggest that feeding patients enterally has other beneficial effects besides delivering nutrients. In the absence of enteral nutrition, the mucosal architecture changes distinctly, leading to an impairment in function of the gastrointestinal barrier...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514897/sex-differences-in-risk-factors-for-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#20
Jeonghoon Ha, Jeongmin Lee, Kwanhoon Jo, Dong Jun Lim, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Min Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) in Korean adults and identify the risk factors for the occurrence of SCH by sex. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study used data from KNHANES VI, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, which comprises a health interview survey, a health examination survey, and a nutrition survey. To examine SCH, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) reference range was defined using both the range provided by the test kit manufacturer (SCH-M) and a population-based range (SCH-P)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
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