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gestational trophoblastic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329740/human-chorionic-gonadotropin-regression-curves-after-partial-or-complete-molar-pregnancy-in-flanders-are-they-different-from-regression-curves-from-the-eighties
#1
Sien Delattre, Sileny Han, Philippe Moerman, Jaak Billen, Frédéric Goffin, Kathleen Scharpé, Ignace Vergote
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We updated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curves created in the eighties after evacuation of complete and partial molar (CM and PM, respectively) pregnancies using modern hCG assays. We created similar curves for patients in need of chemotherapy (gestational trophoblastic neoplasia [GTN]). METHODS: A total of 126 patients who were diagnosed with gestational trophoblastic disease from 1990 to 2014 were included. We compared curves from 2 groups, CM and PM, with historical ones...
March 23, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324064/bmp7-induces-uterine-receptivity-and-blastocyst-attachment
#2
Diana Monsivais, Caterina Clementi, Jia Peng, Paul T Fullerton, Renata Prunskaite-Hyyryläinen, Seppo Vainio, Martin M Matzuk
In women, the window of implantation is limited to a brief two- to three- day period characterized by optimal levels of circulating ovarian hormones and a receptive endometrium. Although the window of implantation is assumed to occur 8-10 days after ovulation in women, molecular markers of endometrial receptivity are necessary to determine optimal timing prior to embryo transfer. Previous studies showed that members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are expressed in the uterus necessary for female fertility; however, the role of BMP7 during implantation and in late gestation is not known...
January 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320871/essential-roles-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-syncytiotrophoblast-development-by-presenting-fusogenic-4f2hc
#3
Ryuichi Ohgaki, Takahiro Ohmori, Saori Hara, Saya Nakagomi, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Kazuko Kaneda-Nakashima, Suguru Okuda, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai
Layer(s) of epithelial syncytium, syncytiotrophoblast, differentiates from chorionic trophoblasts via cell fusion and separates maternal and fetal circulations in hemochorial placentas. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and its covalently-linked ancillary subunit 4F2hc are colocalized on both maternal and fetal surface of syncytiotrophoblasts, implying their roles in amino acid transfer through the placental barrier. In this study, LAT1 knockout, in addition, revealed a novel role of LAT1 in syncytiotrophoblast development...
March 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318556/natural-killer-cells-in-placentation-and-cancer-implications-for-hypertension-during-pregnancy
#4
Heather Yvonne Small, Denise C Cornelius, Tomasz J Guzik, Christian Delles
Hypertension during pregnancy is the most common medical condition encountered during gestation. Despite this, knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the disease and the development of new therapies are limited. Hypertension during pregnancy and some forms of cancer confer an increased risk to the development of cardiovascular disease later in life; one mechanism which may link these conditions is the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells. Whilst immunology and immunotherapy are well-developed areas in oncology; the complex mechanisms of the immune system in health and disease at the maternal-fetal interface are less well-defined...
March 7, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295835/type-i-interferons-modulate-methotrexate-resistance-in-gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia
#5
Kevin M Elias, Richard A Harvey, Kathleen T Hasselblatt, Michael J Seckl, Ross S Berkowitz
PROBLEM: Resistance to methotrexate is a leading clinical problem in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), but there are limited laboratory models for this condition. METHOD OF STUDY: We created isogenic trophoblastic cell lines resistant to methotrexate and compared these to the parent cell lines using gene expression microarrays and qRT-PCR followed by mechanistic studies using recombinant cytokines, pathway inhibitors, and patient sera. RESULTS: Gene expression microarrays and focused analysis by qRT-PCR revealed methotrexate led to type I interferon upregulation, in particular interferon alpha 2 (IFNA2), and methotrexate resistance was associated with chronic low level increases in type I interferon expression...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295158/first-trimester-ultrasound-tests-alone-or-in-combination-with-first-trimester-serum-tests-for-down-s-syndrome-screening
#6
REVIEW
S Kate Alldred, Yemisi Takwoingi, Boliang Guo, Mary Pennant, Jonathan J Deeks, James P Neilson, Zarko Alfirevic
BACKGROUND: Down's syndrome occurs when a person has three, rather than two copies of chromosome 21; or the specific area of chromosome 21 implicated in causing Down's syndrome. It is the commonest congenital cause of mental disability and also leads to numerous metabolic and structural problems. It can be life-threatening, or lead to considerable ill health, although some individuals have only mild problems and can lead relatively normal lives. Having a baby with Down's syndrome is likely to have a significant impact on family life...
