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Anti-nutritional factors

H-L Che, M S Kanthimathi, R Loganathan, K H Yuen, A T B Tan, K R Selvaduray, K Nesaretnam, K-T Teng
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence shows that tocotrienols potentially reverse various chronic disease progressions caused by the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single-dose supplementation of gamma and delta tocotrienols (γδ-T3, 1:4 ratio) compared with those in placebo on the insulinemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombogenic responses in metabolic syndrome subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty metabolic syndrome subjects (15 men and 15 women) were recruited to a randomized, double-blinded and crossover study...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Lola Corzo, Susana Rodríguez, Ramón Alejo, Lucía Fernández-Novoa, Gjumrakch Aliev, Ramón Cacabelos
Menopause is a natural event in women´s lives leading to the cessation of menstruation and the reproductive function due to loss of the ovarian follicular function. Menopause-derived estrogen deprivation and related endocrine factors are linked to some symptoms of middle-aged women, such as hot flashes, aches, joint pain, stiffness, depressed mood, bone degeneration, nutritional dysfunction, or difficulty to maintain body mass. Clinical approaches to these problems often involve hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and other modalities of therapeutic intervention...
October 14, 2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Kalina Biernacka, Raj A Persad, Amit Bahl, David Gillatt, Jeff M P Holly, Claire M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes via targeting this pathway...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Martina Heinrich, Alexandra Kain, Florian Bergmann, Dietrich von Schweinitz
AIM: Fundoplication is required for children with chronic recurrent gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to report parental perceptions of symptoms and overall satisfaction with the long-term course following fundoplication with special reference to patients with GERD risk factors. METHODS: We studied 34 patients, with a median age of 6.5 ±4.9 years, who received fundoplication between 2001-2005. Clinical information and surgical complications were recorded...
October 11, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Bella Devaleenal D, Geetha Ramachandran, Soumya Swaminathan
Inter-individual variations in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-TB drugs are known to occur, which could have important therapeutic implications in patient management. Areas covered: We compiled factors responsible for PK variability of anti-TB drugs reported from different settings that would give a better understanding about the challenges of PK variability of anti-TB medications. We searched PubMed data base and Google scholar from 1976 to the present using the key words "Pharmacokinetics", "pharmacokinetic variability", "first-line anti-TB therapy", "Rifampicin", "Isoniazid", "Ethambutol", "Pyrazinamide", "food", "nutritional status", "HIV", "diabetes", "genetic polymorphisms" and "pharmacokinetic interactions"...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
K M Maria John, Farooq Khan, Davanand L Luthria, Wesley Garrett, Savithiry Natarajan
The genotype (G), environment (E), and the relationship between G and E on soybean seed anti-nutritional factors (ANF's) were examined under three different agro-climatic conditions. The field trials were conducted at Maryland, South Carolina and South Dakota using nine region specific genotypes. At each location, the nine genotypes were grown with two planting/sowing dates. Differentially expressed protein spots from the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were analyzed using mass spectrometry. Seven ANF's corresponding to soybean agglutinin and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor were identified based on the statistical significance levels at p<0...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Stefania De Santis, Dale Kunde, Grazia Serino, Vanessa Galleggiante, Maria Lucia Caruso, Mauro Mastronardi, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Nicole Ranson, Aldo Pinto, Pietro Campiglia, Angelo Santino, Rajaraman Eri, Marcello Chieppa
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in response to microbial infections generate long-lasting adaptive immune response. Following microbial uptake, DCs undergo a cascade of cellular differentiation that ultimately leads to "mature" DCs. Mature DCs produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFβ) a key cytokine for the inflammatory cascade. In numerous studies, polyphenols, including quercetin, demonstrated their ability to suppress TNFα secretion and protect from the onset of chronic inflammatory disorders...
October 3, 2016: Oncotarget
H Jain, N Dhingra, T Narsinghani, R Sharma
The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) is one of the principal inducible protein in mammals known to control the gene expression in many critical physiological responses such as oxidative stress, inflammation etc. and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Terpenoids are major constituents present in nutritionally used fruits, vegetables and different spices which possess various pharmacological action including anticancer activity. Various terpenoids, viz...
