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Alexandra Kerbl, José M Martín-Durán, Katrine Worsaae, Andreas Hejnol
BACKGROUND: Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain). Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa...
2016: EvoDevo
Daisuke Nonaka, George Papaxoinis, Wasat Mansoor
Recently, Orthopedia Homeobox (OTP) was described as a prognostic marker for pulmonary carcinoid tumors; however, little is known about the function and distribution pattern of this transcription factor in normal organs/tissues and in tumors. Consequently, OTP expression was investigated in a variety of tumors, with special interest in pulmonary and nonpulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. OTP immunohistochemical analysis was performed on a total of 162 pulmonary carcinoid tumors, 31 pulmonary neuroendocrine hyperplasias, 104 pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas (large cell neuroendocrine and small cell neuroendocrine), 102 nonpulmonary NETs (G1/G2 NETs, small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and Merkel cell carcinomas), 150 endocrine tumors (thyroid, parathyroid, adrenocortical, and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas), 279 adenocarcinomas, and 88 squamous cell carcinomas of various organs, including those of the lungs and others...
June 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Jose Arturo Gutierrez-Triana, Ulrich Herget, Patrick Lichtner, Luis A Castillo-Ramírez, Soojin Ryu
BACKGROUND: The homeodomain transcription factor orthopedia (Otp) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of neuronal fates. In vertebrates, Otp is necessary for the proper development of different regions of the brain and is required in the diencephalon to specify several hypothalamic cell types, including the cells that control the stress response. To understand how this widely expressed transcription factor accomplishes hypothalamus-specific functions, we performed a comprehensive screening of otp cis-regulatory regions in zebrafish...
2014: BMC Developmental Biology
Dorian R A Swarts, Robert-Jan van Suylen, Michael A den Bakker, Matthijs F M van Oosterhout, Frederik B J M Thunnissen, Marco Volante, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Marc R M Scheltinga, Gerben P Bootsma, Harry M M Pouwels, Ben E E M van den Borne, Frans C S Ramaekers, Ernst-Jan M Speel
Pulmonary carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors histopathologically subclassified into typical (TC; no necrosis, <2 mitoses per 2 mm) and atypical (AC; necrosis or 2 to 10 mitoses per 2 mm). The reproducibility of lung carcinoid classification, however, has not been extensively studied and may be hampered by the presence of pyknotic apoptosis mimicking mitotic figures. Furthermore, prediction of prognosis based on histopathology varies, especially for ACs. We examined the presence of interobserver variation between 5 experienced pulmonary pathologists who reviewed 123 originally diagnosed pulmonary carcinoid cases...
October 2014: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Sinem Sarı, Osman Nuri Aydın
Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is one of the most often used sympathetic blockade procedure. Despite performed by experienced physicians some complications may occur. The right brachial plexus injury was diagnosed in the patient who admitted to orthopedia clinic, with weakness in the right arm, and pain after motor vehicle accident. There was no response to medical treatment of fortyfour-years-old female patient and there was loosing of sensation from dis the right elbow joint to fingers on the radial and median nerve tracing...
2014: Aǧrı: Ağrı (Algoloji) Derneği'nin Yayın Organıdır, the Journal of the Turkish Society of Algology
Soojin Ryu, Julia Mahler, Dario Acampora, Jochen Holzschuh, Simone Erhardt, Daniela Omodei, Antonio Simeone, Wolfgang Driever
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2008: Current Biology: CB
Alida Filippi, Thomas Mueller, Wolfgang Driever
Throughout the vertebrate lineage, dopaminergic neurons form important neuromodulatory systems that influence motor behavior, mood, cognition, and physiology. Studies in mammals have established that dopaminergic neurons often use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutamatergic cotransmission during development and physiological function. Here, we analyze vglut2, gad1b and gad2 expression in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in 4-day-old larval and 30-day-old juvenile zebrafish brains to determine which dopaminergic and noradrenergic groups may use GABA or glutamate as a second transmitter...
June 15, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Ulrich Herget, Andrea Wolf, Mario F Wullimann, Soojin Ryu
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in mammals is the main hypothalamic nucleus controlling hormone release in the pituitary and plays pivotal roles in homeostasis. While the location of a PVN-homologous region has been described in adult fish as the neurosecretory preoptic area (NPO), this region has not been clearly defined in larval zebrafish due to the difficulty in defining cytoarchitectonic nuclear boundaries in the larval brain. Here we identify the precise location of the larval zebrafish NPO using conserved transcription factor and neuropeptide gene expressions...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Comparative Neurology
António M Fernandes, Erin Beddows, Alida Filippi, Wolfgang Driever
The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp) is an important regulator for specification of defined subsets of neuroendocrine cells and dopaminergic neurons in vertebrates. In zebrafish, two paralogous otp genes, otpa and otpb, are present in the genome. Neither complete loss of Otp activity nor differential contributions of Otpa and Otpb to specification of defined neuronal populations have been analyzed in detail. We characterized zebrafish embryos and early larvae mutant for null alleles of otpa, otpb, or both genes to determine their individual contributions to the specification of th expressing dopaminergic neuronal populations as well as of crh, oxt, avp, trh or sst1...
2013: PloS One
Dorian R A Swarts, Mieke E R Henfling, Leander Van Neste, Robert-Jan van Suylen, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Winand N M Dinjens, Annick Haesevoets, Martina Rudelius, Erik Thunnissen, Marco Volante, Wim Van Criekinge, Manon van Engeland, Frans C S Ramaekers, Ernst-Jan M Speel
PURPOSE: Pulmonary carcinoids are well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors showing usually a favorable prognosis. However, there is a risk for late recurrence and/or distant metastasis. Because histologic classification in typical and atypical carcinoids is difficult and its reliability to predict disease outcome varies, we evaluated three genes as potential prognostic markers, that is, orthopedia homeobox (OTP), CD44, and rearranged during transfection (RET). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: These genes were analyzed in 56 frozen carcinoids by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)...