March 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287945/gestational-trophoblastic-disease-clinical-and-imaging-features
#7
Akram M Shaaban, Maryam Rezvani, Reham R Haroun, Anne M Kennedy, Khaled M Elsayes, Jeffrey D Olpin, Mohamed E Salama, Bryan R Foster, Christine O Menias
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a spectrum of both benign and malignant gestational tumors, including hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. The latter four entities are referred to as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). These conditions are aggressive with a propensity to widely metastasize. GTN can result in significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. Early diagnosis of GTD is essential for prompt and successful management while preserving fertility...
March 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287888/mir-942-decreased-before-20-weeks-gestation-in-women-with-preeclampsia-and-was-associated-with-the-pathophysiology-of-preeclampsia-in-vitro
#8
Yonggang Zhang, Guoqing Huang, Yipeng Zhang, Hongling Yang, Yan Long, Qihua Liang, Zaoxiong Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between miR-942 levels and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia using in vitro assays and to investigate circulating miR-942 levels in the early phase of mid-of pregnancy in women who later developed preeclampsia and in women with uncomplicated pregnancies. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from pregnant women between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation. MiR-942 levels were determined by stem-loop real-time PCR for 26 cases who subsequently developed preeclampsia as well as for 52 controls...
2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274166/serum-endothelin-1-and-placental-alkaline-phosphatase-levels-in-placenta-percreta-and-normal-pregnancies
#9
Hacer Uyanikoglu, Ahmet Berkiz Turp, Nese Gul Hilali, Adnan Incebiyik
PURPOSE: To evaluate the circulatory levels of endothelin 1 (ET-1) and the placental alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in pregnant women with placenta percreta (PP) and a control group. METHODS: This study was carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynecology and in the Biochemistry Departments of Harran University Medical School. Forty-four women who underwent cesarean section (CS) due to PP and 44 women who underwent CS for other obstetric reasons were included in this study...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272653/we-can-diagnose-it-if-we-consider-it-diagnostic-pitfall-for-placenta-placental-mesenchymal-dysplasia
#10
Havva Serap Toru, Esra Çobankent Aytekin, Cem Yaşar Sanhal, Sezin Yakut, Zafer Çetin, İbrahim İnanç Mendilcioğlu, Hadice Elif Peştereli
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated...
February 4, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262230/placental-hemostasis-and-sterile-inflammation-new-insights-into-gestational-vascular-disease
#11
Shrey Kohli, Berend Isermann
Activation of the coagulation and inflammatory systems are physiologically occurring during pregnancy. However, excess activation of either system is well documented in gestational vascular diseases (GVD). GVD are placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and a major cause of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. The causal relevance of excess coagulation and inflammatory responses for GVD remains largely unknown. Deciphering the causal relationship of excess coagulation and inflammation in GVD may allow conceptualizing new therapeutic approaches to combat GVD...
March 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259870/c-rel-promotes-invasion-of-choriocarcinoma-cells-via-pi3k-akt-signaling
#12
Yoko Sekiya, Eiko Yamamoto, Kaoru Niimi, Kimihiro Nishino, Kenichi Nakamura, Tomomi Kotani, Hiroaki Kajiyama, Kiyosumi Shibata, Fumitaka Kikkawa
OBJECTIVE: Choriocarcinoma is the most common epithelial cancer among gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTDs); the mechanism of trophoblastic carcinogenesis is unknown. This study aimed to examine the expression of NF-κB family proteins in GTDs and placental tissues as well as the roles of c-Rel in choriocarcinoma. METHODS: We examined the expression of NF-κB family proteins in normal placenta and hydatidiform mole tissues as well as extravillous trophoblast (EVT) and choriocarcinoma cell lines by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
March 4, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254207/unusual-clinical-presentations-of-choriocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-of-case-reports
#13
REVIEW
Mishu Mangla, Deepak Singla, Harpreet Kaur, Sushmita Sharma
Choriocarcinoma (CC) is a highly malignant tumor originating in the trophoblastic tissue. The clinical presentation of CC is so much varied that every case may be one of its kinds and thus can be a diagnostic challenge. Numerous case reports have been published in various journals regarding the unusual clinical presentations of this cancer. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of all case reports in English language on gestational CC published in PubMed-indexed journals from 1998 to 2015. The main aim was to provide a summary and critical analysis of all the data and evidence published regarding the atypical clinical presentations of CC in recent years...