September 2016: Experimental Oncology
Najla E Farage, Milena B Stockler-Pinto, Viviane O Leal, Ludmila Lmf Cardozo, José Carlos Carraro-Eduardo, Denis Fouque, Denise Mafra
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the association among the expressions of pro- and anti-inflammatory nuclear factors (nuclear factor-kappaB, NF-κB and nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2, Nrf2) and nutritional status in HD patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included eighty-three HD patients. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and processed for the evaluation of NF-κB and Nrf2 RNAm expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 27, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Ketmanee Senaphan, Weerapon Sangartit, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, Supawan Thawornchinsombut, Stephen E Greenwald, Upa Kukongviriyapan
PURPOSE: Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Preetham Elumalai, Sreeja Lakshmi
Neurodegenerative disorders are often life threatening and hired as an economic burden to the health-care system. Nutritional interventions principally involving polyphenols were practiced to arrest or reverse the age-related health disorders. Flavonoids, a class of dietary polyphenols, are rising to superstardom in preventing brain disorders with their potent antioxidant defense mechanism. Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid reported to have all-natural myriad of health benefits. Citrus fruits, apple, onion, parsley, berries, green tea, and red wine comprise the major dietary supplements of quercetin apart from some herbal remedies like Ginkgo biloba...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Patrick Amanzi, Charles Michelo, Christopher Simoonga, Rosalia Dambe, Gershom Chongwe
INTRODUCTION: Provision of free anti-retroviral therapy in Zambia started in June 2004. There were only 15,000 people on treatment as at December that year, mainly due to lack of access. This number rose to 580,000 people as at December 2013. The general objective of this study was to determine survival of people on ART and to examine associated predictors for survival. METHODS: The study included ART patients enrolled between the year 2002 and 2013 (n=10,395) in 285 health facilities in Zambia...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Kazim Sahin, Ragip Pala, Mehmet Tuzcu, Oguzhan Ozdemir, Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Sahin, Vijaya Juturu
PURPOSE: Exercise (Ex) increases reactive oxygen species and impairs antioxidant defense systems. Recent data suggest that curcumin (CW) possesses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activity and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of CW supplementation on Ex performance, endurance, and changes in serum and muscle proteins in rats after exhaustive Ex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight (28) male Wistar rats (age: 8 weeks and body weight: 180±20 g) were divided into four treatment groups: 1) control (C; no Ex), 2) C + CW (no Ex + CW), 3) C + Ex, and 4) C + Ex + CW (Ex + CW)...
2016: Journal of Inflammation Research
Josh L Hixson, Joe L Jacobs, Eric N Wilkes, Paul A Smith
Grape marc contains a number of compounds with potential antimethanogenic activity in ruminants, including condensed tannins (CTs). Using direct phloroglucinolysis, a survey of CT chemistry across 66 grape marc samples showed diversity in concentration (6.9 to 138.8 g/kg of dry matter). Concentration was found to be independent of CT composition, although all compositional variables were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001). Twenty samples diverse in CT were selected from a cluster analysis and analyzed for compounds relevant to ruminant digestion and methanogenesis, including metabolizable energy (6...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Junzhong Lin, Jianhong Peng, Aiham Qdaisat, Liren Li, Gong Chen, Zhenhai Lu, Xiaojun Wu, Yuanhong Gao, Zhifan Zeng, Peirong Ding, Zhizhong Pan
PURPOSE: In addition to tumor factors, poor nutritional status before and during anti-tumor treatment might compromise prognosis in several types of cancer. This study was done to determine the impact of weight loss during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on the survival outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). METHODS: The retrospective study examined consecutive patients with LARC who underwent preoperative CRT followed by radical resection in a single institute, between 2003 and 2013...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Karima Laleg, Denis Cassan, Cécile Barron, Pichan Prabhasankar, Valérie Micard
Wheat pasta has a compact structure built by a gluten network entrapping starch granules resulting in a low glycemic index, but is nevertheless unsuitable for gluten-intolerant people. High protein gluten-free legume flours, rich in fibers, resistant starch and minerals are thus a good alternative for gluten-free pasta production. In this study, gluten-free pasta was produced exclusively from faba, lentil or black-gram flours. The relationship between their structure, their cooking and Rheological properties and their in-vitro starch digestion was analyzed and compared to cereal gluten-free commercial pasta...
2016: PloS One
Trang N Le, Francesco S Celi, Edmond P Wickham
BACKGROUND: Increased thyrotropin (TSH) levels and free triiodothyronine to free thyroxine (fT3:fT4) ratios, even within the euthyroid range, have been associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults but are less characterized in youth. This study sought to determine relations between TSH, thyroid hormones, and cardiometabolic risk factors in euthyroid adolescents. METHODS: Data were extracted from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010, for univariate and multivariate analyses of TSH, thyroid hormones, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, and glucose metabolism...
October 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Dimitrios Draganidis, Leonidas G Karagounis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Ioannis G Fatouros
Inflammaging is the chronic low-grade inflammatory state present in the elderly, characterized by increased systemic concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been shown that inflammaging increases the risk of pathologic conditions and age-related diseases, and that it also has been associated with increased skeletal muscle wasting, strength loss, and functional impairments. Experimental evidence suggests that the increased concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and primary tumor necrosis factor α observed in chronic inflammation lead to protein degradation through proteasome activation and reduced skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) via protein kinase B/Akt downregulation...
October 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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