April 15, 2013: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Takao Kaji, Katsunori Nonogaki
Homeobox genes contribute to the regionalization, patterning and cell differentiation during embryogenesis and organ development. During mammalian embryonic development, homeobox genes, including orthopedia (Otp), a brain-specific homeobox transcription factor (Bsx) and a thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), are expressed in the hypothalamus. The genetic ablation of these genes indicated that Otp and TTF-1 are essential for the normal morphological development of the hypothalamus, including the arcuate nucleus (ARC), whereas Bsx is not required...
2013: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Aaron M Lambert, Joshua L Bonkowsky, Mark A Masino
The most conserved part of the vertebrate dopaminergic system is the orthopedia (otp)-expressing diencephalic neuronal population that constitutes the dopaminergic diencephalospinal tract (DDT). Although studies in the neonatal murine spinal cord in vitro suggest an early locomotor role of the DDT, the function of the DDT in developing vertebrates in vivo remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the DDT in the locomotor development of zebrafish larvae. To assess the development of the behavioral and neural locomotor pattern, we used high-throughput video tracking in combination with peripheral nerve recordings...
September 26, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
António M Fernandes, Kandice Fero, Aristides B Arrenberg, Sadie A Bergeron, Wolfgang Driever, Harold A Burgess
Most vertebrates process visual information using elaborately structured photosensory tissues, including the eyes and pineal. However, there is strong evidence that other tissues can detect and respond to photic stimuli. Many reports suggest that photosensitive elements exist within the brain itself and influence physiology and behavior; however, a long-standing puzzle has been the identity of the neurons and photoreceptor molecules involved. We tested whether light cues influence behavior in zebrafish larvae through deep brain photosensors...
November 6, 2012: Current Biology: CB
Laura Domínguez, Ruth Morona, Agustín González, Nerea Moreno
The patterns of expression of a set of conserved developmental regulatory transcription factors and neuronal markers were analyzed in the alar hypothalamus of Xenopus laevis throughout development. Combined immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques were used for the identification of subdivisions and their boundaries. The alar hypothalamus was located rostral to the diencephalon in the secondary prosencephalon and represents the rostral continuation of the alar territories of the diencephalon and brainstem, according to the prosomeric model...
March 1, 2013: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Liat Amir-Zilberstein, Janna Blechman, Yehezkel Sztainberg, William H J Norton, Adriana Reuveny, Nataliya Borodovsky, Maayan Tahor, Joshua L Bonkowsky, Laure Bally-Cuif, Alon Chen, Gil Levkowitz
Regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) activity is critical for the animal's adaptation to stressful challenges, and its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders in humans. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional response to stress is not well understood. Using various stress paradigms in mouse and zebrafish, we show that the hypothalamic transcription factor Orthopedia modulates the expression of CRH as well as the splicing factor Ataxin 2-Binding Protein-1 (A2BP1/Rbfox-1)...
January 26, 2012: Neuron
Alison M Taylor, Jessica M Humphries, Richard M White, Ryan D Murphey, Caroline E Burns, Leonard I Zon
Disruption of ribosomal proteins is associated with hematopoietic phenotypes in cell culture and animal models. Mutations in ribosomal proteins are seen in patients with Diamond Blackfan anemia, a rare congenital disease characterized by red cell aplasia and distinctive craniofacial anomalies. A zebrafish screen uncovered decreased hematopoietic stem cells in embryos with mutations in ribosomal protein rps29. Here, we determined that rps29(-/-) embryos also have red blood cell defects and increased apoptosis in the head...
March 2012: Experimental Hematology
Casey M Rand, Pallavi P Patwari, Ekaterina A Rodikova, Lili Zhou, Elizabeth M Berry-Kravis, Richard J A Wilson, Torben Bech-Hansen, Debra E Weese-Mayer
Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD) is a rare and complex pediatric disorder. Despite increased identification and advancing knowledge of the disease course, the variable onset and timing of phenotypic features in ROHHAD often result in delayed or missed diagnosis, potentially leading to fatal central hypoventilation, cardiorespiratory arrest, and impaired neurocognitive development. The 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A), orthopedia (OTP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) genes were targeted in the etiology of ROHHAD based on their roles in the embryologic development of the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system...
October 2011: Pediatric Research
Nicanor Morales-Delgado, Paloma Merchan, Sylvia M Bardet, José L Ferrán, Luis Puelles, Carmen Díaz
The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal, and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostrocaudal subdivision into rostral (terminal) and caudal (peduncular) halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst) mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp), Distal-less 5 (Dlx5), Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1). At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5), Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2...
2011: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Nerea Moreno, Agustín González
The secondary prosencephalon (telencephalon plus hypothalamus) is probably the most complex area of the brain, with complicated patterning specifications. As yet, no prosomeric subdivisions have been reported and only distinct histogenetic territories have been recognized. In the present comparative study we analyzed cross-correlated expression maps in the non-evaginated territories of the secondary prosencephalon in different vertebrates throughout development, to assess the existence of comparable divisions and subdivisions in the different groups...
2011: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Laura Domínguez, Agustín González, Nerea Moreno
The expression of the Nkx2.2 gene is involved in the organization of the alar-basal boundary in the forebrain of vertebrates. Its expression in different diencephalic and telencephalic regions, helped to define distinct progenitor domains in mouse and chick. Here we investigated the pattern of Nkx2.2 protein distribution throughout the development of the forebrain of the anuran amphibian, Xenopus laevis. We used immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques for its detection in combination with other essential territorial markers in the forebrain...
2011: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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