February 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253336/type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-infection-increases-apoptosis-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-late-gestation-pregnant-gilts
#14
Predrag Novakovic, John C S Harding, Ahmad N Al-Dissi, Susan E Detmer
The pathogenesis of fetal death associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is hypothesized to be a consequence of PRRS virus-induced apoptosis at the maternal-fetal interface (MFI). The objectives of this study were to evaluate distribution and degree of apoptosis in the uterine and fetal placental tissues during the experimental type 2 PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection and determine associations between apoptosis at the MFI, PRRSV RNA concentration and antigen staining intensity, PRRSV-induced microscopic lesions, and fetal preservation status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250242/itgav-alpha-v-integrins-bind-spp1-osteopontin-to-support-trophoblast-cell-adhesion
#15
James W Frank, Heewon Seo, Robert C Burghardt, Kayla J Bayless, Gregory A Johnson
Attachment of the conceptus trophoblast (Tr) to the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is critical for successful implantation. This study determined whether alpha v (av) integrins (ITGAV) directly mediate porcine trophoblast cell adhesion to secreted phosphoprotein 1 [SPP1, also known as osteopontin (OPN)], and examined the temporal/spatial expression of ITGAV, beta 3 (b3, ITGB3) and beta 6 (b6, ITGB6) integrin subunits, and SPP1, at the uterine-placental interface of pigs. Knockdown of ITGAV in a porcine Tr (pTr2) cells by siRNA reduced pTr2 attachment to SPP1...
March 1, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246515/efficacy-of-prophylactic-uterine-artery-embolization-before-obstetrical-procedures-with-high-risk-for-massive-bleeding
#16
Heung Kyu Ko, Ji Hoon Shin, Gi Young Ko, Dong Il Gwon, Jin Hyung Kim, Kichang Han, Shin-Wha Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE) before obstetrical procedures with high risk for massive bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of 29 female patients who underwent prophylactic UAE from June 2009 to February 2014 was performed. Indications for prophylactic UAE were as follows: dilatation and curettage (D&C) associated with ectopic pregnancy (cesarean scar pregnancy, n = 9; cervical pregnancy, n = 6), termination of pregnancy with abnormal placentation (placenta previa, n = 8), D&C for retained placenta with vascularity (n = 5), and D&C for suspected gestational trophoblastic disease (n = 1)...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217684/extrauterine-epithelioid-trophoblastic-tumor-in-hysterectomized-woman
#17
Ji-Hye Kim, Sun Kyung Lee, Soo Hyun Hwang, Jung-Sun Kim, Gun Yoon, Yoo-Young Lee, Tae-Joong Kim, Chel Hun Choi, Byoung-Gie Kim, Duk-Soo Bae, Jeong-Won Lee
Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a very rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) which arises in reproductive age women with prior gestational history. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding is the most common symptom of ETT, there are no reported pathognomonic symptoms of ETT because of its rarity. ETT is similar to placental site trophoblastic tumor in terms of its slow growing characteristic and microscopic findings. Therefore, it could be misdiagnosed as placental site trophoblastic tumor or other types of GTD...
January 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216513/cellular-localization-expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-utero-placental-endothelin-system-during-maintenance-and-termination-of-canine-gestation
#18
Aykut Gram, Alois Boos, Mariusz P Kowalewski
Utero-placental (Ut-Pl) angiogenesis and blood flow are fundamental for successful outcome of pregnancy. They are controlled by numerous vasodilator and vasoconstrictor systems such as endothelins (EDNs) and the renin angiotensin system. Dogs possess an invasive type of placentation, classified as endotheliochorial. Despite increasing knowledge regarding canine Ut-Pl function, little information exists on uterine and placental vascular activity during initiation, maintenance and termination of pregnancy in this species...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209435/contribution-of-equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-ent-2-to-fluorouracil-transport-in-rat-placental-trophoblast-cells
#19
Akinori Takagi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Tomoya Akashi, Masatoshi Tomi, Emi Nakashima
Fluorouracil is used for treatment of breast cancer even in pregnant women, except during fetal organogenesis. The purpose of this study was to clarify the transport mechanism of fluorouracil at the rat placental barrier. Maternal-to-fetal transfer of [(3)H]fluorouracil in rats at gestational day 19.5 was saturable and much higher than that of [(14)C]sucrose. The uptake of [(3)H]fluorouracil was also saturable in rat placental trophoblast TR-TBT 18d-1 cells, which express both equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 and ENT2...
December 8, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193709/testosterone-represses-estrogen-signaling-by-upregulating-mir-22-a-mechanism-for-imbalanced-steroid-hormone-production-in-preeclampsia
#20
Xuan Shao, Yanlei Liu, Ming Liu, Yongqing Wang, Liying Yan, Hao Wang, Liyang Ma, Yu-Xia Li, Yangyu Zhao, Yan-Ling Wang
Preeclampsia, a multisystem syndrome occurring during mid- to late gestation in humans, is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Patients usually present with high circulating testosterone and reduced estradiol production, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Revealing the mechanism that modulating the imbalance of testosterone and estradiol in preeclampsia is of great value in understanding the cause of the disease. The placenta is the predominant source of steroid hormone production during gestation, and we observed markedly increased 17β-HSD3 (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3) levels and downregulated aromatase expression, the key enzymes responsible for synthesis of testosterone and estradiol, respectively, in preeclamptic placentas compared with controls...
February 13, 2017: Hypertension
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